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Ideologies and Upheavals

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Title: Ideologies and Upheavals Author: RachelKuhtz Last modified by: Windows User Created Date: 1/31/2007 12:46:36 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ideologies and Upheavals


1
Ideologies and Upheavals
  • 1815-1850

2
The Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815
  • Meeting of the five great powers of Europe
  • King Frederick William III of Prussia
  • Czar Alexander I of Russia
  • Emperor Francis I of Austria Foreign minister
    Klemens von Metternich
  • Foreign minister Robert Castlereagh of Britain
  • Foreign minister Charles Talleyrand of France
  • Prince Klemens von Meternich, foreign minister of
    Austria
  • Wanted to
  • 1) prevent French aggression
  • 2) restore the balance of power
  • 3) restore Europes royal families to the thrones

3
(No Transcript)
4
Metternich Restores Stability
  • The principle of legitimacy
  • They wanted to restore those rulers who had been
    displaced by Napoleon
  • Gained legitimacy primarily through inheritance
  • i.e. Louis XVIII (France), Bourbon rulers of
    Spain, Hapsburg princes of No. Italy
  • The congress made the countries around France
    stronger
  • To build a barrier around France
  • France maintained its pre-Napoleon borders, kept
    some overseas borders, its army, and an
    independent government
  • In 1819, Metternich will issue the Carlsbad
    Decrees
  • The 38 German states had to eliminate
    subversive ideas from universities/newspapers.
    By subversive, he meant liberal, democratic ideas
    that could initiate an uprising or revolution
  • Established spies and informers that would
    investigate and punish any liberals or radicals

5
Concert of Europe
  • A system of alliances to bound the nations of
    Europe together
  • Devised by Metternich to ward off revolutionary
    ideas set in motion by the French Rev.
  • Liberty, equality, and fraternity
  • Democracy/constitutional monarchies
  • The Holy Alliance
  • Austria, Prussia and Russia join forces to fight
    against any future revolutions

6
Radical Ideas
  • Liberalism, think democracy
  • The idea of liberty and equality did not go away
    in Europe as a result of the Congress of Vienna
    meetings
  • Freedom of the press, speech, etc. still desired
    by the people
  • An idea associated with the middle class after
    1815. Called for universal voting rights and
    democracy
  • Year of revolution 1848
  • Economic liberalism free enterprise, laissez
    faire economics (let business do as it pleases)

7
Radical Ideas cont
  • Nationalism
  • Became popular after the after the French Rev.
    and Napoleonic Wars
  • To have deep pride and devotion to your country
    to have a sense of national identity
  • Cultural groups sought to make their unity a
    political reality by forming new nations
  • IR created a need for a national language
  • Holidays, flags, symbols unified people
  • Democracy could really only be possible if there
    was a national unity
  • Early nationalists did not necessarily believe
    that all people were equal.
  • We-they nationalists might try to promote
    nationalism or superiority by pointing out an
    enemy at home or nearby.

8
Switching subjects..
9
Romanticism
  • A new way of thinking that focused on human
    feelings, emotion and imagination, love of nature
  • Mans natural place is in the country-depicted in
    art literature (poetry)
  • Most romantics saw the Industrial Revolution as
    an attack on nature human personality
  • Leader of English Romanticism was William
    Wordsworth

10
The Daffodils
  • I wandered lonely as a cloud
  • That floats on high oer vales and hills,
  • When all at once I saw a crowd,
  • A host, of golden daffodils
  • Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
  • Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
  • The waves beside them danced, but they
  • Out-did the sparkling waves in glee
  • A poet could not but be gay,
  • In such a jocund company
  • I gazed-and-gazed-but little thought
  • What wealth the show to me had
  • brought
  • Poem by William Wordsworth

11
Switching Subjects Again
12
Philosophers of Industrialization
  • Laissez-faire economics
  • Businesses have little interference from the
    government
  • Enlightenment idea
  • For the most part, this is how the industrialized
    nations operated business
  • Led to problems of factory owner exploitation of
    the poor workers
  • Adam Smith
  • The Wealth of Nations, 1776
  • Laissez-faire economics led to progress
  • Founder of Capitalism

13
Capitalism
  • Economic system in which there is private
    ownership and all decisions are made by the
    owner. Limited government involvement (like US)
  • Thomas Malthus, Critic of IR
  • An Essay on the Principle of Population, 1798
  • Population increased faster than food supply
  • Would lead to poverty
  • David Ricardo, Critic of IR
  • Principles of Political Economy and Taxation,
    1817
  • Permanent, poor underclass
  • Iron law of wages

14
Utilitarianism
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • Judge things based on their utility, or
    usefulness
  • the greatest good for the greatest number of
    people
  • His theory didnt support capitalism because
    clearly, the greatest good was not occurring for
    the greatest number during the IR time period.
  • This is not an economic system
  • Note Benthams skeleton, as stated in his will,
    is preserved in a wooden cabinet at University
    College, London. It is dressed in clothes and
    topped off with a wax head. His actual head was
    once on display, but due to poor preservation and
    excessive student body pranks his head (shown at
    the bottom of the picture) has been moved to a
    safer location. Now who says history isnt
    interesting?

15
Socialism/Communism
  • Socialism Factors of production and key
    industries are owned by the people (i.e. the
    government) and operate for the welfare of all
  • Government should own key industries like mines,
    railroads, etc.
  • Communism Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
  • Communist Manifesto, 1848
  • Eventually the working class (proletariat) would
    revolt against the middle class (bourgeoisie)
  • The Ind. Rev. enriched the wealthy and
    impoverished the poor
  • Believed Capitalism would destroy itself
  • Developed idea of pure communism
  • Extreme socialism in which the factors of
    production are owned by the people (i.e.
    government) and private ownership doesnt exist.

16
Communist influence
  • 1900s
  • Revolts in Russia (Lenin), China (Mao Zedong),
    Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh), Cuba (Fidel Castro)
  • Cold War
  • Capitalism vs. Communism

17
Ideologies and Upheavals
  • 1815-1850
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