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Leading to a Civil War

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Leading to a Civil War * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR Events Leading to the Secession of the South The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leading to a Civil War


1
Leading to a Civil War

2
LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR
  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South
  • The Confederate States of America
  • Causes Leading to the Civil War

3
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • Sucession
  • "to withdraw formally from a union or
    alliance
  • Southern individual states nullified their
    ratification of the U.S. constitution

4
The Process of Secession
5
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • Political Sectionalism
  • Missouri Compromise 1820
  • Missouri - slave state
  • Maine - free state
  • Entry of states into the Union have to be
    balanced - one free/one slave
  • Gag Rule of 1836
  • Compromise of 1850
  • California a free state
  • Slavery allowed in the other territories
    acquired from Mexico

6
Slave and Free Territories Under the Compromise
of 1850
7
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • Political Sectionalism
  • Despite territorial gains emerged from
    the Mexican American War, Americans were
    more divided than ever
  • North denounced war as a southern project for
    expanding slavery
  • David Wilmot - Wilmot Proviso
  • no slavery in Mexican Territory
  • Many hoping the Compromise of 1850 had
    finally settled slavery

8
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
  • organized 2 new federal territories
  • repealed section of Missouri Compromise
  • prohibiting slavery in states/territories
    north of 36º 30 latitude
  • people decide (popular sovereignty)
  • Bleeding Kansas

9
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • Change in 2 party system
  • Democrats Whigs
  • Democrats (dough faces)
  • needed northern candidate to win because of
    the number of southerners
  • F. Pierce 1852, J. Buchanan 1856, Douglas ?
  • Whigs
  • Kansas Nebraska Act killed party divided
    sectionally
  • North South too far apart on slavery issue
    to hold party together

10
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • Change in 2 party system
  • Democrats Whigs
  • Whigs Free Soilers Republicans
  • only a northern party
  • tolerate slavery in south
  • unwilling to accept it's expansion
  • demand that the Kansas Nebraska Act be
    repealed
  • central railroad (rather than northern as
    Douglas proposed)
  • Homestead Act - western lands to families to
    settle 160 acres

11
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • Dred Scott Decision 1857
  • Southern dominated court
  • Slaves were property
  • "congress could not ban slavery from
    territories
  • Chief Justice Roger Taney

12
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • The Election of 1860
  • Aggressive movements of pro slave movement
  • frightened north
  • Hardened resistance in North
  • intensified southern insecurity
  • South demands - congressional slave codes

13
Leading to a Civil War
  • Events leading to the Secession of the South
  • The Election of 1860
  • Freeport Doctrine
  • legislation to protect slave property in north
  • Lead to a division of the Democratic Party
  • Northern Democrats - Stephen Douglas
  • appealed to North South but ambiguous
  • Southern Democrats - John Breckenridge
  • Appealed to south - popular sovereignty
  • Republicans - Abraham Lincoln
  • Constitutional Union Party - John Bell

14
The Election of 1860
15
LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR
  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South
  • Political Sectionalism
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Gag Rule
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Wilmot Proviso
  • Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
  • Dred Scot Decision 1857
  • Election of 1860

16
LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR
  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South
  • The Confederate States of America
  • Causes Leading to the Civil War

17
The Confederate States of America
18
Leading to a Civil War
  • The Confederate States of America
  • Constitution 1787 (1789 9 states ratified - 4
    didn't)
  • established government
  • Constitution states that states can't coin money
    and cant maintain an army but can they secede?
  • Southern Position held that the Constitution did
    not automatically bind states
  • Individual States first . . . then United
  • STATES UNITED

19
Leading to a Civil War
  • The Confederate States of America
  • Individual States first . . . then United
  • STATES UNITED
  • 11 southern states seceded and formed their
    own country
  • North says no you can't leave 4 long years
    of fighting
  • CIVIL (internal) War - settle question about
    whether a state can succeed
  • Pre Civil War The United States are
  • Post Civil War The United States is

20
Leading to a Civil War
  • The Confederate States of America
  • Radicals - fire eaters
  • South Carolinians since Nullification Controversy
  • South Carolina state convention Dec 20, 1860
  • repeal ratification of federal constitution
  • 6 weeks later MI, Fl, GA, Al, LA, TX succeed
  • Delegates to Montgomery Alabama
  • organized themselves as the C.S. of A.
  • Jefferson Davis - President ( Mississippi)

21
LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR
  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South
  • The Confederate States of America
  • Causes Leading to the Civil War

22
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to A Civil War
  • 1. Conspiracy
  • President
    Country
  • North Lincoln 1860 USA
  • South J. Davis 1861 CSA
  • Each side felt the other was conspiring against
    the other
  • Laws measures that inhibited the south - DAVIS
  • Congress controlled by north
  • North doesn't want to control south - south wants
  • to expand into the west LINCOLN
  • Each side didn't trust in an economic or
    political sense

23
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to A Civil War
  • 2. Constitutional
  • UNITED STATES VS. STATES UNITED
  • South - separate individual states form the union
  • since states formed the union they can opt out
  • North - the union created the states by the
    constitution
  • If the union is dissolved there is nothing
  • LINCOLN WAS FIGHTING TO SAVE THE UNION NOT TO
    FREE THE SLAVES (a political move)
  • Lincoln was a federalist constitutionalist

24
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to A Civil War
  • 3. Growth of Slavery
  • South had 4 million slaves
  • Slave owners 25
  • 17 1-9 slaves
  • 7 10-99 slaves
  • .1 100
  • very few had large plantations
  • small minority of controlling whites
    controlled southern society
  • Labor intensive agricultural society
  • slaves imported because can't get enough
    whites to do the labor

25
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to A Civil War
  • 3. Slavery
  • Davis - the Blacks have a better condition under
    the superior White race
  • docile savages to bodily comforts and
    religious instruction
  • Lincoln - not in favor of bringing about the
    social or economic equality of Negroes
    There must be the position of
    inferior/superior
  • Lincoln 1858
  • Lincoln was a product of his own culture
  • Freeing of slaves not a matter of equality!!!
  • Yet he was against the concept of slavery
  • SAVE THE UNION

26
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to A Civil War
  • 4. Economic
  • Labor
  • South - free labor North - paid labor
  • Tariffs
  • North wanted to protect their products
    artificial inflation of imports
  • South faced reciprocal tariffs when they
    exported their agricultural products
  • South Against High Tariffs
  • North Against Free Labor

27
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to A Civil War
  • 4. Economic
  • North passes laws in congress because of an
    imbalance in voting power
  • 19 Free States
  • 15 Slave States

28
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to A Civil War
  • 5. Nature of a Republic
  • What is a Republic?
  • Representative Democracy
  • Freedom to choose
  • South choose to leave under this freedom
  • Under another system this would not have
    happened!

29
Leading to a Civil War
  • ". . . it presents the question whether
    discontented individuals too few in numbers to
    control administration according to organic law
    in any case, can always upon the pretenses made
    in this case, or on any other pretense, break up
    their government, and thus practically put an end
    to free government upon the earth. It forces us
    to ask Is there, in all republics, this inherent
    and fatal weakness? Must a government, of
    necessity be too strong for the liberties of its
    own people or too weak to maintain its own
    existence?"
  • Lincoln - July 4, 1861
  • following Ft. Sumter

30
Leading to a Civil War
  • our heritage depends on inherent weakness of
    a republic to strong to maintain liberties yet
    too weak to maintain its existence.
  • Abraham Lincoln

31
Leading to a Civil War
  • Causes Leading to the Civil War
  • Conspiracy
  • Constitutional
  • Slavery
  • Economic
  • Nature of a Republic
  • 1600 ---------------1787--------------1865--------
    -------2000
  • Colonial Am. Nation Civil War
  • Civil War 265 years since beginnings of our
    country

32
LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR
  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South
  • The Confederate States of America
  • Causes Leading to the Civil War

33
Leading to a Civil War
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