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THIS POWERPOINT IS INTENDED FOR THE SOLE PURPOSE OF THE CHILD STUDY CENTER TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. ANY OTHER USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED.

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Title: CLASSROOM INTERVENTION FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS Author: Kevin Last modified by: Kevin Created Date: 8/29/2012 7:12:20 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THIS POWERPOINT IS INTENDED FOR THE SOLE PURPOSE OF THE CHILD STUDY CENTER TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. ANY OTHER USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED.


1
THIS POWERPOINT IS INTENDED FOR THE SOLE PURPOSE
OF THE CHILD STUDY CENTER TEACHERTRAINING
PROGRAM. ANY OTHER USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED.
2
CLASSROOM INTERVENTION FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL
NEEDS
3
  • Attachment
  • Reactive Attachment Disorders

4
  • Attachment is the deep connection established
    between a child and caregiver that profoundly
    affects your child's development and ability to
    express emotions and develop relationships.
  • If you are the parent (or teacher) of a child
    with an attachment disorder, you may be exhausted
    from trying to connect with your child.

5
  • Attachment is a reciprocal process by which an
    emotional connection develops between an infant
    and his/her primary caretaker. It influences the
    child's physical, cognitive, and psychological
    development.

6
  • It becomes the basis for development of basic
    trust or mistrust, and shapes how the child will
    relate to the world, learn, and form
    relationships throughout life.

7
  • Healthy attachment occurs when the infant
    experiences a primary caretaker as consistently
    providing emotional essentials such as touch,
    movement, eye contact and smiles, in addition to
    the basic necessities -- food, shelter, and
    clothing.

8
  • If this process is disrupted, the child may not
    develop the secure base necessary to support all
    future healthy development. Factors which may
    impair healthy attachment include multiple
    caretakers, invasive or painful medical
    procedures, hospitalization, abuse,
  • poor prenatal care,
  • prenatal alcohol or drug
  • exposure, and neurological
  • problems.

9
  • Children with attachment disturbance often
    project an image of self-sufficiency and charm
    while masking inner feelings of insecurity and
    self hate.
  • Infantile fear, hurt and anger are expressed in
    disturbing behaviors that serve to keep
    caretakers at a distance
  • and perpetuate the child's
  • belief that s/he is unlovable.

10
  • These children have difficulty giving and
    receiving affection on their parents' terms, are
    overly demanding and clingy, and may annoy
    parents with endless chatter.
  • They attempt to control attention in negative
    ways.

11
  • Additional behaviors may include
  • poor eye contact,
  • abnormal eating patterns,
  • poor impulse control,
  • poor conscience development,
  • chronic "crazy" lying,
  • stealing,
  • destructiveness to self, others, and property,
    cruelty to animals and
  • preoccupation with fire, blood, and gore.

12
  • A child with insecure attachment or an attachment
    disorder lacks the skills for building meaningful
    relationships.

13
  • So why do some children develop attachment
    disorders while others dont? The answer has to
    do with the attachment process, which relies on
    the interaction of both parent and child.

14
  • Attachment disorders are the result of
    negative experiences in this early relationship.
    If young children feel repeatedly abandoned,
    isolated, powerless, or uncared forfor whatever
    reasonthey will learn that they cant depend on
    others and the world is a dangerous and
    frightening place.

15
  • COMMON CAUSES OF ATTACHMENT PROBLEMS(Highest
    risk if these occur in first two years of life)
  • Sudden or traumatic separation from primary
    caretaker (through death, illness hospitalization
    of caretaker, or removal of child)
  • Physical, emotional, or sexual abuse
  • Neglect (of physical or emotional needs)
  • Illness or pain which cannot be
  • alleviated by caretaker

16
  • Frequent moves and/or placements
  • Inconsistent or inadequate care at home or in day
    care (care must include holding, talking,
    nurturing, as well as meeting basic physical
    needs)
  • Chronic depression of primary caretaker
  • Neurological problem in child which interferes
    with perception of or ability to receive
    nurturing. (i.e. babies
  • exposed to crack cocaine
  • In-utero)

17
  • Reactive attachment disorder and other attachment
    problems occur when children have been unable to
    consistently connect with a parent or primary
    caregiver. This can happen for many reasons
  • A baby cries and no one responds
  • or offers comfort.
  • A baby is hungry or wet, and
  • they arent attended to for hours.
  • No one looks at, talks to, or smiles at the baby,
    so the baby feels alone.
  • A young child gets attention only by acting out
    or displaying other extreme behaviors.
  • A young child or baby is mistreated or abused.

18
  • Sometimes the childs needs are met and sometimes
    they arent. The child never knows what to
    expect.
  • The infant or young child is hospitalized or
    separated from his or her parents.
  • A baby or young child is moved from one caregiver
    to another (can be the result of adoption, foster
    care, or the loss of a parent).
  • The parent is emotionally unavailable because of
    depression, an illness, or a substance abuse
    problem.

19
  • BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH PROBLEMATIC
    ATTACHMENT
  • A. Unable to engage in satisfying reciprocal
    relationship1. Superficially engaging, charming
    (not genuine)

2. Lack of eye contact3. clingy
20
  • 4. Lack of ability to give and receive
    affection on parents' terms (not cuddly)
  • 5. Inappropriately demanding and clingy
  • 6. Persistent nonsense questions and incessant
    chatter
  • 7. Poor peer relationships
  • 8. Low self esteem
  • 9. Extreme control problems - may attempt to
    control overtly, or in sneaky ways

21
  • B. Poor cause and effect thinking
  • 10. Difficulty learning from mistakes
  • 11. Learning problems - disabilities, delays
  • 12. Poor impulse control
  • C. Emotional development disturbed child shows
    traits of young child in "oral stage"13.
    Abnormal speech patterns14. Abnormal eating
    patterns

22
  • D. Infantile fear and rage. Poor conscience
    development.15. Chronic "crazy" lying16.
    Stealing 17. Destructive to self, others,
    property18. Cruel to animals 19. Preoccupied
    with fire, blood, and gore

23
  • E. "Negative attachment cycle" in family
  • 1. Child engages in negative behaviors which
    can't be ignored2. Parent reacts with strong
    emotion, creating intense but unsatisfying
    connection3. Both parent and child distance and
    connection is severed

24
  • Signs and symptoms of insecure attachment in
    infants
  • Avoids eye contact
  • Doesnt smile
  • Doesnt reach out to be picked up
  • Rejects your efforts to calm, soothe, and connect
  • Doesnt seem to notice or care when you leave
    them alone
  • Cries inconsolably
  • Doesnt coo or make sounds
  • Doesnt follow you with his or her eyes
  • Isnt interested in playing interactive
  • games or playing with toys
  • Spend a lot of time rocking or comforting
    themselves

25
  • Common signs and symptoms of reactive attachment
    disorder
  • An aversion to touch and physical affection.
    Children with reactive attachment disorder often
    flinch, laugh, or even say Ouch when touched.
    Rather than producing positive feelings, touch
    and affection are perceived as a threat.
  • Control issues. Most children with reactive
    attachment disorder go to great lengths to remain
    in control and avoid feeling helpless. They are
    often disobedient, defiant, and argumentative.

26
  • Anger problems. Anger may be expressed directly,
    in tantrums or acting out, or through
    manipulative, passive-aggressive behavior.
    Children with reactive attachment disorder may
    hide their anger in socially acceptable actions,
    like giving a high five that hurts or hugging
    someone too hard.

27
  • Difficulty showing genuine care and affection.
    For example, children with reactive attachment
    disorder may act inappropriately affectionate
    with strangers while displaying little or no
    affection towards their parents.

28
  • An underdeveloped conscience. Children with
    reactive attachment disorder may act like they
    dont have a conscience and fail to show guilt,
    regret, or remorse after behaving badly.

29
  • Tips for parenting a child with reactive
    attachment disorder or insecure attachment
  • Have realistic expectations. Helping your child
    with an attachment disorder may be a long road.
    Focus on making small steps forward and celebrate
    every sign of success.

30
  • Patience is essential. The process may not be as
    rapid as you'd like, and you can expect bumps
    along the way. But by remaining patient and
    focusing on small improvements, you create an
    atmosphere of safety for your child.

31
  • Foster a sense of humor and joy. Joy and humor go
    a long way toward repairing attachment problems
    and energizing you even in the midst of hard
    work. Find at least a couple of people or
    activities that help you laugh and feel good.

32
  • Take care of yourself and manage stress. Reduce
    other demands on your time and make time for
    yourself. Rest, good nutrition, and parenting
    breaks help you relax and recharge your batteries
    so you can give your attention to your child.

33
  • Find support and ask for help. Rely on friends,
    family, community resources, and respite care (if
    available). Try to ask for help before you really
    need it to avoid getting stressed to breaking
    point. You may also want to consider joining a
    support group for parents.

34
  • Stay positive and hopeful. Be sensitive to the
    fact that children pick up on feelings. If they
    sense youre discouraged, it will be discouraging
    to them. When you are feeling down, turn to
    others for reassurance.

35
  • Repairing reactive attachment disorder Tips
    for making your child feel safe and secure
  • Safety is the core issue for children with
    reactive attachment disorder and other attachment
    problems. They are distant and distrustful
    because they feel unsafe in the world. They keep
    their guard up to protect themselves, but it also
    prevents them from accepting love and support.

36
  • So before anything else, it is essential to build
    up your childs sense of security. You can
    accomplish this by establishing clear
    expectations and rules of behavior, and by
    responding consistently so your child knows what
    to expect when he or she acts a certain way
    andeven more importantlyknows that no matter
    what happens, you can be counted on.

37
  • Set limits and boundaries. Consistent, loving
    boundaries make the world seem more predictable
    and less scary to children with attachment
    problems such as reactive attachment disorder.
    Its important that they understand what behavior
    is expected of them, what is and isnt
    acceptable, and what the consequences will be if
    they disregard the rules. This also teaches them
    that they have more control over what happens to
    them than they think.

38
  • Take charge, yet remain calm when your child is
    upset or misbehaving. Remember that bad
    behavior means that your child doesnt know how
    to handle what he or she is feeling and needs
    your help. By staying calm, you show your child
    that the feeling is manageable. If he or she is
    being purposefully defiant, follow through with
    the pre-established consequences in a cool,
    matter-of-fact manner. But never discipline a
    child with an attachment disorder when youre in
    an emotionally-charged state.

39
  • Be immediately available to reconnect following a
    conflict. After a conflict or tantrum where
    youve had to discipline your child, be ready to
    reconnect as soon as he or she is ready. This
    reinforces your consistency and love, and will
    help your child develop a trust that youll be
    there through thick and thin.

40
  • Own up to mistakes and initiate repair. When you
    let frustration or anger get the best of you or
    you do something you realize is insensitive,
    quickly address the mistake. Your willingness to
    take responsibility and make amends can
    strengthen the attachment bond. Children with
    reactive attachment disorder or other attachment
    problems need to
  • learn that although they may
  • not be perfect, they will be
  • loved, no matter what.

41
  • Try to maintain predictable routines and
    schedules. A child with an attachment disorder
    wont instinctively rely on loved ones, and may
    feel threatened by transition and
    inconsistencyfor example when traveling or
    during school vacations. A familiar routine or
    schedule can provide comfort during times of
    change.

42
  • School Interventions

43
  • INTERVENTIONS WHAT DOESN'T WORK
  • Traditional problem solving questions such as
    What happened? What was your part in it? What
    could you have done differently? Attachment
    Disorder children will learn to spin off the
    "desired answers", but they will be meaningless
    answers.
  • The time spent on this exercise
  • will be wasted time.

44
  • Vague praise, such as "you are handling things
    well today" is generally seen by the child as a
    manipulative control strategy on the adult's
    part.
  • In addition, overt praise for expected basic
    behavior such as sitting in one's desk is likely
    to provoke an oppositional switch into the
    undesired behavior.

45
  • Conventional behavior management plans / level
    systems
  • Attachment Disorder children will see a behavior
    management plan, not as a way to change behavior,
    but as simply one more thing to learn "how to
    work" for their own purposes.
  • AD children may even use behavior management
    systems as bait to draw the adults into useless
    discussions about how to sustain progress. The
    end result can be that it is the teacher's
    behavior, rather than the child's, that ends up
    getting "managed".

46
  • Consistent zero tolerance stances run a high risk
    of dragging the teacher into a cycle of
    escalating misbehavior followed by increasingly
    severe consequences. Zero tolerance also does not
    allow the teacher sufficient creative flexibility
    to approach the AD child in a useful way that the
    AD child could not predict.

47
  • Believing the child's tales about horrendous
    treatment at home by parents and offering support
    and sympathy in an effort to "compensate". In the
    case of an AD child, this is probably the worst
    possible thing an educational professional could
    do.

48
  • Challenging the Attachment Disorder child's
    perspective with "objective evidence" in order to
    persuade her that her thinking is somehow
    incorrect. This approach assumes that the teacher
    and child share a common view of "reality"- not
    true. The teacher's view will make little or no
    sense to the AD child. In fact, the AD child is
    apt to see this approach as a manipulative
    attempt on the teacher's part to set the child up
    in some way.

49
  • Setting the parents up to be the "heavies" by
    leaving it to parents and home to impose
    consequences for school infractions or work not
    done.
  • Teachers taking AD children's behavior or
    statements personally. This usually takes some
    practice as AD children are skilled at
    discovering adults' tender spots and going after
    them.

50
  • Reacting emotionally to AD children's behavior.
    This only reinforces the AD child's sense of
    being in control of the adult's emotions ( a goal
    they generally pursue). This really takes some
    practice as AD children's behavior can be
    relentless, day in-day out, as any parent can
    testify.

51
  • Looking for THE answer.
  • There is no "The Answer". "The answer" leads to
    doing the same thing the same way every time. An
    AD child will have a field day with such an
    approach.

52
  • INTERVENTIONS WHAT DOES WORK
  • Being somewhat unpredictable on purpose. Such
    unpredictability is necessary to get past the AD
    child's vast array of avoidance maneuvers.

53
  • Make some rewards absolute and not contingent on
    anything.
  • This effectively subverts AD children's strong
    tendency to sabotage themselves and thereby prove
    to the adults that they can't "make them
    succeed". (Example AD child participates in a
    "fun Friday" activity regardless of their
    behavior, barring any safety concerns). This
    approach puts the child's succeeding under the
    complete control of the teacher.

54
  • Drilling in the concept of "choice".
  • Choice is an idea that is often absent in AD
    children's thinking. It is not simply that they
    refuse to accept responsibility- the ideas of
    people making choices and having responsibility
    literally makes no sense to AD children. They
    need to have it pointed out to them,
    matter-of-factly, over and over, that they are
    making choices all the time. Then discussion can
    begin to move towards making better vs. worse
    choices.

55
  • Four questions never to ask AD children
  • Did you...? Why did you...? Do you
    remember...? What did you say?

56
  • AD children can compose eloquent answers to adult
    questions that mean absolutely nothing. A
    question to an AD child is too often an
    invitation to trick an adult. It works much
    better to phrase statements as guesses and let
    them react to the guess. (Example rather than
    "Did you break your pencil ?" try "I think you
    broke your pencil to get out of doing your
    work."). AD children's reactions to guesses will
    tell you much more than their answers to
    questions.

57
  • Keep praise very concrete and specific and do not
    connect it to substantive rewards. Use humor to
    deflect AD children's attempts to be deliberately
    provocative.

58
  • Teachers should follow the parents' lead in
    matters of behavior management. Parents will
    almost always have seen behavior far in excess of
    anything the school will ever see. This gives
    parents irreplaceable experiential knowledge
    about working with their child's behavior. The
    school needs to partner seamlessly with home and
    parents in order to undercut the AD child's
    considerable strategic wilyness.

59
  • However, school and home should be kept separate
    in some matters. Incidents at school should be
    handled at school and not referred to the parents
    to provide consequences at home in the evening
    unless this is part of a collaborative plan
    arrived at beforehand. In general, parents SHOULD
    NOT be expected to be intimately involved with
    nightly homework. AD children will simply use
    "homework" as a stage to play out their
    attachment related conflicts and everyone loses.

60
  • Use of the word "trick" to describe AD children's
    strategic behavior works better than the more
    loaded words like "manipulative", "lying", etc.

61
  • Become a good observer of AD children's nonverbal
    responses (facial expressions, body position and
    movements, eyes, voice tone, etc). These are the
    most accurate signs of what is going on inside
    the child. If you listen only to what AD children
    say, you will go in circles repeatedly,
  • getting nowhere.

62
  • Act as historian for the AD child. As AD children
    live in the moment, they need adults to remind
    them of past events that have gone successfully
    to help them maintain more perspective on the
    present.

63
  • Remember
  • They are not out to get YOU
  • they are out to get everybody.
  • They cant always help themselves...some things
    are just going to happen.
  • They need love, care and attention just like
    everyone elsethey just cant articulate these
    needs.

64
  • 10Cs on Oct 26 will reinforce some guidelines
    and framework for working with AD children.

65
  • LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE
    DIFFICULTIES

66
  • Baby talk timeline
  • 0-6 months-babies as young as 4 weeks can
    distinguish between similar syllables like MA and
    NA, and at 2 months begin to associate certain
    sounds with certain lip movement.
  • They will start to link up sounds, such as a dog
    bark to the dog.
  • Theyll cry first, then try to use tongue, lips
    and palate to make gurgles, oohs and aahs.

67
  • Talk to them
  • Sing to them
  • Read to them
  • INTERACT WITH THEM

68
  • 4-6 MONTHS
  • Random babbling
  • attempts at letters such as g and k, m, w, p and
    b.
  • Will focus on familiar words such as their name,
    mommy and daddy.
  • By 4.5 months, may take an interest in their name
    when used with HI and BYE. At 6 months may
    understand their name is actually for them.

69
  • Talk to them. Use natural language. Dont
    consistently baby talk but its ok to use some
    baby talk. Be expressive, in their line of
    sight, and interactive.
  • Keep talking, reading and singing to them. Dance
    with them.

70
  • 7-12 Months
  • Child makes repetitions intentionally.
  • Starts to understand gestures.
  • Starts combining words.
  • First words appear near 12 monthsma-ma, da-da,
    kitty, doggy, cookie, juice, etc.

71
  • Talk to them,
  • Show them things, pictures, magazines, read an
    article to them.
  • Touch and name body parts.
  • Ask questions, even though they cant answer.
  • Start to understand intonation
  • and language patterns.and your voice.
  • Babble and coo back at them.
  • Silly faces and expressive talking.

72
  • 13 to 18 months
  • First word is the opening to the dam. Encourage
    more words. If they make a sound, try to put it
    in context and make connections with them.
  • Receptive language first, then expressive
    language comes next.

73
  • When reading a book, use expressive language,
    vary tone of voice for characters and actions,
    point to objects in books, encourage turning of
    pages.
  • Singing, try to get them to
  • sing along.
  • Slippery fish, 5 little pumpkins,
  • alligator swamp, abcs.
  • Use natural language with full sentences.

74
  • 19-24 months.
  • The dam breaks open. So many attempts at words
    and sounds. Try to understand THEIR attempts at
    speech and relate it back to them.
  • 2-4 word sentences very common.
  • Try to elaborate THEIR speech.
  • Try to encourage sentence structure.

75
  • Read
  • talk
  • sing
  • dance
  • watch tv
  • TOGETHER
  • Use proper language
  • use complete sentences
  • use imagination.
  • Puppets, phones, dolls, pretend toys, costumes,
    hard hats, play kitchens, etc.

76
  • 25-36 months
  • The sky is the limit. Encourage language, answer
    the why, when, where questions. (sometimes send
    it back to them).
  • Read familiar books but stop at certain points to
    see if they can finish the sentences.
  • Correct their language in context.
  • Ex I goed potty, say Yes,
  • you did go potty.
  • Theyll catch on.

77
  • Enjoy the language explosion and the
    independence
  • Ex boy do it.
  • An idea flew up my nose.
  • Yes, all these stages are tiring, but when they
    are talking to you, they are also listening to
    you. Teenage years they wont.

78
  • Things to think about
  • Put your fingers in your ears while someone else
    is saying ABCs. Periodically pull fingers out
    and put them back. If child has hearing problem,
    language might be muddled.
  • Language not learned word by word but in natural
    language and interactions.
  • Do you..wantto goon with thelecture.like
    this?
  • Children learn speech patterns early.

79
  • Can you draw a guazeevil?
  • Children need to experience language also, not
    just use it.
  • Children learn things quickly. Careful of
    language. Mason and Aubrey born.
  • Be interactive with them.

80
  • Interventions
  • History pulled out of classroom
  • 1-1
  • Theyll get it
  • Not a smart kid
  • Was speech the goal or was language/communication
    the goal?

81
  • Looked at child, family, SES, education level of
    parents and family, expectations of family and
    school, what services available.
  • What was the goal? Words, clarity, speech,
    communication, understanding, in isolation or in
    complete sentences.
  • Who should do intervention?
  • Parents, teachers, therapists, one-on-one or
    group therapy, in home, in center or in
    therapists office?

82
  • DAP Developmentally Appropriate Practice
  • AAC Augmentative and Alternative Communication
  • Teaching and training of parents
  • Teaching and training of teachers
  • Use of all techniques
  • Value and use of play

83
  • Some tips to encourage language use children
  • 1, interesting materials, avoid boredom, child
    and adult chosen activities
  • 2, place some materials in reach, but not all.
    Use clear bags/containers so child sees them and
    needs to request them
  • 3, small/inadequate portions milk, cereal, play
    dough, etc.

84
  • 4, Offer choices where appropriate. Books or
    puzzle, blocks or play dough. Get words, not
    just gestures.
  • 5, Make child need you. Wind up toy, opening
    jar, climbing into swing. You know what they
    want, but let them ASK you.
  • 6, Sabotage familiar activities. Yogurt but no
    spoon, paper but no markers, ask to color green
    but only offer red.

85
  • Be silly.
  • Tape scissors closed.
  • Put childs shoe on your foot.
  • Try novel things to encourage interaction and
    communications.
  • DONT OVER DO IT.

86
  • Problems with concentration and attention

87
  • First, need time to evaluate child/room.
  • Hearing issues
  • Family issues
  • Teacher issues
  • Tired and fatigue
  • Language too high for childs level
  • Too advanced
  • Too fast a pace

88
  • Distractions
  • Too flashy
  • Too much noise
  • Who seated next to
  • Short attention spans
  • Sense of self
  • Teacher conflicts
  • Separation anxiety
  • Hunger

89
  • Too high expectation of child/children
  • Seated next to window or door
  • No sense of expectation of teacher
  • Poor planning
  • Understanding of language
  • Teacher speech patterns/accent
  • Too long sitting
  • Using only 1 method of instruction

90
  • Scaffolding of material/information
  • Abstract vs. concrete information
  • Goals?
  • Time of day of instruction
  • Does everyone have to follow or do activity?
  • Consequences of not following along

91
  • At some time of the day, sit in the childs
    seat and take a look around.
  • What do you see?
  • Now, what do you need to change?

92
  • Are parents seeing issue/issues at home?
  • If so, has there been an assessment by a
    pediatrician or an outside agency?
  • Results?
  • Plan?
  • Who carries it out?

93
  • Meds?
  • Time table?
  • Meeting times?
  • Family condition?
  • Coordination of services?

94
  • Not an easy issue.
  • Long lasting.
  • Tiring.
  • Slow signs of improvement.
  • Keep a diary. Recognize small accomplishments.

95
  • DIFFICULTIES WITH TOILET TRAINING
  • or.
  • They just wont go?
  • Face it its up to them. Period.
  • Now, what do we do?
  • Age appropriate usually showing signs at or
    after 2, and some not showing any interest until
    3 or later.
  • Boys usually later than girls.

96
  • Are they showing signs of interest or readiness?
  • Pulling at wet diapers
  • Telling you their diaper is wet or messy
  • Telling you they dont want to wear diapers
    anymore
  • Expressing an interest in watching YOU potty (not
    okay for school, okay for home).

97
  • Trying to hold it until they can make it to
    bathroom
  • Recognizing what signs are for potty training.
  • Has a dry diaper for 2 hours at a time
  • Showing independence doing various things.
  • Can pull pants up and down

98
  • Attempts to verbalize or show you they need to
    potty
  • Shows embarrassment when had an accident.
  • Shows an interest in sitting on the potty
  • Are parent and teachers all on same page?
  • YES?
  • Now is the time to start .

99
  • Get a potty seat or a potty chair.
  • Talk to them about using it. BE CLEAR
  • Get big boy or big girl underwear.
  • Get training pants
  • Start keeping track of wet diaper times, try to
    catch before that time.
  • Easy clothes to remove when its time
  • Both of you sit on potty
  • Have books or small toys ready for the long wait

100
  • Patience
  • Games for boys ping pong balls, cheerios,
    toilet paper with a target, etc.
  • Girls, little more difficult. Dye in the water
    when she goes--turns color.
  • Reassurance
  • Remind them (and yourselves) that they will get
    it.

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  • Look ahead going shopping, going out to eat,
    spare clothes, reminders for both of you.
  • Encourage big boy/big girl
  • If bowel movements hard, try bran muffins,
    spoonfuls of mineral oil, more water in diet,
    fruits.
  • Encourage going to potty. Tell them when you are
    going, thus encouraging them to.

102
  • Starting too soon exercise in futility.
  • Pressure doesnt make it easier.
  • Nor does shame.
  • Stresses often times pushes things back moving,
    new baby, new jobs, visitors, new school, etc.
  • Unrealistic expectations not good.
  • Stressing accidents.

103
  • Check with pediatrician if blood in stool or pee,
    very runny poops, hard poops consistently,
    painful urinations (URI), constipation, still wet
    diapers during day at age 4 or later, strange
    smelly diapers or urine.

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  • Dont
  • Shame
  • Have them wash sheets or underwear
  • Battle them
  • Compare your child to another child
  • Blame yourself or them
  • Punish
  • Push
  • Get angry
  • Dont punish for accidents

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  • Do
  • Encourage.
  • Talk.
  • Model.
  • Reassure.
  • Be patient.
  • Show love and acceptance, not just talk.
  • Be careful with rewards.
  • Give it time.

106
  • PLAYING WITH POOP

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109
  • BEDWETTING

110
  • Going to happen
  • Patience, takes time
  • Reassure, again.
  • Some continue until 8 years old or later.
  • Fear of dark, insecurity, attention getting,
  • heavy sleepers, too much liquids at night,
  • didnt empty bladder before bed,
  • Nightmares.

111
  • Not a problem showing concern.
  • Work on solutions together.
  • Realize for some its out of their control. Not
    doing it to get you.
  • Persisting, check with pediatrician.

112
  • You will get through it.
  • Once youve got this mastered
  • Something else will take its place.

113
  • EXCESSIVE FEARFULLNESS
  • AND/OR AVOIDANT BEHAVIOR

114
  • Typically, most everyone has some type of fear.
  • Loud noises
  • Dogs or cats or spiders or snakes
  • Heights
  • Dark
  • Politicians
  • Death
  • Losing their jobs

115
  • Most kids grow out of fear, and some new fears
    replace old fears.
  • Monsters--not being liked
  • Dark---being alone
  • Thunderstormscancer
  • Excessive fears are different
  • Sometimes transform into phobias

116
  • How to help with excessive fearfulness
  • Try to find out what the fear is, and, if
    possible, what started the fear. Mason and tess,
    fear of heights.
  • Dont dismiss fear, and dont over hype it.
    Talk about it calmly. Deal with it rationally,
    and be supportive.

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  • Once fear is known or understood, try to explain
    how fear can be overcome.
  • DONT FORCE THEM INTO FEARFUL SITUATION.
  • Some fearfulness will never come into play.
  • alliumphobia fear of garlic
  • gametophobia, gamophobia An exaggerated fear of
    being married

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  • Other fears will. Steps to deal with them.
  • Objectively talking about them. Once spoken
    aloud, some fears become so silly sounding they
    diminish in capacity. Let them know you are
    with them and will help them through it.
  • Set limits on what you will allow.

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  • Clarify the fear they are talking about. Put it
    into perspective, and how to deal with the fear
    If it comes into play. Fear of dogs, give some
    concrete examples and rules to follow.
  • Fear of spiders, unless you are
  • a fly, ladybug, aphid, etc, there
  • isnt much of a concern. If in countries with
    poisonous spiders, explain how to protect self.

120
  • Some want to avoid fears at all cost.
  • Woman hit by car crossing street.
  • Vowed never to happen again.
  • Lives in same 1 square block for remainder of her
    life.

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If able to, try to expose them to their fear.
Small steps, videos, pictures, true stories can
help diminish the fear or put it into
perspective.
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  • Practice breathing techniques (with older
    children). Trying to calm them down may be
    necessary even when talking about fear. Hugs may
    be necessary, or hand on shoulder, etc. Careful
    not to cross or blur lines.

123
  • Keep in contact with other staff and parents.
  • Dont get pulled into the fear, or allow fear to
    be transferred to you.
  • Dont allow your fears to overtake you, thus
    potentially transferring them onto the children.
  • How you react to your own fears could influence
    how a child reacts to theirs.
  • Fear of the dark, Fear of water. Germs

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  • Sometimes home/school life can contribute to
    fears.
  • Keep in touch with parents and lines of
    communication open.
  • Should fears be inhibiting a childs life,
    outside help should be consulted.

125
  • DEFIANT AND/OR RIGID BEHAVIOR

126
  • Defiance disobedient, insolence,
    rebelliousness, non-cooperation.
  • Rigid unbending, inflexible, refusing to change,
    stiff, unyielding.
  • JUST WHAT WE WANT, RIGHT?

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  • Some children show these symptoms in early
    childhood.
  • Not wanting to be held or touched,
  • dont comfort easy, independent
  • at early age, dont want assistance.
  • Parents (and teachers) sometimes contribute to
    this. Keep at them, forcing themselves on
    childs play, directing every movement, taking
    charge of many activities and being unyielding
    themselves.

128
  • Parents and teachers very rule oriented.
  • Youre not going to tell me what to do.
  • My way or the highway.
  • No kid of mine is going to talk to me that way.
  • If anything, our responses are their responses.

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  • They dont want to be told what to do all the
    time.
  • They want a little say in what is happening.
  • They want some choices.
  • They want to figure out their world.
  • They want to be listened to.
  • Are we helping or hurting them?
  • Are we helping or hurting ourselves?

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  • Just as we want them to be adaptable and
    accepting of OUR instructions, are we being
    adaptable and accepting of THEIR instructions and
    thoughts?

131
  • Understand that the defiant or rigid child really
    needs you, your love, your time, your comfort and
    your security.
  • THEY JUST CANT TELL YOU THEY NEED THAT.

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  • So, knowing the battles ahead,
  • what do we need to do?

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  • Yes, rules need to be in place, but how rigid do
    our rules need to be?
  • Does the bed need to be made exactly the way we
    want?
  • Does the homework need to be in exactly the same
    style as we want?
  • Do the toys need to be precisely on the shelf
    every time?
  • Do they need to pick up every toy?

134
  • A structure needs to be in place, and the
    structure needs to be understood by all.
  • But whos structure takes precedence?
  • Can we work out a deal?
  • How about if we
  • Maybe we should
  • What if we tried

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  • Communication is the key.
  • Parents (teachers) communicate together.
  • Then communicate to the child.
  • Then make sure everyone agrees and is on board.
  • Put it in writing if need be. Then not my word
    against yours. Be prepared to be flexible.

136
  • After communication, then patience.
  • Not going to change overnight.
  • Still going to be struggles.
  • Still need flexibility and adaptability.
  • Still need to be open.

137
  • Still need to keep ourselves in check.
  • Still need to control emotions. Yelling begets
    yelling. Anger means out of control
  • Out of control could lead to physical actions
    and/or words said that cant be taken back.

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  • After patience comes persistence.
  • If we say we are going to do something, then we
    need to follow through.
  • Consequences need to be appropriate, and
    understood BEFOREHAND.
  • Dont go to work, dont have a job.

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  • Where does recognition fit in?
  • Recognize small steps
  • Recognize accomplishments
  • Recognize decent actions, behaviors and actions.
  • Recognize attempts at being good.

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  • Recognize when the child tries to let you into
    their space.
  • Recognize when they try to
  • talk with you.
  • Recognize how hard it is for them to trust you,
    which is really what they want.
  • Recognize that their behaviors are not against
    you, they are against EVERYONE.

141
  • Take a back seat sometimes.
  • Let them be in charge, even if you know it wont
    work. (except in danger situations).
  • Let them ask you for help, or, just let them know
    youre here if they need you, and back off a bit.
    Stay present, but off to the sides.

142
  • Then, with communication, patience, persistence,
    comes acknowledgement and congratulations.
  • No need of flowery, over-the-top
  • praise, or excessive rewards.
  • Sometimes just a heartfelt congrats, a pat on the
    back (if allowed), a simple hug, or a handshake
    can be welcomed, and appreciatedand felt

143
  • And take the time to realize that all those small
    steps, both forward and backward, do lead to
    growth.

144
  • But if these steps, and the time and
    concentrated effort are not producing results,
    outside help needs to be tapped.
  • Just because we ask for help does not mean we (as
    teachers or parents) are failures, it doesnt
    mean our children are failures, it doesnt mean
    our programs are failures.

145
  • Just as we want the child to recognize what is
    happening and how to make it better,
  • it means we recognize our own limits and need
    outside assistance to HELP the situation and try
    to keep it positive.

146
  • How can we expect them to try to work on the
    issues if we refuse to see we arent perfect?

147
  • Exerts taken from
  • Baby Talk A month-by-month timeline, by Heather
    Millar,
  • Attachment Reactive Attachment Disorders,
    Warning Signs, Symptoms, Treatment Hope for
    Children with Insecure Attachment, Authors
    Melinda Smith, M.A., Joanna Saisan, MSW, and
    Jeanne Segal, Ph.D. Last updated September 2012.
  • What Is Attachment?, By Kathleen G. Moss, LCSW,
    ACSW.
  • Differences Between Attachment Therapy and
    Traditional Therapy, by Arleta James, MA
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