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Fundamentals of Information Systems Fourth Edition

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Data Modeling Building a database requires two types of designs Logical design Abstract model of how data ... Data Mining (continued) Business Intelligence ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamentals of Information Systems Fourth Edition


1
Fundamentals of Information SystemsFourth Edition
  • Chapter 3
  • Organizing Data and Information

2
Principles and Learning Objectives
  • Data management and modeling are key aspects of
    organizing data and information
  • Define general data management concepts and
    terms, highlighting the advantages of the
    database approach to data management
  • Describe the relational database model and
    outline its basic features

3
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • A well-designed and well-managed database is an
    extremely valuable tool in supporting decision
    making
  • Identify the common functions performed by all
    database management systems and identify popular
    user database management systems

4
Principles and Learning Objectives (continued)
  • The number and types of database applications
    will continue to evolve and yield real business
    benefits
  • Identify and briefly discuss current database
    applications

5
Why Learn About Database Systems?
  • Database systems process and organize large
    amounts of data
  • Examples
  • Marketing manager can access customer data
  • Corporate lawyer can access past cases and
    opinions

6
Introduction
  • Database an organized collection of data
  • Database management system (DBMS) group of
    programs to manage database
  • Manipulates database
  • Provides an interface between database and the
    user of the database and other application
    programs
  • Database administrator (DBA) skilled IS
    professional who directs all activities related
    to an organizations database

7
Data Management
  • Without data and the ability to process it, an
    organization could not successfully complete most
    business activities
  • Data consists of raw facts
  • For data to be transformed into useful
    information, it must first be organized in a
    meaningful way

8
The Hierarchy of Data
  • Bit (a binary digit) a circuit that is either on
    or off
  • Byte eight bits
  • Character basic building block of information
  • Each byte represents a character
  • Can be an uppercase letter, lowercase letter,
    numeric digit, or special symbol
  • Field typically a name, number, or combination
    of characters that describes an aspect of a
    business object or activity

9
The Hierarchy of Data (continued)
  • Record a collection of related data fields
  • File a collection of related records
  • Database a collection of integrated and related
    files
  • Hierarchy of data bits, characters, fields,
    records, files, and databases

10
The Hierarchy of Data (continued)
Figure 3.1 The Hierarchy of Data
11
Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys
  • Entity a generalized class of people, places, or
    things (objects) for which data is collected,
    stored, and maintained
  • Attribute characteristic of an entity
  • Data item value of an attribute
  • Key field or set of fields in a record that is
    used to identify the record
  • Primary key field or set of fields that uniquely
    identifies the record

12
Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys (continued)
Figure 3.2 Keys and Attributes
13
The Database Approach
  • Traditional approach to database management
    separate data files are created for each
    application
  • Results in data redundancy (duplication)
  • Data redundancy conflicts with data integrity
  • Database approach to database management pool of
    related data is shared by multiple applications
  • Significant advantages over traditional approach

14
The Database Approach (continued)
Figure 3.3 The Database Approach to Data
Management
15
The Database Approach (continued)
Table 3.1 Advantages of the Database Approach
16
The Database Approach (continued)
Table 3.1 Advantages of the Database Approach
(continued)
17
The Database Approach (continued)
Table 3.2 Disadvantages of the Database Approach
18
Data Modeling and the Relational Database Model
  • When building a database, consider
  • Content What data should be collected, at what
    cost?
  • Access What data should be provided to which
    users and when?
  • Logical structure How should data be arranged to
    make sense to a given user?
  • Physical organization Where should data be
    physically located?

19
Data Modeling
  • Building a database requires two types of designs
  • Logical design
  • Abstract model of how data should be structured
    and arranged to meet an organizations
    information needs
  • Physical design
  • Fine-tunes the logical database design for
    performance and cost considerations

20
Data Modeling (continued)
  • Data model a diagram of data entities and their
    relationships
  • Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams data models
    that use basic graphical symbols to show the
    organization of and relationships between data

21
Data Modeling (continued)
Figure 3.4 An Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagram
for a Customer Order Database
22
The Relational Database Model
  • Relational model all data elements are placed in
    two-dimensional tables (relations), which are the
    logical equivalent of files
  • In the relational model
  • Each row of a table represents a data entity
  • Columns of the table represent attributes
  • Domain the allowable values for data attributes

23
The Relational Database Model (continued)
Figure 3.5 A Relational Database Model
24
Manipulating Data
  • Selecting eliminates rows according to criteria
  • Projecting eliminates columns in a table
  • Joining combines two or more tables
  • Linking relates or links two or more tables
    using common data attributes

25
Manipulating Data (continued)
Figure 3.6 A Simplified ER Diagram Showing the
Relationship Between the Manager, Department, and
Project Tables
26
Manipulating Data (continued)
Figure 3.7 Linking Data Tables to Answer an
Inquiry
27
Database Management Systems (DBMS)
  • Interface between
  • Database and application programs
  • Database and the user
  • Creating and implementing the right database
    system ensures that the database will support
    both business activities and goals
  • DBMS a group of programs used as an interface
    between a database and application programs or a
    database and the user

28
Overview of Database Types
  • Flat file
  • Simple database program whose records have no
    relationship to one another
  • Single user
  • Only one person can use the database at a time
  • Examples Access, FileMaker, and InfoPath
  • Multiple user
  • Allows dozens or hundreds of people to access the
    same database system at the same time
  • Examples Oracle, Sybase, and IBM

29
Providing a User View
  • Schema description of the entire database
  • Large database systems typically use schemas to
    define the tables and other database features
    associated with a person or user

30
Creating and Modifying the Database
  • Data definition language (DDL)
  • Collection of instructions/commands that define
    and describe data and data relationships in a
    database
  • Allows database creator to describe the data and
    the data relationships that are to be contained
    in the schema
  • Data dictionary a detailed description of all
    the data used in the database

31
Creating and Modifying the Database (continued)
Figure 3.10 Using a Data Definition Language to
Define a Schema
32
Creating and Modifying the Database (continued)
Figure 3.11 A Typical Data Dictionary Entry
33
Storing and Retrieving Data
  • When an application requests data from the DBMS,
    the application follows a logical access path
  • When the DBMS goes to a storage device to
    retrieve the requested data, it follows a path to
    the physical location (physical access path)
    where the data is stored

34
Storing and Retrieving Data (continued)
Figure 3.12 Logical and Physical Access Paths
35
Manipulating Data and Generating Reports
  • Query-By-Example (QBE) a visual approach to
    developing database queries or requests
  • Data manipulation language (DML) commands that
    manipulate the data in a database
  • Structured Query Language (SQL) ANSI standard
    query language for relational databases
  • Database programs can produce reports, documents,
    and other outputs

36
Manipulating Data and Generating Reports
(continued)
Table 3.3 Examples of SQL Commands
37
Database Administration
  • Database administrator (DBA) directs or performs
    all activities to maintain a database environment
  • Designing, implementing, and maintaining the
    database system and the DBMS
  • Establishing policies and procedures
  • Employee training

38
Popular Database Management Systems
  • Popular DBMSs for end users Microsoft Access and
    FileMaker Pro
  • Entire market includes databases by IBM, Oracle,
    and Microsoft
  • Examples of open-source database systems
    PostgreSQL and MySQL
  • Many traditional database programs are now
    available on open-source operating systems

39
Special-Purpose Database Systems
  • Specialized database packages are used for
    specific purposes or in specific industries
  • Israeli Holocaust Database
  • Hazmat database
  • Art and Antique Organizer Deluxe
  • Special-purpose database by Tableau can be used
    to store and process visual images

40
Selecting a Database Management System
  • Important characteristics of databases to
    consider
  • Size of the database
  • Cost of the system
  • Number of concurrent users
  • Performance
  • Ability to be integrated with other systems
  • Vendor considerations

41
Using Databases with Other Software
  • Database management systems are often used with
    other software packages or the Internet
  • A database management system can act as a
    front-end application or a back-end application
  • Front-end application interacts with users
  • Back-end application interacts with applications

42
Database Applications
  • Database applications manipulate content of a
    database to produce useful information
  • Common manipulations are searching, filtering,
    synthesizing, and assimilating the data

43
Linking Databases to the Internet
  • Linking databases to the Internet is important
    for many organizations and people
  • Semantic Web
  • Developing a seamless integration of traditional
    databases with the Internet
  • Allows people to access and manipulate a number
    of traditional databases at the same time through
    the Internet

44
Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining
  • Data warehouse collects business information
    from many sources in the enterprise
  • Data mart a subset of a data warehouse
  • Data mining an information-analysis tool for
    discovering patterns and relationships in a data
    warehouse or a data mart

45
Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining
(continued)
Figure 3.17 Elements of a Data Warehouse
46
Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining
(continued)
Table 3.5 Common Data-Mining Applications
47
Business Intelligence
  • Business intelligence (BI) gathering the right
    information in a timely manner and usable form
    and analyzing it to have a positive impact on
    business
  • Turns data into useful information that is then
    distributed throughout an enterprise

48
Business Intelligence (continued)
  • Competitive intelligence aspect of business
    intelligence limited to information about
    competitors and the ways that knowledge affects
    strategy, tactics, and operations
  • Counterintelligence steps an organization takes
    to protect information sought by hostile
    intelligence gatherers

49
Distributed Databases
  • Distributed database
  • Data may be spread across several smaller
    databases connected via telecommunications
    devices
  • Corporations get more flexibility in how
    databases are organized and used
  • Replicated database
  • Holds a duplicate set of frequently used data

50
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
  • Software that allows users to explore data from a
    number of different perspectives

Table 3.6 Comparison of OLAP and Data Mining
51
Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database
Management Systems
  • Object-oriented database
  • Stores both data and its processing instructions
  • Method a procedure or action
  • Message a request to execute or run a method

52
Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database
Management Systems (continued)
  • Object-oriented database management system
    (OODBMS)
  • Programs that manipulate an object-oriented
    database and provide a user interface and
    connections to other application programs
  • Object-relational database management system
    (ORDBMS)
  • A DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and
    graphical data

53
Visual, Audio, and Other Database Systems
  • Visual databases for storing images
  • Audio databases for storing sound
  • Virtual database systems allow different
    databases to work together as a unified database
    system
  • Other special-purpose database systems
  • Spatial data technology stores and accesses data
    according to the locations it describes and
    permits spatial queries and analysis

54
Summary
  • Hierarchy of data bits, characters, fields,
    records, files, and databases
  • Entity generalized class of people, places, or
    things (objects) for which data is collected,
    stored, and maintained
  • Attribute characteristic of an entity
  • Data model diagram of data entities and
    relationships
  • Relational model describes data in which all
    elements are placed in two-dimensional tables
    called relations

55
Summary (continued)
  • Selecting eliminates rows according to criteria
  • Projecting eliminates columns in a table
  • A database management system (DBMS) is a group of
    programs used as an interface between
  • Database and application programs
  • Database and the user
  • Data dictionary detailed description of all the
    data used in the database

56
Summary (continued)
  • Data warehouse database that collects business
    information from all aspects of a companys
    processes, products, and customers
  • Data mining an information-analysis tool for
    discovering patterns and relationships in a data
    warehouse
  • Object-oriented database stores both data and
    its processing instructions
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