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Assessment FOR and OF Learning

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Title: Understanding by Design Enduring Understanding and Essential Questions Author: melinj Last modified by: melinj Created Date: 8/27/2005 10:46:02 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Assessment FOR and OF Learning


1
Assessment FOR and OF Learning
  • Jacque Melin
  • Grand Valley State University

2
THIS WEEK WE TOOK A TEST TO SEE IF WERE READY
FOR THE TEST THAT TESTS OUR TEST SKILLS
Wait until KINDERGARTEN
3
(No Transcript)
4
What do highly effective teachers do?
  • major reviews of the research on the effects of
    classroom assessment indicate that it might be
    one of the most powerful tools in a teacher's
    toolbox.
  • Marzano

5
Snowball Fight
  • To illustrate group status on implementing
    assessment FOR learning.
  • Rate yourself on the Survey
  • Number from 1 9 on a blank piece of paper and
    write down your response for each of the survey
    questions.
  • Form a circle
  • Crumple up your survey and throw it.
  • Pick up a snowball wait until everyone has
    one, and throw it again.
  • Open your snowball and form a human graph.
  • Analyze

6
Shows Effect of Teachers Increased Skill in
Classroom Assessment on Student Achievement.
Figure 1.1. Effect of Teacher's Increased Skill
in Classroom Assessment on Student Achievement
                                                  
                                                  
       
7
Research leads to many conclusions that provide
insights into effective classroom assessment
  • Feedback from classroom assessments should give
    students a clear picture of their progress on
    learning goals and how they might improve.
  • Feedback on classroom assessments should
    encourage students to improve.
  • Classroom assessment should be formative in
    nature.
  • Formative classroom assessments should be
    frequent.

8
Providing a Clear Picture of Progress and How to
Improve
  • As a result of reviewing almost 8,000 studies,
    researcher John Hattie (1992) made the following
    comment The most powerful single modification
    that enhances achievement is feedback. The
    simplest prescription for improving education
    must be dollops of feedback (p. 9).

9
As compelling as Hattie's comments are, all forms
of feedback are not equally effective. In fact,
some forms of feedback might work against
learning.
10
Source  Characteristics of Feedback from Classroom Assessment  Number of Studies  Percentile Gain or Loss in Student Achievement 
Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, Morgan (1991)  Right/wrong  6  -3 
  Provide correct answer  39  8.5 
  Criteria understood by students vs. not understood  30  16 
  Explain  9  20 
  Repeat until correct  4  20 
Fuchs Fuchs (1986)  Displaying results graphically  89  26 
  Evaluation (interpretation) by rule  49  32 
11
What We Mean by Assessment FOR and OF Learning
  • Assessments OF learning
  • Happen after learning is supposed to have
    occurred to determine if it did.
  • To gather evidence to determine a students
    report card grade.
  • Summative

12
What We Mean by Assessment FOR and OF Learning
  • Assessments FOR learning
  • Happen while learning is still underway.
  • We conduct these throughout teaching and learning
    to diagnose student needs, plan our next steps in
    instruction, provide students with feedback they
    can use to improve the quality of their work, and
    help students feel in control of their journey to
    success.
  • Formative

13
A E Card Assess Evaluate
  • Question

Not at this time
YES
Rate yourself 1 high confidence 2 medium
confidence 3 Im not sure on this
Would you help someone else learn this?
14
Assessment OF and FOR learning variation chart.
  • Please work with a colleague.

15
Richard Stiggins
  • Assessment Training Institute
  • About 15 minutes

16
Check
Assessment FOR Learning Assessment OF Learning
Reasons for Assessing Strives to increase student achievement while learning occurs. Provides formative information throughout a unit or course of study that allows tailoring of instruction. Provides information to students to help them understand where they are going, where they are now, and how to close the gap. Strives to document student achievement at the end of learning. Informs others (teachers, parents, administrators, community members) about student achievement.
Focus of Assessment Specific knowledge, skills, and understandings that underpin content standards. The content standards themselves.
Teachers Role Assumes the teachers role is to promote student success by Transforming standards into classroom targets Inform students of targets Build accurate assessments Adjust instruction based on results Offer descriptive feedback to students Involve students in assessment. Assumes the teachers role is to gauge student success, certify student competence, sort students according to achievement, make promotion and graduation decisions, and assign grades.
Students Role Self-assess and keep track of progress contribute to setting learning goals act of classroom assessment results to be able to do better next time. Study to meet standards, take the test, strive for the highest possible score, avoid failure.
Examples Using rubrics with students, portfolios, student peer- and self-assessment. Standardized achievement tests, final examinations, placement tests, short cycle assessments.
17
Assessments Planning Sequence
  • Determine your unit
  • Locate the standards that are appropriate and
    important goals for this unit (Power Standards).
  • Ask yourself What types of standards are each
    of these? Knowledge, reasoning, skills,
    product???
  • Deconstruct the standards into learning
    targets.
  • Change the learning targets into student
    friendly targets.
  • Determine the sequence of teaching/learning the
    targets.
  • Decide where you will insert formative
    assessments (assessments FOR learning).
  • Determine what type of assessment this must be
    selected response assessment, extended written
    response assessment, performance task
    assessment???
  • Develop the assessments
  • Develop the student analysis piece
  • Determine what you and the students must do next
    because of what you have learned from the
    assessment.

18
Power Standards Are
  • The standards that each teacher needs to make
    sure that every student learns prior to leaving
    the current grade.

19
Why Power Standards?
  • Most teachers lack a 400 day school year and
    students with photographic memories and there are
    too many standards
  • Power Standards narrow the focus of academic
    requirements
  • In striving to cover all standards, we end up
    superficially covering the standards like a wet
    blanket
  • The less is more theory

20
Why Power Standards?
  • Power standards do not relieve teachers of the
    responsibility for teaching all standards and
    indicators, but does identify which standards are
    critical for student success and which ones can
    be given less emphasis
  • In the absence of Power Standards, teachers will
    select their own

21
With Power Standards
Random Acts of Improvement
Without Power Standards
22
Power Standards Identification criteria
  • Endurance
  • Leverage
  • Readiness for the next level of learning
  • What knowledge and skills must I impart to my
    students this year so that they will enter next
    years class with confidence and a readiness for
    success?

23
ENDURANCE
  • Will the knowledge and skills to which this
    standard relates be used by students for several
    years after they use that standard at this grade
    level?

24
LEVERAGE
  • Will the knowledge and skills to which this
    standard help students in other academic areas?

25
READINESS
  • Do teachers in the next higher grade regard this
    standard as a necessary entry point for a student
    to enter that grade with success and confidence?

26
Assessments Planning Sequence
  • Determine your unit
  • Locate the standards that are appropriate and
    important goals for this unit (Power Standards).
  • Ask yourself What types of standards are each
    of these? Knowledge, reasoning, skills,
    product???
  • Deconstruct the standards into learning
    targets.
  • Change the learning targets into student
    friendly targets.
  • Determine the sequence of teaching/learning the
    targets.
  • Decide where you will insert formative
    assessments (assessments FOR learning).
  • Determine what type of assessment this must be
    selected response assessment, extended written
    response assessment, performance task
    assessment???
  • Develop the assessments
  • Develop the student analysis piece
  • Determine what you and the students must do next
    because of what you have learned from the
    assessment.

27
Knowledge/Understanding
  • The facts and concepts we want students to know.
    Some to be learned outright some to be retrieved
    using reference materials.
  • Key words explain, understand, describe,
    identify, tell, name, list, define, label, match,
    choose, recall, recognize, select, know
  • Example 2.1.1 Identify and explain the
    fundamental values and central principles of
    American constitutional democracy.

28
Reasoning
  • Students use what they know to reason and solve
    problems, make decisions, plan, etc.
  • Key Words analyze, compare/contrast,
    synthesize, classify, infer, evaluate, etc.
  • Example 1.2.4 Compare and contrast direct and
    representative democracy.

29
Skills
  • Students use their knowledge and reasoning to act
    skillfully where the doing is what is important.
  • Key words observe, listen, perform, do,
    question, conduct, work, read, speak, use,
    demonstrate, explore, etc.
  • Example P2.2 Read and interpret data in tables
    and graphs.

30
Products
  • Students use their knowledge, reasoning, and
    skills to create a concrete product.
  • Key words design, produce, create, develop,
    make, write, draw, represent, display, model,
    construct, etc.
  • Example 7.2.6 Write a persuasive essay on a
    public issue using constitutional principles and
    fundamental values of American constitutional
    democracy..

31
Follow a teachers thinking
32
Determine your unit
  • 8th grade Chemistry Phase Changes of Matter in
    Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

33
Locate the standards that are appropriate and
important goals for this unit (Power
Standards).Ask your self What types of
standards are each of these? Knowledge,
reasoning, skills, product???
34
  • P4.p1A Chem Knowledge
  • For a substance that can exist in all three
    phases, describe the relative motion of the
    particles in each of the phases.
  • I believe that this standard is knowledge because
    of the key word describe. A student must have
    knowledge about the phases as well as the key
    term relative motion. They do not have to do
    anything but describe them.

35
  • P4.p1B Chem Product
  • For a substance that can exist in all three
    phases, make a drawing that shows the arrangement
    and relative spacing of the particles in each of
    the phases.
  • This would fall under the product category
    because they are physically making a drawing.
    The student must first know what a substance is,
    the three phases and their arrangements. They
    must be able to reason the differences being able
    to compare and contrast them. The skill aspect
    is that they must be able to make an accurate
    scientific sketch in order to produce their final
    product.

36
Assessments Planning Sequence
  • Determine your unit
  • Locate the standards that are appropriate and
    important goals for this unit (Power Standards).
  • Ask your self What types of standards are each
    of these? Knowledge, reasoning, skills,
    product???
  • Deconstruct the standards into learning
    targets.
  • Change the learning targets into student
    friendly targets.
  • Determine the sequence of teaching/learning the
    targets.
  • Decide where you will insert formative
    assessments (assessments FOR learning).
  • Determine what type of assessment this must be
    selected response assessment, extended written
    response assessment, performance task
    assessment???
  • Develop the assessments
  • Develop the student analysis piece
  • Determine what you and the students must do next
    because of what you have learned from the
    assessment.

37
Benefits of Clear Targets
  • When we have a clear vision of where we are
    headed with students, we can communicate that
    vision to them.

38
Benefit to students
  • Marzano (2001) asserts that students who can
    identify what they are learning significantly
    outscore those that cannot.

39
I can statements for KNOW and DO?
  • Student friendly.
  • Statements of intended learning.
  • Statements that describe how we will know that we
    have learned it.
  • Should be posted, not just shared verbally.

40
  • I can explain the differences between chemical
    and physical properties - R
  • I can provide examples of chemical and physical
    properties - K
  • I can describe what a substance is. - K
  • I can provide examples of a substance. - K
  • I can measure a substance using correct measuring
    tools. - S
  • I can list the three phases of matter. - K
  • I can describe what relative motion is. - K
  • I can describe the relative motion of particles
    in a substance at each stage. - K
  • I can make accurate scientific sketches - P
  • I can make an accurate sketch of the particle
    spacing in each phase of matter. - P
  • I can define an element - K
  • I can recognize and provide examples of elements
    - K
  • I can write a formula for an element - K
  • I can show the particles in an element at each
    phase of matter
  • I can define a simple compound
  • I can recognize a simple compound.
  • I can write a formula for a compound
  • I can show the particles in a compound at each
    phase of matter
  • I can orally tell what is going on at each phase
    of matter in a compound

41
Assessments Planning Sequence
  • Determine your unit
  • Locate the standards that are appropriate and
    important goals for this unit (Power Standards).
  • Ask your self What types of standards are each
    of these? Knowledge, reasoning, skills,
    product???
  • Deconstruct the standards into learning
    targets.
  • Change the learning targets into student
    friendly targets.
  • Determine the sequence of teaching/learning the
    targets.
  • Decide where you will insert formative
    assessments (assessments FOR learning).
  • Determine what type of assessment this must be
    selected response assessment, extended written
    response assessment, performance task
    assessment???
  • Develop the assessments
  • Develop the student analysis piece
  • Determine what you and the students must do next
    because of what you have learned from the
    assessment.

42
Why identify kinds of learning targets?
  • Helps teachers design meaningful assessments and
    learning activities.
  • Helps determine best type of assessment
  • Selected Response
  • Extended Written Response
  • Performance Assessment
  • Personal Communication

43
Selected Written Response
  • Students select the correct or best response.
  • Multiple choice
  • True/false
  • Matching
  • Short answer
  • Fill-in-the-blank
  • Evaluated with an answer key

44
Extended Written Response (constructed response,
essay)
  • Students construct a written answer at least
    several sentences in length in response to a
    question or task.
  • Evaluated with a checklist or rubric.

45
Performance Assessment
  • Assessment based on observation and judgment
  • Consists of a task (what students do) and scoring
    criteria (how you will judge quality).

46
Personal Communication
  • Conversation with students
  • Oral interaction
  • Written response to student comments in journals
    or logs.

47
Links Among Achievement Targets and Assessment
Methods
Selected Response Extended Written Response Performance Task Assessment Personal Communication
Knowledge Good Good Not so good too time consuming OK but time consuming
Reasoning Good (some reasoning) Good Good Good
Skills Not good Not good Good Good (oral communication)
Products Not good Good (when written product) Good Not good.
48
  • I can explain the differences between chemical
    and physical properties
  • I can provide examples of chemical and physical
    properties
  • I can describe what a substance is.
  • I can provide examples of a substance.
  • I can measure a substance using correct measuring
    tools.
  • I can list the three phases of matter.
  • I can describe what relative motion is.
  • I can describe the relative motion of particles
    in a substance at each stage.
  • Selected Response Assessment
  • I can make accurate scientific sketches
  • I can make an accurate sketch of the particle
    spacing in each phase of matter.
  • Performance Assessment
  • I can define an element
  • I can recognize and provide examples of elements
  • I can write a formula for an element
  • I can show the particles in an element at each
    phase of matter
  • I can define a simple compound
  • I can recognize a simple compound.
  • I can write a formula for a compound

49
Assessments Planning Sequence
  • Determine your unit
  • Locate the standards that are appropriate and
    important goals for this unit (Power Standards).
  • Ask your self What types of standards are each
    of these? Knowledge, reasoning, skills,
    product???
  • Deconstruct the standards into learning
    targets.
  • Change the learning targets into student
    friendly targets.
  • Determine the sequence of teaching/learning the
    targets.
  • Decide where you will insert formative
    assessments (assessments FOR learning).
  • Determine what type of assessment this must be
    selected response assessment, extended written
    response assessment, performance task
    assessment???
  • Develop the assessments
  • Develop the student analysis piece
  • Determine what you and the students must do next
    because of what you have learned from the
    assessment.
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