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Global Conference on the Prevention of Genocide McGill University October 13, 2007

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Global Conference on the Prevention of Genocide McGill University October 13, 2007 Making Prevention Feasible: A United Nations Emergency Peace Service? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Conference on the Prevention of Genocide McGill University October 13, 2007


1
Global Conference on the Prevention of
GenocideMcGill UniversityOctober 13, 2007
  • Making Prevention Feasible
  • A United NationsEmergency Peace Service?
  • A proposal recent global initiative to address
    our five big challenges in preventing and
    managing armed conflict

2
1. Preventing genocide crimes against
humanity
Challenges Leading to Crisis
3
Challenges leading to crisis
2. Preventing armed conflict
4
Challenges leading to crisis
3. Protecting civilians at risk
5
Challenges leading to crisis
4. Prompt start-up of peace operations
6
Challenges leading to crisis
5. Addressing human needs in emergencies
7
What is available to
  • Prevent genocide and armed conflict
  • Protect civilians at high risk
  • Prompt start-up of peace operations
  • Address human needs in emergencies

We do have a universal organization already
committed to these challenges
8
UNITED NATIONS
Not reliable, prompt or optimally effective!
  • No dedicated capacity of its own to
  • Stop large scale atrocities
  • Enforce treaties, convention or laws
  • Conduct peace operations
  • Preventive deployments
  • Protect civilians
  • In order to act
  • Security Council must authorise a response
  • Request assistance from its Member States
  • National governments must agree to lease their
    personnel and resources

9
Existing Arrangements
UN Standby Arrangements System
SHIRBRIG
African Union Standby Forces
NATO
European Union Battlegroups
10
The current arrangements only provide
conditional access to national standby
resources.
  • Many Member States have argued against the
    establishment of a standing United Nations army
    or police force, resisted into entering into
    reliable standby arrangements, cautioned against
    the incursion of financial expenses for building
    a reserve of equipment or discouraged the
    Secretariat from undertaking planning for
    potential operations prior to the
    Secretary-General having been granted specific,
    crisis-driven legislative authority to do so.
    Under these circumstances, the United Nations
    cannot deploy operations rapidly and
    effectively within the timelines suggested.
  • Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace
    Operations
  • Para 90 (2000)

Under these circumstances, the United Nations
cannot deploy operations rapidly and
effectively within the timelines suggested.
11
National Governments Tend to Wait, Watch Often
Defer
12
The Implications
  • Later, larger efforts are often needed to stem
    wider escalation and spread of armed conflict
  • Millions continue to die and millions suffer
  • Millions of refugees and internally displaced
    people
  • Hundreds of billions required for post-conflict
    re-construction and recovery

13
So what now?
  • The UN must have a capacity to respond
  • Reliably
  • Rapidly
  • Robustly
  • Coherently (integrated)
  • Cost-effectively

14
A United Nations Emergency Peace Service
15
Requirements (everywhere)
Safety and security
Law and order
Useful services for human needs
16
Why the Concept of a UN Emergency Peace
Service ?
  • Former proposals remain contentious and opposed
  • Array of useful services attracts deeper and
    wider support
  • Expands on legitimate, reliable emergency
    services needed, yet still unavailable world-wide
  • A UN Emergency Service has broad appeal
  • May shift global social and national political
    responses
  • A UN Emergency Service is a tougher concept to
    oppose

17
What is Proposed as a UN Emergency Peace Service
(UNEPS)?
  • A permanent UN formation
  • A first responder available immediately
  • Requires authorization by the UN Security Council
  • Multidimensional and multifunctional service
  • Military, police and civilian elements
  • Prepared for rapid deployment to diverse crisis
  • Pre-trained, well-equipped 18,000 personnel

18
What is Proposed as a UN Emergency Peace Service
(UNEPS)?
  • Co-located at a new UN base
  • Static operational headquarters
  • Two mobile field headquarters
  • Integrated, modular formation
  • Robust security
  • Civilian police
  • Skills and services to address human needs

19
SRSG
Annex A Operational Level UN Emergency Peace
Service Permanent Operational Level Headquarters
and Base Personnel 270 MIL 40 POL 1540 CIV
SUPPORT
Pers 50 MIL, 10 POLCIV Pers 100
MIL, 1500CIV -Contingency Move
-Administration Planning
-Personnel -Staging
-Housing -Mission Support
-Finance -Rotation/Augmentation
-Host Nation Support Planning -Airlift/Seali
ft Contracting -Deployable Movement Support
Teams
OPERATIONS Pers 100 MIL
Pers 25 POL Pers 25 CIV
-Contingency -Contingency
-Contingency Planning Planning
Planning -Operations
-Operations -Operations
-Training -Training
-Training -Logistics
-Personnel -Personnel
-Personnel -Legal Advisors
-Advisors Joint
24/7 OPS Cell
Military Staff
CIVPOL Staff
Civilian Staff
Deployment Cell
Base Support Infrastructure
TRAINING Pers 5 MIL, 2 POL., 2 CIV
Pers 10 MIL, 2 POL, 2 CIV Pers 4 MIL, 2 POL,
4 CIV -Ongoing Development of -Set
Assess Standards -Long-Term Planning
Doctrine
-Course Curricula
-Lessons Learned -SOPS
Development
-Multidisciplinary -ROE Options
-Training Exercises
Think Tank
-Interoperability
Doctrine
Training Standards
Research Analysis
Military
Police
Civilian
20
Annex B. Composition of Deployable Elements for a
UN Emergency Peace Service(assume 2 MHQ with 2
complete formations)(assigned to UN Base under a
Static Operational HQ and 2 Missions HQs)Total
Personnel in Each MIL 5000, CIV 304, POL 400
Deputy/SRSG MilitaryPolice Commander MIL-1 x 250
Pers CIV-1 x 20 Pers POL- 1 x 20 Pers
MSN HQ IncludesMilitary, Police and Civilian
StaffPolitical and Legal AdviceTranslation/Comms
/Signals/Intell.Defense Security PlatoonNGO
Liaison Team
Mission HQ (Tactical)
Mission HQ (Tactical)
Technical Recce Unit
Civilian Police Companies
Technical Recce Unit
Civilian Police Companies
Technical Recce Unit
MIL- 4 x 50 Pers Augmented by CIV
Civilian Police Companies
Technical Recce Unit
POL- 3 x 125 Per
Disaster Relief Humanitarian Assistance Team
Light ArmouredRecceUnit
Light ArmouredRecceUnit
Disaster Relief Humanitarian Assistance Team
CIV- 2 x 30 Per
MIL- 2 x 150 Pers
Human Rights Monitors Educators
Motorized Light Infantry Battalion
Motorized Light Infantry Battalion
Human Rights Monitors Educators
MIL- 2 x 600 Pers
CIV- 2 x 10 Per
Amoured (Wheeled) Infantry Battalion
Conflict Resolution Teams
Amoured (Wheeled) Infantry Battalion
MIL- 2 x 600 Pers
Conflict Resolution Teams
CIV 2 x 10 Pers
MIL-450 Pers 2 flights of 8 utility Helis 1
flight of 3 Heavy Lift Helis 1 flight of Armed
Scout Helis
Peacebuilding Advisory Teams
Helicopter Squardron
CIV- 2 x 10 Pers
DDDRRR team
CIV- 10 Pers
Engineer Battalion
MIL-500 Pers -3 Field Squadrons -3 Support Troops
Environmental Crisis Response Team
CIV- 10 Pers
Logistics Battalion
MIL- 1 x 500 Pers
Medical Teams
CIV- 100 Pers
MIL-400 Pers -Forward Surgical Teams
Public Affairs
Medical Unit
CIV- 2 x 10 Pers
Public Affairs
21
UNEPS Key Components
  • A UN 911 designed to be
  • A complement to existing arrangements (UN,
    national, and regional)
  • A lead service or first-responder
  • Deployable within 48 hrs, sustainable for 6
    months
  • Competent in diverse emergencies
  • A cost-effective investment for we the people
    and the international community

22
Why this Model for UNEPS?
  • Alleviates pressure on national governments
  • Builds on and beyond the existing UN foundation
  • Universal composition to ensure universal
    legitimacy
  • Advanced training, equipment and standards to
    ensure cohesive sophisticated service

23
Why this Model for UNEPS?
  • Corresponds to requirements of UN missions
  • Provides useful incentives to address human needs
  • Assures services to restore law and order
  • Maintains robust disincentives to dissuade or
    deter and repel further violence
  • Ensures a more rapid, reliable, effective
    response when the need is imminent

24
UNEPS would Help Reduce
  1. Number of armed conflicts and war crimes
  2. Massive suffering and violent deaths
  3. Size, duration and number of peacekeeping
    operations
  4. Pressure on national governments and national
    armed forces to contribute in the high-risk,
    critical start-up phase of operations
  5. High costs associated with violent conflict and
    post conflict reconstruction

25
Any Progress in Global Initiative?
  • International working group of senior scholars,
    with executive and secretariat in New York
  • 40 CSOs actively supporting, over 350 endorsing
  • U.S. H. RES 213 United Nations Emergency Peace
    Service Act of 2007
  • Increasing Representation World-Wide

26
Representatives of Diverse Sectors Agreed that
  • Concept is far more appealing
  • Case is more compelling
  • Model is more appropriate
  • UNEPS has more potential

27
UNEPS Potential
  • Attract and mobilize
  • people
  • organizations
  • eventually governments
  • Support
  • partnerships
  • global network

28
Objectives for 2007
  • Educational outreach
  • Ongoing research to detail requirements
  • Generate constituency world-wide at all levels
  • Be prepared for the next favorable moment (2008?)

29
Your Thoughts Questions? A United Nations
Emergency Peace Service?
Dr. H. Peter Langille hpl_at_globalcommonsecurity.org
In cooperation with Global Action to Prevent
War
30
Credits
  • Special thanks for permission to use photos is
    extended to
  • The United Nations
  • Human Rights Watch
  • Genocide Watch
  • Presentation created by
  • Dr. H. Peter Langille, Global Common
    Security.org
  • Robbyn Evans, rae Communications.com

31
Is This Really Credible or Any Improvement?
  • As noted in the 1995 Canadian report, Towards A
    Rapid Reaction Capability For The United Nations
  • As professional volunteers develop into a
    cohesive UN force, they can assume responsibility
    for some of the riskier operations mandated by
    the Council, but for which troop contributors
    have been hesitant to contribute.
  • UN volunteers offer the best prospect of a
    completely reliable, well-trained rapid reaction
    capability.
  • Without the need to consult national
    authorities, the UN could cut response time
    significantly, and volunteers could be deployed
    within hours of a Security Council decision
  • No matter how difficult this goal now seems, it
    deserves continued study, with a clear process
    for assessing its feasibility over the long term.

... No matter how difficult this goal now seems,
it deserves continued study, with a clear process
for assessing its feasibility over the long term.
32
Personnel Selection
  • Merit and professionalism
  • Universal representation
  • Not national/political affiliation
  • Contracted and assigned
  • Extensive preparation/training
  • Reliability, readiness, dedication
  • Flexibility in managing diverse assignments
  • Paid, full-time (UN Civil Servant)

33
Removes 1 2 and should Improve 3rd
Decision-Making Level
  • National government approval (may be needed
    urgently)
  • National defence approval (personnel and
    resources)
  • UN Security Council approval (waits for 1. and
    2.)

All have developed unique excuses for inaction!
34
Why this Model for UNEPS?
  • Provides a dedicated, lead service a first
    responder for the critical, initial 4-6 months
    of complex peace operations.
  • Functions until replacement/rotation needed and
    secured from multinational contingents
  • Provides a modular formation that can be tailored
  • Cost-effective and a sound investment for saving
    lives and money
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