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DNA Structure, DNA Replication and Mitosis

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DNA Structure, DNA Replication and Mitosis DNA, chromosomes and gene structure revision Structure of DNA DNA is made from Nucleotides that have 3 parts: 5 carbon ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DNA Structure, DNA Replication and Mitosis


1
DNA Structure, DNA Replication and Mitosis
2
DNA, chromosomes and genestructure revision
3
(No Transcript)
4
Structure of DNA
  • DNA is made from Nucleotides that have 3 parts
  • 5 carbon Sugar (deoxyribose)
  • Phosphate group
  • Nitrogen base (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine or
    Cytosine)

5
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule has a double
helix (twisted ladder) structure with 2 bases of
2 nucleotides forming the rungs and the sugar and
phosphate groups forming the sides
6
Anti-parallel nature of DNA
  • Sugar is a 5 carbon ring (joins ladder sides to
    rungs)
  • Phosphate group attaches to the 3 or the 5
    carbon (makes ladder sides)
  • This gives direction to each half of the strand
    as each strand (ladder side) runs in the opposite
    direction
  • Nitrogen bases join anti parallel strands as A-T
    and C-G only (make ladder rungs)

7
DNA replication
  • The purpose of DNA replication is to make an
    exact copy of a DNA molecule prior to cell
    division (mitosis) so each daughter cell has the
    full set of genetic material.
  • Creates a chromosome with two chromatids
  • Ensures each resulting cell is able to receive a
    complete set of genes from the original cell
  • Three main steps
  • Animations 1 2 3

8
Semi-conservative nature of DNA replication
  • Means less opportunity for mistakes to occur
    during replication

9
(No Transcript)
10
DNA replication activities
  • Complete cut out poster showing the semi
    conservative nature of DNA replication
  • Read Biozone pages 133 134
  • Do exercises 1 6 page 134
  • Answer self check pg 81

11
Mitosis
  • The purpose of mitosis is to make exact copies of
    existing cells for growth, repair in all living
    organisms and asexual reproduction in some
  • Produces 2 daughter cells genetically identical
    to parent cell
  • Continuous process but has 4 main stages
  • Animation 1 2

12
(No Transcript)
13
Where mitosis occurs in plants and animals
  • Plants root tips, shoot tips and inside the
    bark layer of trees. These are the active growing
    sites of plants and many larger perennial plants
    continue to grow throughout their life.
  • Animals in most tissues in immature animals and
    wherever cells need replacing or repair in mature
    animals.

14
Mitosis activities
  • Discuss Factors affecting Mitosis handout
  • Read Biozone pages 135 136
  • Do Exercises 1 3 page 136

15
  • Your task now is to revise and study for the Cell
    End of Unit Test, by
  • Read and complete Biozone pages 97 to 138
  • (NB some pages not included)
  • Complete Key terms Mix and Match page 138
  • (NB some terms not covered)
  • Review past or sample external exam papers for
    Achievement Standard 91156v1 (AS 2.4) from NZQA
    NCEA website
  • Check L2 Biology Power-Points and other resources
    in MACScience blogsite
  • Use other study techniques e.g. Karen Boyes, flip
    cards, mind maps
  • Ask questions to clarify your understanding
    before
  • Test date
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