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International Forum on the Eradication of Poverty

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International Forum on the Eradication of Poverty United Nations, New York, USA Child Poverty Professor David Gordon Professor of Social Justice School for Policy Studies – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: International Forum on the Eradication of Poverty


1
International Forum on the Eradication of
Poverty United Nations, New York, USA Child
Poverty Professor David Gordon Professor of
Social Justice School for Policy
Studies University of Bristol, UK 15th November
2006
2
The Rhetoric of Child Poverty
3
Child Poverty in the UK The UK Government is
committed to tackling the problem of child
poverty. In March 1999, the Prime Minister Tony
Blair set out a commitment to end child poverty
forever And I will set out our historic aim
that ours is the first generation to end child
poverty forever, and it will take a generation.
It is a 20-year mission but I believe it can be
done.
4
No More Hungry Children?
...within a decade no child will go to bed
hungry, ... no family will fear for its next
days bread and ... no human being's future and
well being will be stunted by malnutrition.
Henry Kissinger, First World Food Conference,
Rome 1974
5
The Reality of Child Poverty
6
Age at death by age group, 1990-1995
Source The State of the World Population 1998
7
Make Poverty History Click Video
8
The world's biggest killer and the greatest
cause of ill health and suffering across the
globe is listed almost at the end of the
International Classification of Diseases. It is
given code Z59.5 -- extreme poverty. World Health
Organisation (1995) Seven out of 10 childhood
deaths in developing countries can be attributed
to just five main causes - or a combination of
them pneumonia, diarrhoea, measles, malaria and
malnutrition. Around the world, three out of
four children seen by health services are
suffering from at least one of these
conditions. World Health Organisation (1996
1998).
9
Champagne glass of income distribution
The stem of the glass is getting thinner. In
1960 the income of the wealthiest fifth was 30
times greater than that of the poorest fifth now
it's more than 80 times greater.
10
The Consequences of Poverty
11
Absolute and Overall Poverty After the World
Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in
1995, 117 countries adopted a declaration and
programme of action which included commitments to
eradicate absolute and reduce overall
poverty. Absolute poverty was defined as "a
condition characterised by severe deprivation of
basic human needs, including food, safe drinking
water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter,
education and information. It depends not only
on income but also on access to services."
12
Child Poverty in the World
Over one billion children half the children in
the world- suffer from severe deprivation of
basic human need and 30 (650 million) suffer
from absolute poverty (two or more severe
deprivations).
13
  • Severe Deprivation of Basic Human Need for
    Children
  • Almost a third of the worlds children live in
    dwellings with more than five people per room or
    which have a mud floor.
  • Over half a billion children (27) have no toilet
    facilities whatsoever.
  • Over 400 million children (19) are using unsafe
    (open) water sources or have more than a
    15-minute walk to water.
  • About one child in five, aged 3 to 18, lacks
    access to radio, television, telephone or
    newspapers at home.
  • Sixteen percent of children under five years in
    the world are severely malnourished, almost half
    of whom are in South Asia.
  • 275 million children (13) have not been
    immunised against any diseases or have had a
    recent illness causing diarrhoea and have not
    received any medical advice or treatment.
  • One child in nine aged between 7 and 18 (over 140
    million) are severely educationally deprived -
    they have never been to school.

14
Percent of the worlds children severely deprived
of basic human needs
15
(No Transcript)
16
Global Rural and Urban Absolute Child Poverty
Rates
17
Shelter Sanitation Physical Capital
Items Water Information Food Health
Human Capital Items Education
The severe deprivations of basic human need which
affect the greatest number of children are
physical capital problems - deprivation of
shelter, water and sanitation. Whilst fewer
children suffer from deprivations of human
capital health, education and nutrition, most
of the worlds anti-poverty policies are aimed at
improving that human capital, particularly in
urban areas
18
The cost of achieving universal access to basic
social services
The Price of Life?
Need Annual cost (US billions)
Basic education for all 6
Basic health and nutrition 13
Reproductive health and family planning 12
Low cost-water supply and sanitation 9

Total for basic social services 40
19
The Cost of Food and Health for All Over ten
million of the worlds young children die each
year and, in over half of these deaths,
malnutrition is a contributory cause. The cost of
preventing these deaths is relatively small 13
billion a year for ten years would provide basic
health and nutrition for every person on the
planet (UNDP, 1997). By comparison, 30 billion
was spent on pizza in the US in 2002 (Pizza
Marketing Quarterly, 2003) and 12 billion on dog
and cat food in the EU (Euromonitor
International, 2003).
20
Justice and Fairness?
  • If the misery of our poor be caused not by the
    laws of nature, but by our institutions, great is
    our sin.
  • Charles Darwin, 1845
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