Joshua Pearce - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Joshua Pearce PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 56a60e-MWUxZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Joshua Pearce

Description:

Rectifying Myths Related to Solar Energy Joshua Pearce E Sci 497C The Pennsylvania State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:44
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 34
Provided by: crw2
Learn more at: http://www.esm.psu.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Joshua Pearce


1
Rectifying Myths Related to Solar Energy
  • Joshua Pearce
  • E Sci 497C
  • The Pennsylvania State University

2
Myth 1 All Solar Cells are the same
3
GaAs and other III-Vs
  • Advantages
  • Awesome efficiencies (30)
  • Disadvantage They simply cost too much. (only
    good for NASA)
  • Material ---wafer----cost
  • c-Si 8 100
  • GaAs 4 300
  • InP 3 800

4
CuInSe2
  • Advantages
  • High Efficiency in lab cells (17)
  • Disadvantages
  • Instability in hot/wet environments
  • High temperature deposition
  • Un-established deposition technology
  • The availability of Indium (silver)

5
CdTe
  • Advantage
  • High Efficiency in lab cells (16)- prototype
  • Disadvantage
  • Toxic material

6
Dye sensitized TiO2
  • It is neat (10) but.
  • Potential instability
  • Limits on maximum operation temperature
  • Evaporation problems
  • Cost
  • Far from commercialization

7
Crystalline Polycrystalline Silicon
  • Advantages
  • High Efficiency (25)
  • Established technology (The leader)
  • Stable
  • Disadvantages
  • Expensive production
  • Low absorption coefficient
  • Large amount of highly purified feedstock

8
Crystalline Silicon
Amorphous Silicon
9
Amorphous Silicon
  • Advantages
  • Cheaper than the glass, metal, or plastic
  • you deposit it on
  • Established technology
  • Low-cost substrates
  • Excellent ecological balance sheet
  • Disadvantages
  • Only moderate stabilized efficiency (13)
  • Instability- It degrades when light hits it (

10
Abundance of all raw materials
  • The amorphous silicon cells manufactured from one
    ton of sand could produce as much electricity as
    burning 500,000 tons of coal.

11
Myth 2 Solar cells use more energy to produce
than they generate over their lifetime
12
  • For cells in production now the energy payback is
    between 6 months and 3 years! (full system 2-5
    years)
  • Solar cells produce enough energy to reproduce
    themselves 40 times!!
  • For Built-In PV systems in which solar cells
    replace a buildings structure the energy payback
    can be measured in days!

13
Built in PV
14
Myth 3 There is not enough land
15
  • The total solar radiation falling on the earth is
    1.2x1014kW, which is roughly 10,000 times current
    world consumption.
  • The fossil fuel production of the entire world
    could be replaced by hydrogen generated by
    photovoltaic arrays on 53 million hectares of
    arid land (less than 2 of the area of the
    worlds deserts).

16
Even brighter in the U.S.
  • Solar Cells covering 0.3 of the land in the U.S.
    (1/4 of the area currently occupied by
    railroads), could provide all of the U.S.'s
    electricity needs.

17
Distributed energy source
  • Located near the consumer in order to eliminate
    transmission losses (which can be higher than 50
    on modern grids).
  • Panels could be placed on roofs, built into
    roofs, building facades, carports, highway sound
    barriers, etc.
  • Any surface which is exposed to sunlight is fair
    game.

18
Carports
19
Myth 4 Switching to solar cells as our primary
energy source will cause considerable
unemployment
20
  • A 1997 Pembina Institute report found that for
    every million dollars invested
  • 36.3 jobs are created in the energy efficiency
    sector
  • 12.2 in the renewable energy sector In
    conventional energy, an average of only 7.3 jobs
    are created.

21
PV net job producer!
  • Jobs created with every million dollars spent on
  • oil and gas exploration 1.5
  • on coal mining 4.4
  • on producing solar water heaters 14
  • on photovoltaic panels 17

22
Coal only employs 80,000
  • It is predicted that by 2010, approximately
    70,000 new jobs could be created as a result of
    the increased demand for photovoltaic, solar hot
    water, and related solar energy systems through
    the installation of only one million solar energy
    systems. (3)

23
Myth 5 Solar cells will not make economic sense
until the distant future.
24
Today it makes economic sense
  • Now it makes sense for remote sites that are too
    far from power, or where the power is too
    unreliable.
  • Costs for power lines range from 8000 to 75,000
    per mile.
  • As a general rule, if you are more than 1/2 mile
    from a line, solar is probably the best
    alternative.

25
Where solar cant be beat now
  • In areas that have grid power, where the cost of
    tearing up the streets and/or other construction
    are expensive.

26
Coast Guard Stations
  • 1400 U.S. Coast Guard stations redesigned

27
Bus stops and emergency phones
28
Street Lights and Phones
29
Department of Environmental Protection Cambria
Office Payback time 5 years for PV
30
And costs continue to drop
31
Real World Economics
  • Price reduction of 7.5/yr during which the
    average worldwide production of modules increased
    by 18/yr.
  • Economy of scale -- direct competition with
    fossil fuel as an energy source it is generally
    agreed that 100MWp PV plants must be constructed

32
When will this happen?
  • For example, N. Mori, the executive managing
    director of the Photovoltaic Power Generation
    Technology Research Association, predicts that
    Japan will begin producing 100MWp/yr factories
    between 2003 and 2004.
  • The U.S. 2005-7

33
200,000 homes in the U.S. use some type of
photovoltaic solar technology-and the market
expanded over 52 last year
The Future is Solar
About PowerShow.com