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ICAU2005B Operate Computer Hardware


ICAU2005B Operate Computer Hardware Created by Michael Tsakrios System Case -Rear View Created by Michael Tsakrios * * * Created by Michael Tsakrios What is a Computer? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ICAU2005B Operate Computer Hardware

ICAU2005B Operate Computer Hardware
What is a Computer?
  • A computer is an electronic device that
  • Accepts data input
  • Processes data
  • Produces data output
  • Stores data (memory)

Hardware / Software
  • A computer comprises of hardware and software
  • Hardware refers to the physical components that
    make up the computer system
  • Software refers to the coded instructions known
    as programs which operate the computer

Hardcopy / Softcopy
  • Computer documentation can take the form of
    either a hardcopy or softcopy
  • Hardcopy refers to a printed document, a document
    printed on paper
  • Softcopy refers to an electronic document, a
    document displayed on a computer screen

  • Computer hardware consists of the following
  • Input devices
  • Processing devices
  • Output devices
  • Memory Storage devices

Input Devices
  • Input devices accept data input from the user,
    examples of input devices are
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Scanner

Processing Devices
  • Processing devices are used for processing data
    input to produce data output, examples of
    processing devices are
  • The CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • The Motherboard

Processing Devices - CPU
  • The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the
    computer chip responsible for processing and
    executing instructions and performing
  • The CPU controls the input and output devices,
    it processes instructions from the input devices
    and in turn delivers the executing instructions
    to the output devices.

Processing Devices CPU Clock Speed
  • The CPU clock speed is the speed at which a CPU
    processes and executes instructions. The clock
    speed of a CPU is measured in Hertz (Hz), or
    cycles per second, for example
  • A CPU with a speed of 400 Megahertz (MHz) is
    capable of processing and executing 400 million
    instructions per second
  • A CPU with a speed of 4 Gigahertz (GHz) is
    capable of processing and executing 4 billions of
    instructions per second

Processing Devices - Motherboard
  • The motherboard is the main circuit board which
    houses the CPU, it provides the power and data
    infrastructure which allows all components to

Output Devices
  • Output devices are used to deliver information
    to the user, examples of output devices are
  • Monitor
  • Printer
  • Speakers

Input / Output Devices - Modem
  • The Modem allows users to access the Internet
    through a telephone line. The modem works as
    both an input and output device, for example
  • An Output device when requesting information from
    the internet (requesting a Web page), this is
    known as uploading
  • An input device when receiving information from
    the internet (displayed a Web page), this is also
    known as downloading

Memory Storage Devices
  • Memory storage devices are used to store
    software programs (applications) and data
    (information). There are two types of memory,
    main memory and secondary memory.
  • Main memory is also known as working memory, it
    stores whatever is currently being processed,
    main memory uses a primary storage device.
  • Secondary memory stores everything which is not
    currently being processed, secondary memory uses
    a secondary storage devices.

Memory Storage Devices
  • Examples of storage devices are
  • RAM (Random Access Memory) - Primary
  • Internal HDD (Hard Disk Drive) - Secondary
  • External HDD - Secondary
  • 3½" Floppy Disk - Secondary
  • Optical Disk - Secondary
  • USB Drive - Secondary

Bits and Bytes
  • What is a Bit?
  • A bit is a binary digit, either 0 or 1.
  • What is a Byte?
  • A byte is a combination of 8 bits. As a rule of
    thumb 1 keyboard character equals 1 byte.

  • What is Binary?
  • Binary is a base-two numbering system which
    contains only two values, 0 and 1.
  • Computer programs are executed in binary form,
    on / off signals, 1 represents on(voltage is
    presence), 0 represents off (voltage is absence).

Storage Devices - RAM
  • RAM (Random Access Memory) is working memory
    used for running programs and temporarily storing
    data. Random access refers to the fact that any
    part of the memory can be directly accessed.
  • RAM is volatile memory because data in RAM will
    be lost if the power is switched off before it is
    saved to
  • disk.

Storage Devices - RAM(continued)
  • RAM consists of a set of chips that stores data
    and instructions.
  • The chips contain thousands of transistors that
    can switch on or off ( 1 or 0).

Storage Devices - Internal HDD
  • The internal HDD is a high capacity storage
    device housed inside the computer system, it
    stores the main software the system requires to
  • The HDD is made up of one or more rigid plates
    coated with a metal oxide, this metal oxide
    allows data to be magnetically recorder onto the
    plates surface.
  • The internal HDD is also known as the
  • Local drive
  • C/ drive

Storage Devices - External HDD
  • An external HDD is very similar to an internal
    HDD, it is mainly used for backing up data

Storage Devices - USB Drive
  • A USB (Universals Serial Bus) drive is a small
    lightweight portable removable and rewritable
    storage device that uses flash memory.
  • Flash memory is a form of non-volatile memory
    that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

USB Drive (Continued)
  • A USB drive is also known as
  • USB stick
  • Flash drive
  • Thumb drive
  • Jump drive
  • Pen drive

Putting it all Together
  • CPU performs what is known as the fetch-execute
    cycle (fetch, decode, execute and store). The
    diagram below is a basic data flow diagram
    illustrating this cycle.

Main Memory
Input Devices
Output Devices
Secondary Storage
Simple Schematic Diagram -Interconnection
Computer Components
  • a

Input Devices
Output Devices
Hard Drive
Storage Devices
  • Software refers to the coded instructions known
    as programs which operate the computer
  • Computer software can be divided into two
  • System Software
  • Application Software

System Software
  • System software are programs which manage the
    operation of the computer itself, the most
    important of these programs is the operating
  • When a computer is started the system software
    is loaded from the hard drive into RAM (this is
    known as the boot process). The system software
    control all the computers resources which allow
    the user to communicate with the computer and
    operate the application software (Microsoft Word
  • Without the system software the computer is

Application Software
  • Application software are programs that operate
    on top of the system software, they are designed
    to processes data for the user.
  • Examples of application software are
  • Word processor programs
  • Spreadsheet programs
  • Database programs

Open Source Software
  • Open source software is software which is made
    available to users for free. The programs code
    is made available for users to read and change it
    as they wish.
  • Linux is an example of open source software.

Computer Platforms
  • A platform is something upon which something
    else can be placed upon.
  • Computer Platforms refers to the computers
    hardware and software that defines how a computer
    operates, and determines what types of software
    can be used.

Hardware Platforms
  • Hardware platforms refers to the physical
    hardware onto which software is installed.
  • Hardware platforms are built around the systems
    CPU architecture, for example
  • The x86 architecture refers the Intel CPU used by
  • The 680x0 architecture refers to the Motorola CPU
    used by Macs
  • Other examples include mobile phones and video
    game consoles.

Software Platforms
  • Operating Systems are a type of software
    platform. Examples include
  • Windows
  • Linux
  • MAC OS X
  • Android (used with mobile devices)
  • Software platforms create the framework for the
    application programs you use.

Platform Interaction
  • System Software executes the application
  • The application software employees the system
    software to allow user interaction, read and
    write, print, etc .

Operating System
System Case
  • The computer system case houses the motherboard
    and CPU assembly, RAM, power supply, cooling
    fans, internal disk drives, and the expansion
    cards that are connected into the motherboard.

System Case -Rear View
Main Power Supply
Power Supply Switch
PS/2 Ports Keyboard / Mouse
Serial Port
Parallel Port
VGA Port (monitor)
USB Ports
Ethernet Port
Audio Ports
Expansion Slots
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