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Fatigue Management Practices in Business Aviation Kevin Gregory

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Kevin Gregory Last modified by: Jim Burin Created Date: 3/29/2013 7:55:06 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fatigue Management Practices in Business Aviation Kevin Gregory


1
Fatigue Management Practices in Business
Aviation Kevin Gregory
2
The Flight Plan
  • Fatigue is a safety issue
  • Fatigue in business aviation
  • Managing fatigue
  • Fatigue management case study
  • Fatigue management practices

3
Got Fatigue?
Fatigue is an unsafe condition that can
occur relative to the timing and duration of work
and sleep opportunities (Institute of
Medicine, 2009)
4
The Fatigue Issue
  • Operational Factors
  • Time zones
  • Length of duty periods
  • Early report times
  • Backside-of-the-clock
  • Changing demands
  • Workload
  • Reduced rest
  • Layover hotels
  • Physiological Factors
  • Acute sleep loss
  • Sleep debt
  • Circadian disruption
  • Hours awake

5
Fatigue A Performance Issue
ALERT
Judgment/ decision-making
Memory
Reaction time
Vigilance
Mood
Communication
ASLEEP
6
Fatigue in Business Aviation
  • NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program
  • Survey of almost 1500 biz av pilots
  • 61 common occurrence
  • 85 moderate to serious safety issue
  • 71 nodded off during flight
  • 13 unable to fly scheduled trip due to fatigue
  • 79 received no formal company training that
    addressed fatigue issues

Rosekind, MR, Co, EL, Gregory, KB Miller, DL.
Crew Factors in Flight Operations XIII A Survey
of Fatigue Factors in Corporate/Executive
Aviation Operations, NASA/TM2000-209610
7
Fatigue in Business Aviation
  • Owatonna, MN Hawker Beechcraft, 2008
  • Factors sleep loss, early start, insomnia
  • Birmingham, UK Challenger, 2002
  • Factors sleep loss, circadian disruption
  • Hawaii Rockwell Sabreliner, 2000
  • Factors long duty, multiple time zones, night
    ops

8
Fatigue Management
Shared Responsibilities
Reporting Monitoring
Tactical Fatigue Tools
Mitigation Strategies
Education/training
Science-based Policies/Practices (duty/rest)
9
FRMS Fatigue Risk Management
  • Proposed as alternative means of managing
    fatigue in operations
  • Science-based
  • Data-driven
  • Integrated into existing organizational safety
    and health processes
  • Continuously improves feedback, evaluation and
    modification

10
Fatigue Management Case Study
  • NY-based biz av operations
  • Rotor, business jet
  • Long, daytime operations (early AM reports)
  • Backside-of-clock operations
  • Some long-range ops

11
Fatigue Management Case Study
  • Objectives
  • Better understand fatigue risks in operations
  • Better manage identified fatigue risks
  • Science-based approach
  • Data-driven
  • Objective/subjective data collection during ops
    (focus on sleep and performance)
  • Policies and practices review

12
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops
  • Objective and subjective data collection
  • Quantify sleep and performance associated with
    operations
  • Include days on and off duty
  • Phase I daytime ops/rotor wing (9 pilots)
  • Phase II backside-of-clock ops/fixed-wing (7
    crew members)
  • Identify fatigue risks develop mitigation
    approaches

13
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops
Actiwatch
Daily log
PVT
14
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
  • October-November 2011
  • Data collected up to 23 days
  • Goal 7-8 flight duty periods (FDP) per pilot
    (total of 28 FDP)
  • Overall compliance high
  • General information
  • Age 50 yr 27 yr flight experience
  • Fatigue moderately an issue during typical duty
    day

15
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
  • Flight Duty Periods
  • Average of 12.6 hr (range 3.5 - 17.5 hr)
  • Average 7.9 flight segments per FDP
  • Flight segments 15 min avg (max 1.6 hr)
  • Break time on ground 1.8 hr or more

16
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
D1              
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14
D15
D16
D17
D18
D19
D20
D21
D22
D23
17
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
18
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
of sleeps Sleep Latency (min) Total Sleep (hr) Sleep Efficiency
Prior to FDP 55 12.2 5.1 79.5
After FDP 47 12.1 6.4 78.3
All days off 67 13.0 6.2 78.1
19
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
20
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
  • FDP gt12 hr, 8 flight segments
  • Mid-day break (2/3 had rest opportunity)
  • Some successive duty days
  • Sleep 6.2 hr for days off
  • Sleep 5.1 hr when prior to FDP
  • early 5 AM wake time
  • evening wake zone

21
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase I
Rotary
  • Sleep debt across duty weeks
  • during 2 FDP week gt2 hr
  • during 3 FDP week gt5 hr
  • Performance
  • consistent levels overall
  • maintained across FDP
  • individual variability
  • Strategies used
  • Caffeine (mostly coffee)

22
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23
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase
II Fixed-Wing
  • February-April 2012
  • Data collected for a period of 9-15 days
  • Days on off duty pre/duty/post
  • Collected 32 FDPs
  • FDP info
  • FDP 9 hr avg (range 3-18 hr)
  • 48 flight segments
  • Flight segments 84 min avg (range 20 min to
    4.2 hr)
  • Ground transport time associated with FDP

24
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase
II Fixed-Wing
D1              
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
25
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase
II Fixed-Wing
of sleeps Sleep Latency (min) Total Sleep (hr) Sleep Efficiency
Pre-trip 11 12.8 6.1 84.3
Flight duty 16 13.8 4.9 83.6
Other/Away 5 13.4 6.4 81.2
Post-trip/Off 16 9.8 6.8 85.4
26
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase
II Fixed-Wing
  • Daily sleep
  • Average 5.8 hr during trip period
  • 7 nap periods documented Average 90 min
  • Cumulative sleep debt
  • Avg 9 hr by trip end (max 12.5 hr)

27
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase
II Fixed-Wing
28
Measuring Sleep/Performance in BizAv Ops Phase
II Fixed-Wing
  • FDP 9 hr
  • 6.8 hr for post/days off
  • Sleep 4.9 hr during trip
  • morning wake zone
  • Sleep debt builds up across trips
  • Performance consistency maintained
  • Strategies used
  • Caffeine and exercise

29
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30
Policies and Practices Review
  • Flight ops and helicopter ops manuals
  • Flight, duty and rest scheduling
  • Education and training
  • Fatigue mitigation strategies
  • Healthy sleep
  • Other

31
Policies and Practices Review
  • Duty, flight and rest policies consistent with
    recommended guidelines
  • Break/rest provision within max/extended duty
  • Limitations on reduced rest periods
  • Recovery rest following extended trip periods
  • Call-in fatigue policy
  • Risk assessment tool with fatigue factors

32
Fatigue Management Case Study
  • Daytime/rotor ops
  • Alternating FDP days allow for recovery sleep
    opportunities
  • Mid-day break period
  • Strategies used
  • Backside-of-clock/fixed wing ops
  • Blocks of days off prior to/following trip
    periods
  • Afternoon nap opportunities
  • Strategies used
  • Duty periods lt10 hr

33
Fatigue Management Case Study
  • Include fatigue education and training in initial
    and recurrent training efforts
  • Compensatory rest period for maintenance
    following extended duty
  • Limits on consecutive duty days
  • Fit-for-duty policy
  • Expansion of fatigue factors in risk assessment

34
Fatigue Management Case Study Implementation
  • Education/training implemented with subset of
    pilots
  • Baseline knowledge level 66 post-training
    89
  • Timing of tasks to facilitate sleep opportunities
  • Consecutive day provisions
  • Raised awareness/better rest management

35
Fatigue Management in BizAv Ops Other
Considerations
  • Cultural change
  • All aspects of operation (maintenance, dispatch,
    etc.)
  • Ultra-long range
  • Ongoing monitoring
  • Best practices

36
Thank you! Kevin Gregory kgregory_at_alertsol.com ww
w.alertsol.com
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