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The Black Parenting Strengths and Strategies Program: A Randomized Pilot Study


The Black Parenting Strengths and Strategies Program: A Randomized Pilot Study Stephanie I. Coard, Ph.D. Associate Professor Human Development and Family Studies, UNCG – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Black Parenting Strengths and Strategies Program: A Randomized Pilot Study

The Black Parenting Strengths and Strategies
Program A Randomized Pilot Study
  • Stephanie I. Coard, Ph.D.Associate Professor
  • Human Development and Family Studies, UNCG

Presented at the Developmental Psychology Brown
Bag University of North Carolina-Greensboro Octobe
r 19, 2007

  • Linda Burton, Ph.D., Penn State University
  • Robert T. Carter, Ph.D, Teachers College,
    Columbia University
  • Jessica Henderson Daniel, Ph.D., Harvard
  • Michelle Fine, Ph.D, City University of New York
  • Vonnie McLoyd, Ph.D., UNC-Chapel Hill
  • Velma McBride Murry, Ph.D., University of Georgia
  • Robert Sellers, Ph.D., University of Michigan
  • Elwood Robinson, Ph.D., North Carolina Central
  • Margaret Beale Spencer, Ph.D., University of
  • Howard Stevenson, Ph.D., University of
  • Donna Marie Winn, Ph.D., Duke University

  • The prevention and treatment of child mental
    health problems and the promotion of emotional
    and behavioral health with particular emphasis
    on Black/African American children, adolescents
    and their families.
  • What does that mean?

  • Remaining at the forefront of research in
    prevention and comprehensive treatments for/with
    African American youth and facilitating awareness
    of the importance of examining and understanding
    the role of race, ethnicity and culture in the
    conduct of research.
  • Elucidating roles of race/ethnicity in
  • These factors contribute to the complexities of
    psychological processes, and are of vital
    importance to the understanding of culturally
    diverse populations.

  • 2. Integrate existing and new knowledge on
    culture, ethnicity and race with intervention
    efforts aimed at preventing and treating child
    mental health problems and fostering competence
    and well being.
  • As evidenced-based interventions are applied to
    children within diverse families, schools and
    communities, the understanding of culture and how
    specific culture-related factors influence
    implementation, acceptance and outcome become

Outline of Presentation
  • Research Overview
  • Rationale and limitations
  • Racial Socialization Overview
  • Definition and Importance
  • Intervention Development Phases
  • Cultural adaptation process
  • Intervention components
  • Pilot Findings
  • Conclusions and Future Directions

K01 AwardCultural Strategies for Preventing
Conduct Problems
  • Pursue research on translation, implementation
    and testing of clinically efficacious
    interventions into community settings and in
    culturally adapting and testing those
    interventions to ensure successful dissemination
    within urban and inner-city communities.
  • A primary focus of this research has been the
    development and testing of culturally-relevant
    strategies to assist African American parents in
    preventing and managing common behavioral
    problems in children.

Funded by National Institute of Mental HealthK01
Limitations of Parent Training Interventions
  • Increase in contextually focused evidenced-based
    preventive intervention, BUT
  • Focus on surface modifications rather than the
    consideration of deeper structural cultural
  • Consideration to critical values and traditions
    of a particular ethnic group, the unique
    historical, present, and future conditions of the
    group have largely been ignored.
  • Do not consider the unique parental challenges
    that African American families experience and
    unique parenting practices that are culturally,
    ethnically, racially-based, valued and influenced
    by the societal realities that exist (e.g.,
    racism, prejudice, discrimination).

Racial Socialization Defined
  • The process by which messages are transmitted
    inter- and intra-generationally regarding the
    significance and meaning of race and ethnicity.
  • Involves teaching children values and norms
    associated with race/ethnicity, and
    problem-solving skills that enable children to be
    flexible in their approach to race-related
    situations, without losing a core sense of self.

Coard, S. Sellers, R. African American families
as a context for racial socialization. (2005) In
V. McLoyd, N. Hill and K. Dodge, (eds.) Emerging
Issues In African-American Family Life Context,
Adaptation, and Policy. New York Guildford
Press. Stevenson, H., Winn, D.M., Walker-Barnes,
C. Coard, S. Style Matters Towards a
culturally relevant framework for interventions
with African American families (2005) In V.
McLoyd, N. Hill and K. Dodge, (eds.) Emerging
Issues In African-American Family Life Context,
Adaptation, and Policy. New York Guildford
Complexities of Racial Socialization
  • Synergistic and dynamic
  • Bi-directional process
  • Deliberate and unintended
  • Transmission and reception
  • Moderated by family and ecological

Racial Socialization and Child Outcomes
Empirical Findings

Racial Competence Academic Achievement
Self-Efficacy Self-Esteem Behavioral
Competence Delinquency Drug Abuse
Why is Racial Socialization Important?
  • It influences a childrens beliefs about the way
    the world works.
  • It informs childrens beliefs and attitudes
    regarding the self.
  • It helps shape childrens repertoire of
    strategies and skills for coping with and
    navigating racism.
  • It impacts the nature of the childs inter- and
    intra-racial relationships and interactions.

Who am I Targeting?A quest to define Blackness
  • Race and/or Ethnicity
  • Black and/or African American
  • Biracial
  • Multiracial
  • Race of parent and/or race of child
  • Race of grandparent and/or race of parent and/or
  • And the answer is
  • Barbershops/hairdressers
  • Nail salons
  • Resource/drop in centers
  • Schools (drop off/dismissal)
  • Housing projects
  • Playgrounds/Parks
  • Block Parties/Festivals
  • Restaurants/Take-outs
  • Community Centers
  • YMCA
  • Churches/mosques
  • DMV
  • Street vendors
  • Caretakers/nannies

Intervention Development Phases
  • 1. Qualitative Study Further elaborate the key
    aspects of racial socialization through
    qualitative methods and review of historical,
    sociological, and psychological literatures.
  • 2. Program Adaptation Develop an intervention
    for African American parents of 5 7 year old
    socio-economically disadvantaged children that
    encourages parents use of racial socialization
  • 3. Assessment Battery Develop an assessment
    battery that is sensitive to changes in racial
    socialization practices and related constructs.
  • 4. Open Pilot Pilot the racial socialization
    intervention as an adjunct to a standard parent
    training intervention.
  • 5. Randomized Controlled Pilot Test the
    enhanced parent training intervention in a
    randomized controlled trial (waitlist control).

Model of Racial Socialization Processes (Coard,
Frequency of Message Frequently Used Routine
aspect of parenting Moderated by family
Content of Messages Racial Preparation
(83) Racial Pride (93) Racial Equality
(86) Racial Achievement (67)
Racial Socialization
Mode/Delivery of Messages Active Responsive Passi
Coard, S. Wallace, S., Stevenson, H. Miller
Brotman, L. (2004). Towards culturally competent
preventive interventions The consideration of
racial socialization in parent training with
African American families. Journal of Child and
Family Studies, 13 (3), 277-293.
Other Culturally-Specific Considerations
  • Delivery Strategies
  • Use of AA language expression, common language
  • Physical expression
  • Emphasize AA values about collective
    responsibility, cooperation and interdependence.
  • Use of African proverbs, sayings/affirmations,
    poems, quotes, symbols, pledges
  • African American perspective use of (we)
  • Prayer
  • Role-playing
  • Storytelling/testimonies
  • Extended family participation
  • Humor
  • Setting/Motif- representative of population
    (e.g., books, magazines, pictures)
  • Content
  • Black child development
  • Using proactive racial socialization strategies
  • Talking to your child about race
  • Knowledge of African American history
  • Encouraging culturally affirming attitudes and
  • Coping with race-related conflicts
  • Race-related advocacy in school settings
  • informed by qualitative findings and existing

Culturally Enhanced VersionBlack Parenting
Strengths and Strategies (BPSS)
  • Program goals
  • STRENGTHEN parenting skills
  • IMPROVE parental involvement
  • EMPOWER parents to advocate and access
  • GUIDE parents in preparing African-American
    children for success
  • So we can.
  • INCREASE positive behaviors in children
  • DEVELOP self-image and self-esteem
  • BUILD their confidence in school
  • PROMOTE positive racial discussions
  • ENHANCE problem-solving skills
  • Program Overview
  • A culturally- and strengths-based
  • parenting program for the
  • prevention of conduct problems of
  • young children grades K-2.
  • Weekly session (12 weeks)
  • Two hour sessions
  • Meals and childcare/tutoring
  • Ticket system
  • Attendance (on time)
  • Homework completion
  • Binder

Parenting the Strong-Willed Child (Long
Forehand, 2002)
  • Evidence-based behavioral parent training
    program, recognized for its general
  • Designed to improve the parent-child relationship
    and increase desirable child behaviors.
  • Teaches skills that assist parents in dealing
    with and preventing noncompliance and other
    problematic behavior.
  • Skills Attending, Rewards, Ignoring, Effective
    directions, Time Out

BPSS Parent Group Sessions 1- 6
  • 1 Welcome and Introduction
  • Parenting in Context Yourselves as Black
  • Self Reflection
  • 2 Black Discipline Stickin To, Watchin Over
    and Gettin With
  • Affection, Protection and Correction
  • 3 Young Children and Racial-Ethnic Matters
  • Racial/Ethnic Development and Competence
  • Racial Socialization Talking about Race
  • 4 Understanding Child Behavior and Identifying
    Behavior Problems
  • Attending
  • 5 Creating a Positive Homeplace and
  • Spirituality and Family Traditions
  • Rewards
  • 6 Improving Communication Skills
  • Ignoring

Based on Stevenson, Davis Abdul-Kabir
(2001) Term conceived by L. Burton Term
conceived by J.V. Ward
BPSS Parent Group Sessions 7 - 12
  • 7 Building Positive Self-Esteem and Self-Image
  • Effective Directions
  • 8 Developing More Patience and Respect
  • Time-Out
  • 9 Black Children and the School Experience
  • Racial Achievement
  • 10 Teaching Children to Problem Solve
  • Chit chats and RaceRelated Problem Solving
  • 11 Integrating Parenting/Behavior Change Skills
  • Addressing Specific Behavior Problems
  • 12 Advocating for Your Child
  • Addressing specific race/ethnic matters (at
    home and in the community)
  • 13 Graduation Ceremony

Child Domains and Measures
  • Child Behavior Problems
  • Child Social Competence
  • Child Racial Competence
  • Attitudes
  • Coping
  • Racial Preference
  • Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-
  • Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-
  • Social Skills Rating Scale(SSRS-P/T)
  • Preschool Racial Attitude Measure(PRAM)
  • Racial Stories Task II
  • Color of My Skin

Parent Domains and Measures
  • Parent Practice Interview (PPI)
  • Involve Parent Questionnaire (IPQ)
  • Parent Experience of Racial Socialization (PERS)
  • Parent-Child Race-related Observational Measure
  • Afro-centric Home Environment Inventory
  • Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity
  • Parent Stress Index (PSI)
  • Inventory of Race Related Stress (IRRS)
  • Parenting Practices
  • Parent Racial Socialization
  • Parent Racial Identity
  • Parent Functioning


Means for Parenting Practices and parent-rated
child behavior for control and intervention
Parenting Practices

Means for Parenting Practices and parent-rated
child behavior for control and intervention
Parents Experience of Racial Socialization

Means for Parenting Practices and parent-rated
child behavior for control and intervention
Child Conduct Problem

Means for Parenting Practices and parent-rated
child behavior for control and intervention
Child Social Competence
  • BPSS is a model for incorporating culturally
    relevant content and processes into established
    evidence-based interventions.
  • BPSS is a promising preventive intervention with
    encouraging preliminary data.
  • The feasibility as been established.
  • A preliminary evaluation of BPSS via a randomized
    wait list control pilot is complete.
  • Significant results in positive changes in
    parenting, including reduction in harsh
    discipline, increase in use of positive racial
    socialization strategies, and positive changes in
    social and racial competence in African American

Coard, S., Foy-Watson, S., Zimmer, C., Wallace,
A. (accepted with revision). Considering
culturally relevant parenting practices in
intervention development and adaptation A
randomized control trial of the Black Parenting
Strengths and Strategies (BPSS) Program.
Journal of Counseling Psychology
Racial Socialization
  • The Parent-Child Race-Related Observational
    Measure (PC-RROM), a parent-child observational
    measure of the race-related communication and
    interaction (racial socialization) has been
    developed and preliminary psychometrics
  • Future Research
  • Examine other sources of racial socialization
    beyond parents.
  • Investigate the ethnic variation among families
    of African descent in America.
  • Identify racial socialization practices and
    strategies that are associated with the most
    positive child outcomes taking into consideration
    ecological environment.
  • Continue to develop and evaluate race
    socialization interventions.

Show me the moneyQuest for additional funding
Culturally Relevant Family Focused Interventions
  • Randomized clinical trial
  • Condition 1 A well-established, evidence-based
    program for use with diverse families (Parenting
    the Strong-Willed Child)
  • Condition 2 A culturally specific adaptation of
    that program tailored for African American
    parents (Black Parenting Strengths and
  • Condition 3 Information-only control
  • Determine added benefit of cultural enhancements
  • No randomized control trial of this nature has
    been conducted
  • to date.

Efficacy of Cultural Adaptations for Enhancing
Behavioral Health in Black Youth (R21)
  • A randomized clinical trial
  • Determine whether the addition of racial
    socialization content and strategies to an
    empirically-based intervention significantly
    improves service outcomes Program Engagement
    (recruitment, retention, participation), Consumer
    Satisfaction when used with African American

Cultural Strategies for Preventing Conduct
Problems A follow-up Study (R03)
  • To identify any long-term trends of the BPSS
  • In addition, child mental health service
    utilization among intervention participants will
    be assessed.

Reducing Behavioral Health Disparities for Black
Youth (SBIR Phase 1)
  • To develop and test a child-focused intervention
    curriculum specifically designed to be culturally
    relevant and effective for African American youth
  • Black Parenting Strengths StrategiesChild

Reducing Behavioral Health Disparities for Black
Adolescents (Planned SBIR Phase 1)
  • To adapt curriculum to be developmentally
    appropriate and effective for parents and
  • Black Parenting Strengths StrategiesAdolescent
  • Black Parenting Strengths StrategiesTeen
    Parent (BPSS-TP)

BPSS Special/Advanced Topics
  • Build on BPSS to address social-familial issues
    and provide brief parent and/or child-directed
    training on specialty topics currently beyond the
    scope of the base program.
  • 3-4 sessions
  • Assist to Resist A Culturally Relevant Drug
    Prevention Program
  • Specifically, focuses on the development of
    supplemental parenting modules designed to
    prevent substance use in Black youth (currently
    funded by NIDA-Duke Transdisciplinary Prevention
    Research Center).
  • Others planned
  • Anointed 2 Achieve A Culturally Relevant
    Academic Efficacy program
  • Embrace ME A Culturally Relevant Self and Body
    Image program for girls


Experiences of Racism and Mental Health Outcomes
During Middle Childhood (R01)
  • The aims of this research project are as follows
  • To gain an understanding of the prevalence of
    perceived racism experiences and how African
    American youth and parents perceive, interpret,
    conceptualize, and process racism (i.e., racial
    bias, racial discrimination, prejudice) in their
    lives (school and neighborhood settings).
  • To gain understanding of the impact of racism on
    mental health outcomes in children (i.e..,
    externalizing and internalizing)
  • To gain understanding on how those experiences
    and their impact may differ in African Americans
    across gender, age, socioeconomic status.
  • To elucidate the moderating role of child and
    parent characteristics (racial identity), family
    (e.g., racial socialization, SES) on experience
    of racism.