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The Writing Process: Prewriting

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The Writing Process: Prewriting & Beyond Tonja L. Root, Ed.D. Early Childhood & Reading Education Valdosta State University Valdosta, GA 31698 troot_at_valdosta.edu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Writing Process: Prewriting


1
The Writing Process Prewriting Beyond
  • Tonja L. Root, Ed.D.
  • Early Childhood Reading Education
  • Valdosta State University
  • Valdosta, GA 31698
  • troot_at_valdosta.edu

2
The Writing Process
  • It is a process.
  • It is not linear.
  • It is recursive.
  • Discuss stages to communicate the process.

3
Stage 1 Prewriting
  • It is the getting-ready to write stage.
  • Up to 70 of writing time needs to be spent in
    prewriting.
  • Students learn about the structure of narratives,
    informational forms, poetry, letters, and other
    written language forms.

4
Stage 1 Prewriting Choosing a Topic
  • Ss. need to take responsibility for choosing
    their own topics for writing.
  • Ts. should not supply topics for students --
    "writing welfare" (Graves, 1976).
  • Specify writing form and function (i.e., share
    what you have learned about ...), but have Ss.
    choose their own specific content.

5
Stage 1 Prewriting Considering the Function
  • to satisfy personal needs get things done
    (instrumental)
  • to control others behavior (regulatory)
  • to tell about themselves (personal)
  • to get along with others (interactional)
  • to learn find out (heuristic)
  • to pretend make believe (imaginative)
  • to communicate information to others (informative)

6
Stage 1 Prewriting Considering the Audience
  • Students may write for themselves or for others.
  • Writing for others requires students to adapt
    their writing to fit their audience.

7
Stage 1 Prewriting Considering the Form
  • narrative
  • giving directions
  • compare contrast
  • letter
  • poem
  • learning log

8
Stage 1 Prewriting Teachers Roles
  • Allow Ss. to participate in decisions about
  • function or purpose
  • audience
  • form
  • specific topic
  • Provide a variety of idea-gathering activities
    (rehearsal background).
  • Model prewriting strategy by showing your own.

9
Stage 1 Prewriting Teachers Roles
  • Work on the class collaboration prewriting
    strategy
  • (1) Take Ss. dictation to record/ model the
    prewriting strategy that you want Ss. to use when
    they do their own prewriting.
  • (2) Show Ss. comparisons contrasts with yours.

10
Stage 1 Prewriting Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing All Begin with a
Drawing
  • For a class writing on a specific topic
  • (1) Ss. individually draw detailed pictures
    about the same topic.
  • (2) Ss. individually make lists of words related
    to their pictures.
  • (3) Class compiles a list of all of the Ss.
    words.
  • (4) Ss. individually write stories relating to
    their own pictures using any words.

11
Stage 1 Prewriting Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing Observation Books
  • (1) T. supplies sketch books called,
    Observation Books.
  • (2) T. assigns 2-4 drawings/week to be done in
    sketch books with list of words at edge of
    drawings.
  • (3) S. completes assignment using pictures
    words as a reference for writing.

12
Stage 1 Prewriting Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing Definitions
  • (1) S. draws a picture of the definition of the
    word.
  • (2) S. writes a sentence using the word.

13
Stage 1 Prewriting Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing I Cant Think of a
Story
  • (1) S. divides paper into sections.
  • (2) S. draws a picture in each section.
  • (3) T. asks S. questions about picture.
  • (4) S. writes paragraph about each picture.
  • (5) S. adds ideas and details to pictures
    writing.

14
Stage 1 Prewriting Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing Drawing Picture
Together
  • For Ss. lacking confidence in drawing writing,
    Ss. draw write together.
  • (1) T. draws simple face on the paper.
  • (2) T. asks Ss., Who could this be?
  • (3) Ss. draw the rest of the person.
  • (4) T. asks Ss. questions Where is --? Is --
    alone? What is -- doing? What time of year is it?
    How old is --?
  • (5) Ss. finish picture with details.
  • (6) Ss. translate picture into a written story.

15
Stage 1 Prewriting Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing Character /or Setting
  • (1) S. divides paper into half.
  • (2) S. draws picture of person, animal, or place
    to become part of a story.
  • (3) T. tells S. to list words that come to mind
    on other half of paper (while writing).
  • (4) S. writes about that person/animal, or
    setting drawn.
  • (5) S. adds details ideas to drawing writing.

16
Stage 1 Prewriting Using Graphic Organizers to
Organize Ideas Purposes
  • (1) to plan writing using words and/or phrases
    rather than complete sentences
  • (2) to plan writing in sequenced steps and/or in
    precise locations on the organizer
  • (3) to see the content of writing as a whole

17
Stage 1 Prewriting Using Graphic Organizers to
Organize Ideas Purposes
  • (4) to see interrelationships among the content
    of the writing
  • (5) to see where additional planning is needed
  • (6) to see the structure of written language
    forms

18
Stage 1 Prewriting Using Graphic Organizers to
Organize Ideas Types
  • (1) story maps
  • (2) compare contrast organizers
  • (3) sequence organizers
  • (4) specific topic organizers Show examples of
    visual organizers.

19
Your turn to plan prewriting
  1. Choose a general topic in a subject area.
  2. Determine the function.
  3. Choose an audience.
  4. Decide upon the form.
  5. Develop / choose a graphic organizer or
    drawing strategy.
  6. Develop your model of the graphic organizer
    or drawing strategy.
  7. Plan when you are going to teach lessons.

20
Stage 2 Drafting
  • Label drafts "Rough Draft" or Sloppy Copy to
    prevent Ss. from thinking they can make this the
    final copy.
  • Have Ss. skip every other line to leave space for
    making revisions.

21
Stage 2 Drafting
  • Emphasize getting down the content of writing.
  • Do not emphasize correct spelling neatness.
  • Provide support, encouragement, feedback for
    ideas and problems.

22
Stage 2 Drafting Teachers Roles
  • Provide support encouragement.
  • Model drafting Take your prewriting strategy
    show Ss. how to convert ideas into sentences.
  • Do not emphasize spelling neatness.
  • Do not supply spelling.

23
Stage 2 Drafting Teachers Roles
  • Work on class collaboration composition
  • (1) Post the prewriting class collaboration
    strategy (drawing, graphic organizer) completed
    during prewriting stage.
  • (2) Transcribe (take) the Ss. dictation using the
    prewriting strategy for ideas.

24
Stage 2 Drafting Teachers Roles
  • Conference with Ss. Tell me what you are
    writing about. Thats interesting. Have you
    included that? Where could you add it to your
    writing?
  • Show Ss. how to add this into their drafts
    without rewriting. (This is really part of
    revision.)

25
Your turn to plan drafting
  • Develop a draft from your prewriting strategy.
  • Plan when you will have your students write
    drafts from their prewriting strategy (graphic
    organizer or drawing strategy).

26
Stage 3 Revising Have Students Reread their
own Drafts
  • Reread the draft after 1-2 days.
  • Make notes, questions, changes as needed.
  • Refine ideas.
  • Anticipate/meet the needs of readers through
    changing, adding, deleting, rearranging content.

27
Stage 3 Revising Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing Sentence Building
  • For Ss. who need to develop descriptive
    sentences, work in pairs with each approving new
    sentence before it is written
  • (1) Ss. draws with one color of pencil.
  • (2) Ss. write short sentence that describes
    drawing.
  • (3) Ss. add to drawing with a second color of
    pencil.
  • (4) Ss. revise sentence to incorporate new
    picture.

28
Stage 3 Revising Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing Selective Expansion
  • For Ss. who write long/complex stories without
    expanding significant part
  • (1) S. writes long/complex story without
    expanding significant part.
  • (2) T. brackets this part of the story.
  • (3) S. draws picture of this part of the story.
  • (4) T. asks questions to help S. translate
    meaning from the picture to words.

29
Stage 3 Revising Activities for Generating
Organizing Ideas Drawing The Too-Short Story
  • For Ss.who write too short of stories
  • (1) S. writes short story.
  • (2) S. divides paper into sections.
  • (3) S. writes key phrase or sentence from story
    at the bottom of each section.
  • (4) S. draws a picture in each with as much
    detail as possible.
  • (5) S. could list descriptive words while
    drawing.

30
Stage 3 Revising Teachers Roles
  • Work on class collaboration draft by modeling
    writing group procedure
  • (1) Post class collaboration draft.
  • (2) Read draft aloud.
  • (3) Ask for compliments.
  • (4) Ask questions. Get suggestions.
  • (5) Add, delete, rearrange, change content based
    on feedback.

31
Stage 3 Revising Have Students Meet in Writing
Groups
  • 1. Functions of Writing Groups
  • to offer writer choices
  • to give writer responses, feelings, and thoughts
  • to show different possibilities
  • to speed up revising

32
Stage 3 Revising Have Students Meet in Writing
Groups
  • 2. Formation of Writing Groups
  • Spontaneously S. shares writing through use of
    author's chair.
  • Formal Ss. assigned T. participates group
    leader changes regularly.

33
Stage 3 Revising Have Students Meet in Writing
Groups
  • 3. Procedure for Writing Groups
  • (a) Author reads composition aloud to group.
  • (b) Listeners offer compliments T. models
    appropriate responses.
  • (c) Author asks questions about trouble-spots.

34
Stage 3 Revising Have Students Meet in Writing
Groups
  • Procedure for Writing Groups (cont.)
  • (d) Listeners offer suggestions about how to
    revise.
  • (e) Repeat the process for all in the group.
  • (f) Authors plan for revision Each makes a
    commitment to revise based on comments
    suggestions.

35
Stage 3 Revising Teachers Roles
  • Model revising on your draft following the
    writing group procedure.
  • Be a reader reactor.
  • Participate in writing groups conferences.
  • Model appropriate responses during writing groups.

36
Your turn to plan revising
  1. Revise your draft using a transparency over your
    draft, so you still have your original draft.
  2. Plan when you will have your students revise
    their drafts.

37
Stage 4 Editing
  • A. Getting Distance
  • Have Ss. set writing aside for several days.
  • This allows them to see it fresh without being
    able to read what is not there.

38
Stage 4 Editing
  • B. Proofreading
  • Requires word-by-word reading attention to
    form letters, spelling, capital letters,
    punctuation marks.
  • T. explains differences between regular reading
    proofreading.
  • Teach proofreading marks.

39
Stage 4 Editing
  • Proofreading (cont.)
  • Use editing checklists to help Ss. learn to
    locate correct mechanical errors.
  • Focus on particular categories of errors Teach
    5-10 min. mini-lessons.
  • Do not expect Ss. to locate correct every
    error.
  • During T. conference, student (not T.) makes
    final editing changes.

40
Stage 4 Editing Teachers Roles
  • Allow 2-3 days after revising.
  • Focus on particular categories of errors.
  • Provide editing checklists.
  • Model editing using your revised draft.

41
Stage 4 Editing Teachers Roles
  • Work on class composition revised draft
  • (1) Post the revised draft editing checklist.
  • (2) Take Ss. suggestions for editing revised
    draft (shared pen technique).

42
Stage 4 Editing Teachers Roles
  • Model peer editing Writer makes corrections on
    his/her own paper while peer editor makes
    suggestions.
  • Do not expect Ss. to locate correct every
    error.
  • Provide time for editing conferences.

43
Your turn to plan editing
  1. Edit your revised draft using a transparency over
    your draft, so you still have your original
    revised draft.
  2. Plan when you will have your students edit their
    drafts.
  3. Develop an editing checklist to have your
    students use as they edit. Use the QCC Standards
    and/or other curriculum materials.

44
Stage 5 Publishing/Sharing
  • Put the piece in final written form.
  • Rewrite the piece (if developmentally
    appropriate) applying handwriting skills.
  • Add visuals as appropriate.

45
Stage 5 Publishing/Sharing
  • Share finished piece with appropriate audience.
  • Writing is meant to be read by readers.
  • Writing may also be shared by writer reading the
    piece.

46
Stage 5 Publishing/Sharing Teachers Roles
  • Model publishing/sharing your own edited piece.
  • Provide appropriate materials for publishing.
  • Provide place for sharing published pieces.
  • Provided time to share published pieces.

47
Stage 5 Publishing/Sharing Teachers Roles
  • Finish class collaboration edited piece
  • (1) Post edited piece.
  • (2) Write piece in final form with Ss. assisting
    as appropriate.
  • (3) Add visuals as appropriate.
  • (4) Display in appropriate location.

48
Your turn to plan publishing / sharing
  1. Publish your edited draft, incorporating
    corrections illustrations as appropriate.
  2. Plan when you will have students publish.
  3. Plan when you will have your students share.
  4. Decide where you will place the published pieces.

49
Assessing Writing Rubrics
  • Differentiate levels of student performance on a
    task or process.
  • Inform teacher and students about evaluation
    criteria.
  • Assign a score for each attribute separately and
    individually.
  • Give students diagnostic feedback individually.

50
Assessing Writing Rubrics
  • Convey teachers expectations for students work.
  • Help teachers clarify what they want from
    students.
  • All students to identify qualities of excellent
    work.
  • Help students monitor own performance.
  • Help teachers justify or validate grade.

51
Assessing Writing Rubrics
  • Serve as scaffolds for students moving to higher
    level of performance.
  • Explain to others teachers expectations for
    students work.
  • Lead to overall improvement in quality of
    students work.

52
Your turn to develop a rubric
  • Determine attributes or characteristics of the
    writing.
  • Determine number of levels for the attributes.
  • Describe each attribute for each level.
  • Write a title for your rubric.
  • Develop your rubric on NCR paper. Press hard when
    writing so you get 3 clear copies.
  • Give Dr. Root the white/top copy. She will type
    it and return the typed copy.

53
  • Writing is meant to be an enjoyable activity for
    all.
  • If it is not, then your instruction and/or
    curriculum need to be changed.
  • It is essential that we nurture these budding
    writers!
  • Nurture the delight!

54
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