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The Cold War

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... [1948] Western European ... (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Rumania Two Nuclear Powers The Soviet Union exploded ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War


1
The EarlyCold War1945-1960
2
The Ideological Struggle
Soviet Eastern Bloc Nations
US the Western Democracies
GOAL ? spread world-wide Communism
GOAL ? Containment of Communism the eventual
collapse of the Communist world.
  • METHODOLOGIES
  • Espionage KGB vs. CIA
  • Arms Race nuclear escalation
  • Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts
    of Third World peoples ? proxy wars
  • Bi-Polarization of Europe NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

3
A.Roots of the Cold War
4
Shaping of the Post-War World
  • The 2 sides disagreed what model the world should
    follow
  • Yalta violated by both sides

5
The Bipolarization of Europe
  • West takes after the U.S.
  • East takes after the Soviet Union

6
The Iron Curtain
  • Divide between Eastern Western Europe

From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
7
Partition of Germany
  • 4 zones of influence after WWII
  • Soviet Union wanted to punish Germany for WWII
  • US ( Allies) wanted to rebuild

8
B.Containment
9
George Kennan The Long Telegram Article X
  • U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union
  • 1946 writes the Long Telegram and later
    Article X
  • To Truman the Soviets are expanding they must
    be contained

The Soviets ideology is the outside world was
hostile and that it was their duty eventually to
overthrow the political forces beyond their
borders
10
Truman Doctrine 1947
  • Containment stopping the spread of Communism,
    but not eliminating it from countries that
    already are communist
  • 1947 Greece and Turkey under threat of communist
    parties
  • The U. S. should support free peoples throughout
    the world who were resisting takeovers by armed
    minorities or outside pressure.
  • The U.S. gave Greece Turkey 400 million in
    aid.
  • Aid will be provided
  • to other nations
  • under threat from
  • communism

11
Marshall Plan 1948
  • Western European nations threatened by Communism
    because of instability
  • The U. S. should provide aid to all European
    nations that need it.
  • This move is not against any country or
    doctrine, but against hunger, poverty,
    desperation, and chaos.
  • 12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
    extended to Eastern Europe USSR, but this was
    rejected

Sec of State George Marshall
12
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13
C. Conflict over Germany 1948-49
14
Independence?
  • 1948 the U.S., France, Britain wanted Germany
    to become independent
  • Soviet Union does not takes Berlin Hostage
  • Became a symbolic issue

15
Berlin Blockade Airlift (1948-49)
  • Soviet Union cuts off all ground transportation
    in and out of Berlin
  • June 1948 May 1949 U.S. had to fly all supplies
    into Berlin
  • 277,000 flights and 2 million tons of supplies
  • U.S. would win blockade ended

16
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17
The End Effect
  • Germany would be divided into 2 nations
  • West Germany Democratic
  • East Germany Communist
  • Berlin continued to be divided

18
D.The Arms Race Military Alliances
19
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952 Greece Turkey
  • 1955 West Germany
  • 1983 Spain

20
Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • U. S. S. R.
  • Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • East Germany
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • Rumania

21
Two Nuclear Powers
  • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in
    1949.

22
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23
Hydrogen Bomb
  • Both now wanted stronger nuclear weapons
  • U.S. 1st to test a Hydrogen Bomb in Nov. 1952
  • Soviet Union tested theirs in August 1953

24
The Arms Race
  • Both nations will now compete to develop and
    create more nuclear weapons

25
National Defense Budget
26
E.Containment in Asia
27
China 1949
  • Civil War ends
  • Becomes communist under Mao Zedong
  • Called the Peoples Republic of China
  • Seen as a major failure of containment
  • Nationalists set up their own government in
    Taiwan called the Republic of China

28
United Nations deals with China
  • Which China gets the seat in the UN?
  • ROC given the seat
  • Soviet Union will boycott in protest

29
War in Korea1950-1953
  • Korea divided at the end of WWII at 38th parallel
  • 1950 N. Korea
  • invaded S. Korea
  • U.S. didnt want
  • containment to fail
  • Pressures UN to invade

30
War in Korea1950-1953
  • Troops led by MacArthur
  • Takes war into N. Korea
  • China enters the war

31
War in Korea1950-1953
  • Mac wants to use the A-bomb
  • Truman fires him
  • Negotiations begin for a cease-fire
  • Achieved in 1953

32
F.Cold War Under Eisenhower
33
Massive Retaliation
  • Created by Sec. of State Dulles
  • Rejection of Containment
  • 2 Principals
  • 1. Encourage Liberation
  • 2. Retaliation
  • Brinkmanship being on the verge of war
  • New Look Military Eisenhower scales back army
    navy in favor of nuclear capabilities

34
Death of Stalin (1953)
  • Nikita Khrushchev
  • becomes premier
  • Believed in peaceful coexistence
  • Agreement at Geneva
  • Summit (1955) for nuclear disarmament
  • Relations sour after Hungarian Uprising in 1956

We will bury you
35
Sputnik (1957)
  • Soviet satellite launched into space
  • Showed the U.S. falling behind technologically
  • National Defense Education Act (NDEA) rigorous
    education program
  • Science
  • Math
  • Foreign Lang.
  • 1958 U.S. launches satellite Explorer I
  • NASA formed in 1958

36
Berlin (Again)
  • 1958 Khrushchev issues ultimatum
  • Get out of W. Berlin
  • Eisenhower refuses to give in
  • Send Nixon to U.S.S.R in 1959
  • Kitchen Debates
  • Khrushchev visits for 2 weeks
  • 2 countries agree to summit in 1960 to discuss
    issues

37
U-2 Incident
  • U-2 Spy plane shot down May 1960
  • U.S. denied it was spying
  • U.S.S.R proved they were
  • Happened 10 days before planned summit
  • Worst U.S Soviet relations since Stalin

38
G.Cuba
39
Fidel Castro
  • January 1, 1959, wrestles control from Fulgencio
    Batista
  • Reason?
  • Too much American control in Cuba
  • Tries to visit U.S.
  • Ike refuses to meet with him
  • Nationalizes all U.S. property

40
Alliance with the U.S.S.R
  • Sept 1959, Khrushchev offers aid
  • Castro accepts turns Cuba communist
  • 1960 U.S. begins plotting against Castro
    breaks off diplomatic ties
  • Castro encourages Latin America to have Communist
    Revolutions
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