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Chapter 22: Respiration: The Exchange of Gases

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NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform gas exchange (respiration)? Fig. 22.1 Chapter 22: Respiration: The Exchange of Gases * pH of blood ~7.4 Alpha ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 22: Respiration: The Exchange of Gases


1
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
NEW AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Fig. 22.1
2
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Fig. 22.1
3
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Fig. 22.1
4
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Fig. 22.1
5
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
- the site of gas diffusion (O2 in, CO2 out)
6
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface 4 properties
1.Made of cells
2. thin
3. must be moist (wet)
4. large surface area
7
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
1. Entire outer skin (skin-breathers)
Fig. 22.2A
- Annelida
- What type of environment would you expect to
find them?
- Why must they be narrow and long?
- How come all animals dont skin-breathe?
- What other organ system is a must with this
type of resp. sys?
8
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
2. Gills
- Aquatic animals
- Why are they able to be outside the body?
- The shape?
Fig. 22.2B
9
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
2. Gills
- Aquatic animals
- Why are they able to be outside the body?
- The shape?
- Ventilation
i. Energy Intensive water is denser than air
- Oxygen in water is 3-5 that of air
i. Countercurrent flow (exchange)
- Circulatory system needed
Fig. 22.3
Fig. 22.4
10
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
2. Gills
- Aquatic animals
- Why are they able to be outside the body?
- The shape?
- Ventilation
i. Energy Intensive water is denser than air
- Oxygen in water is 3-5 that of air
i. Countercurrent flow (exchange)
- Circulatory system needed
Fig. 22.3
Fig. 22.4
11
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
2. Gills
Fig. 22.3
Fig. 22.4
12
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
3. Tracheal system
Fig. 22.4C
- Why is the system now within the body?
- Easier to breathe air than water.
- Insects (class of arthropoda)
i. Tracheal system
- tracheae
- tracheoles
13
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
Fig. 22.5C
3. Tracheal system
- Why are they now within the body?
- Easier to breathe air than water.
- Insects (class of arthropoda)
i. Tracheal system
- tracheae
- tracheoles
- air sacs
(spiracles)
ii. Circulatory system?
Fig. 22.5A
14
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
Fig. 22.5B
3. Tracheal system
- Why are they now within the body?
- Easier to breathe air than water.
- Insects (class of arthropoda)
i. Tracheal system
- tracheae
- tracheoles
- air sacs
(spiracles)
ii. Circulatory system NOT involved
Fig. 22.5A
15
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
4. Lungs
- Terrestrial Vertebrates
- Restricted to one part of body
Fig. 22.2D
i. What other system do we need?
16
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
4. Lungs
- Terrestrial Vertebrates
- Restricted to one part of body
i. What other system do we need?
- Special Case
i. Amphibians
a. Small lungs
b. Also uses body surfaces
17
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface
Four types of resp. organs in animals
4. Lungs
Which type of organisms would you predict to have
a greater lung surface area, endotherms or
ectotherms? Explain.
Endotherms (warm-blooded) need to maintain their
body temperatures and therefore will need to
perform a greater number of chemical reactions to
generate heat more oxygen needed and more CO2
generated.
18
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Respiratory surface of single celled organisms?
19
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
Fig. 22.6A
20
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
Fig. 22.6A
- surface area
100m2
- Respiratory Path
21
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
Air is
a. Filtered by hairs/mucus/cilia
b. Warmed or cooled to 1 degree within body temp.
as to not disrupt fluidity of membranes of
epithelial cells of lungs (alveoli).
c. Humidified to keep respiratory surface
(alveoli) from drying out.
d. Sampled for odors
22
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
i. Tonsils and Adenoids
23
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
- voice box
3. larynx
  1. Vocal cords

b. Surrounded by cartilage (adams apple)
24
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
- voice box
3. larynx
a. Vocal cords
4. Trachea
25
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
- voice box
3. larynx
a. Vocal cords
4. Trachea
26
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
- voice box
3. larynx
a. Vocal cords
4. Trachea
a. Enforced with rings of cartilage like a vacuum
cleaner hose to prevent collapse when breathing
due to drop in pressure
b. Lined with ciliated cells and mucus producing
goblet cells. Mucus producing cells secrete
mucus, which lines the trachea and traps
dust/bacteria/viruses/etc and the ciliated cells
use their cilia to push the mucus up the trachea
into the pharynx to be swallowed and digested.
This is always happening.
27
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
- voice box
3. larynx
a. Vocal cords
4. Trachea
5. Bronchi
6. Bronchioles
28
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
- voice box
3. larynx
a. Vocal cords
4. Trachea
5. Bronchi
6. Bronchioles
7. Alveoli dead end
- Site of diffusion
- millions per lung
- Simple squamos epithelium
Fig. 22.6B
- The respiratory surface
29
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Human respiration
- surface area 100m2
- Respiratory Path
1. Nasal Cavity (nostril breathing)
2. Pharynx
- voice box
3. larynx
a. Vocal cords
4. Trachea
5. Bronchi
6. Bronchioles
7. Alveoli
Fig. 22.6C
- site of diffusion
- millions per lung
Alveoli in yellow interacting with capillaries in
red (notice the surface area)
- Simple squamos epithelium
- resp. surface
30
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Smoking
- 43 carcinogens
- destroy cilia and macrophages (type of WBC that
fights infection)
- coughing becomes last line of defense
- 430,000 people die a year
(more than the sum of deaths caused by AIDS,
alcohol, drug abuse, traffic accidents and
murders)
- lung cancer
31
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Smoking
- 43 carcinogens
- destroy cilia and macrophages
- coughing becomes last line of defense
- 430,000 people die a year
(more than the sum of deaths caused by AIDS,
alcohol, drug abuse, traffic accidents and
murders)
- lung cancer
- emphysema
i. Toxins trapped in lungs cause inflammation
ii. Inflammatory chemicals released by your own
cells break down walls of alveoli leading to
collapse
iii. Not getting enough oxygen into blood, leads
to hyperventilation
iv. Blood vessels near damage constrict to divert
blood to working regions of lungs
v. Heart needs to beat harder, gets
thicker/larger and eventually fails
32
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Bronchitis
-itis Suffix denoting diseases characterized
by inflammation itself often caused by an
infection.
33
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Asthma
1. An immune response brought about by white
blood cells in the lungs reacting to foreign
although otherwise harmless substances
(allergens) or rapid-mouth breathing during
exercise (genetic and environmental).
2. Breathing passages (bronchi) become inflamed
(swollen, red, warm) and smooth muscle around
bronchi constrict (bronchospasm).
3. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest
tightness and shortness of breathe.
4. In the end, the precise cause is not known
34
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Asthma Treatment
?2-andrenergic agonists
albuterol
Adrenaline (epinephrine)
35
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Breathing
- Ventilates the lungs
i. Diaphragm and intercostal (between rib)
muscles contract
- Negative pressure breathing
When the muscle contract (diaphragm contracts
downward and the intercostals pull the ribs
toward each other), the volume of the lungs
increases, which decreases the pressure inside
the lungs (fewer collisions of air molecules with
the walls of the bronchi, alveoli, etc) causing
higher pressure air to rush in.
Fig. 22.8A
36
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is breathing controlled?
- Some conscious control
- Predominantly Involuntary
a. Breathing control centers
- coordinates respiratory and circulatory system
with metabolic needs of body
i. pons
ii. medulla
- monitors pH
- indirect measure of CO2
CO2 H2O
H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
The more CO2 in the blood
the more acidic it is.
37
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is breathing controlled?
- Some conscious control
- Predominantly Involuntary
a. Breathing control centers
- coordinates respiratory and circulatory system
with metabolic needs of body
i. pons
ii. medulla
- monitors pH
- indirect measure of CO2
As the blood gets more acidic (lower pH),
proteins on the surface of medulla cells change
shape and the cells will signal the diaphragm to
contract more frequenlty (breathe heavier).
38
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is breathing controlled?
- Some conscious control
- Predominantly Involuntary
a. Breathing control centers
- coordinates respiratory and circulatory system
with metabolic needs of body
i. pons
ii. medulla
- monitors pH
- indirect measure of CO2
As pH decreases, breathing _________.
increases
39
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is breathing controlled?
- Some conscious control
- Predominantly Involuntary
a. Breathing control centers
- coordinates respiratory and circulatory system
with metabolic needs of body
Oxygen sensing by the aortic body
1. There are also a bunch of cells in the aorta
that sense O2 levels.
2. Blood in the aorta just came from the lungs
and should be fully oxygenated.
3. Neural signals sent to pons/medulla, which
will send signal to diaphragm.
4. This signal is much less important than the pH
signal.
40
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is breathing controlled?
Story
As you run, your muscle cells (majority of your
cells) are using a great deal of O2 and producing
CO2.
The CO2 enters the blood and combines with H2O to
make H2CO3 catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase.
The H2CO3 will dissociate (fall apart) to H
HCO3- resulting in a slight decrease in the pH of
the blood.
The pons/medulla respiratory center cells senses
this drop in pH by a change in the shape of the
proteins on their surface signally the cells to
send a neural signal to the diaphragm to increase
the frequency of contractions.
41
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is breathing controlled?
Story (continued)
At the same time, the aortic body senses a
decrease in oxygen and also sends a signal to the
pons/medulla with the same result as before. This
signal is not a strong/important as the drop in
pH.
The exact opposite happens if you hyperventilate
(breathe in and out quickly). CO2 concentrations
drop , pH rises and pons/medulla does not send a
signal to breathecan be very dangerous and
deaths have been known to be a result.
42
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
43
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is oxygen transported?
X 50,000,000,000 per human
250,000,000 / RBC
1. Very little dissolved in blood
2. Carried by hemoglobin
- 4 subunits (polypeptides)
- 1 heme per subunit
- 1 O2 per heme
44
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
How is CO2 transported?
Fig. 21.11
1. Dissolve in blood as gas
2. some binds to hemoglobin
3. Remainder forms H2CO3 via carbonic anhydrase
inside RBCs
i. H2CO3 is a buffer and helps buffer blood at pH
7.4
45
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Gas exchange in the fetus
46
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Gas exchange in the fetus
The placenta is the only human organ made of
tissue from two different organismsthe mother
and the child.
1. The fetus heart will pump blood through the
fetus and out to the placenta via the umbilical
cord.
2. In the placenta, the gas and nutrient exchange
will occur via diffusion (moms and babys blood
DO NOT MIX).
3. The blood then returns to the fetus. The
placenta acts like the lungs and kidneys.
4. The mother will then get rid of the CO2 via
the lungs and nitrogenous waste (urea) via the
kidneys.
47
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Gas exchange in the fetus
What about the fetus feces?
- There is no feces, did the fetus ever eat
anything?
48
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
1. Respiration
a. Respiratory surface
- moist, large surface area, thin, made of cells
b. Types of systems
- skin breathers
- gills
- tracheal system
- lungs
c. Human respiration
- nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
bronchi, bronchioles
- alveoli
- the resp. surface of lungs
d. smoking
- lung cancer and emphysema
e. breathing
- diaphragm, intercostal muscles, negative
pressure breathing
49
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
f. Breathing control
- control centers - pons, medulla of brain stem
- medulla monitors pH
-Indirect measure of CO2
- sends neural signals to diaphragm and
intercostals
- bromothymol blue
g. Transport of O2 and CO2
- RBCs
- hemoglobin
- heme cofactor containing iron
- iron binds oxygen
h. Transport of CO2
- dissolved in blood, as carbonic acid, bound to
hemoglobin (not at the iron)
i. Fetal respiration
50
Chapter 22 Respiration The Exchange of Gases
AIM How have different organisms evolved to
perform gas exchange (respiration)?
Watch tutorial under misc section of website
51
Chapter 21 Nutrition and Digestion
AIM How do animals obtain nutrition?
Milestone Questions
1. Explain why when you exercise your breathing
rate increases.
2. What are the four requirements of a
respiratory surface?
3. How does negative pressure breathing work in
humans?
4. How is CO2 carried in the blood?
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