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The Evolution of Evolution Historic Ideas about Organism Change

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Title: Charles Darwin Author: Leanna Nosbisch Last modified by: Home Created Date: 2/11/2007 10:10:13 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Evolution of Evolution Historic Ideas about Organism Change


1
The Evolution of EvolutionHistoric Ideas about
Organism Change
2
Aristotle(384 - 322 B.C.)
  • Ladder of life
  • Nature is ordered from lower to higher
  • No vacant rungs
  • No movement up or down the ladder
  • Included living and non-living things

3
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
  • First scientist to propose a mechanism for how
    organisms change (1809)
  • His idea Inheritance of Acquired Traits
  • Greater use of a body part would change it, and
    the change would pass on to the organisms
    offspring.

4
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5
Lamarcks Assumptions
  • Organisms have a desire to change. They have an
    inborn urge to better themselves for their
    environment.
  • Ex Birds tried to fly and eventually grew wings
    because of their efforts.

6
Lamarcks Assumptions
  • 2. Organisms can change shape by using or not
    using their bodies.
  • Ex The wings of a bird that does not fly would
    get smaller from generation to generation and the
    wings would eventually disappear.

7
Lamarcks Assumptions
  • 3. Organisms can pass on acquired traits to their
    offspring.
  • Ex If an animal developed muscles from lifting
    weights during its lifetime, it could pass those
    muscles on to its offspring.

8
Your examples
9
Charles Darwin(1809-1882)
  • English naturalist
  • Traveled around the world on the Beagle (1831)
    famously stopped in the Galapagos Islands
  • Observed many species and fossils
  • Particularly studied finches, tortoises,
    blue-footed boobies

10

11
The Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)
12
Darwins finches
  • Darwin noticed that finches were different on
    each Galapagos Island.
  • He concluded that the different finches had
    descended from a common ancestor and had changed
    to be able to do and eat different things.

13
Darwins Descent with ModificationAfter his
studies, Darwin came up with 4 main ideas
  1. Individuals differ, and some of this variation
    can be inherited.
  2. Organisms produce more offspring than can
    survive thus they have to compete for resources,
    and only the most fit will survive and reproduce.
  3. The most fit organisms pass on their heritable
    traits to their offspring.
  4. Species alive today are descended with
    modification (change) from their ancestors.

14
Descent with modification definitions
  • Descent with modification means
  • change in organisms over time (many generations)
  • Natural Selection means
  • pressure the environment puts on the specific
    traits that affects their ability to survive
  • Hey! I thought this unit was about evolution??
  • Evolution means
  • change over time
  • Therefore we now call Darwins idea biological
    evolution.

15
Lamarcks explanation for the giraffes long
neck
16
Darwins explanation for the giraffes long neck
17
Your examples
18
Darwin was influenced by the work of others
  • Thomas Malthus Populations
  • James Hutton and Charles Lyell Geological
    Record
  • Farmers Breeding

19
Thomas Malthus(1766-1834) British clergyman and
scholar
  • His prediction
  • the human population would grow faster than the
    space and food supplies needed to sustain it.
  • The only checks on the human population would be
    war, famine, and disease.

20
Influence of Malthus on Darwin
  • Malthus theory of population growth was observed
    by Darwin in other animal populations as well.
  • In nature, Darwin saw many organisms that
    produced many offspring. Most died.
  • Darwin wondered, what determines which
    individuals survive and reproduce?

21
James Hutton and Charles LyellBritish Geologists
  • Hutton is considered the father of modern
    geology
  • Based on layers found in rock structures, Lyell
    proposed that Earth is millions of years old
  • Lyell proposed that geological features could be
    built up or torn down over long periods of time

Grand Canyon, Arizona
22
Influence of Geology on Darwin
  • After reading Lyells book, Darwin was convinced
    that Earth was old.
  • Darwin reasoned that if geological phenomena
    could change the earth, then life on Earth could
    change as well.

23
Farmers
  • Farmers recognize that within a population, there
    is natural variation.
  • Farmers improve their plants and animals through
    selective breeding.

24
Influence of Farmers on Darwin
  • Farmers bred the plants or animals with the most
    desired traits.
  • This process of humans allowing only the best
    organisms to reproduce is called artificial
    selection.

25
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