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AP Biology 12 Concept 2: Analyzing and utilizing biotechnology tools

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AP Biology 12 Concept 3: Analyzing and utilizing biotechnology tools Please refer to: Chapter 20 in Campbell Pg 134-139 in Holtzclaw Pg 329-355 in Holtzclaw – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP Biology 12 Concept 2: Analyzing and utilizing biotechnology tools


1
AP Biology 12 Concept 2 Analyzing and utilizing
biotechnology tools
  • Please refer to
  • Chapter 20 in Campbell
  • Pg 136-141 in Holtzclaw
  • Pg ______ in Holtzclaw
  • Practice Questions
  • Campbell 1-4 p. 405 (20.1)
  • 1-3 p. 411 (20.2)
  • 1-3 p. 416 (20.3)
  • 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 ,11,12 p. 424-425
  • Holtzclaw

2
Transgenic Organisms This goat makes spider silk
protein in its milk! How?
3
Try This!
  • One strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence
    3'-GGATGCCCTAGGCTTGTT-5'. Which of the following
    is the complementary strand?
  • 3'-AACAAGCCTAGGGCATCC-5'
  • 3'-CCTACGGGATCCGAACAA-5'
  • 5'-AACAAGCCTAGGGCATCC-3'
  • 5'-GGATGCCCTAGGCTTGTT-3

4
Try This!
  • One strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence
    3'-GGATGCCCTAGGCTTGTT-5'. Which of the following
    is the complementary strand?
  • 3'-AACAAGCCTAGGGCATCC-5'
  • 3'-CCTACGGGATCCGAACAA-5'
  • 5'-AACAAGCCTAGGGCATCC-3'
  • 5'-GGATGCCCTAGGCTTGTT-3

5
Try This!
  • You have isolated this eukaryotic gene and wish
    to express the protein it codes for in a culture
    of recombinant bacteria. Will you be able to
    produce a functioning protein with the gene as
    is?
  • yes
  • No, the exons will need to be cut out and the
    introns spliced back together.
  • No, the introns will need to be cut out and the
    exons spliced back together.
  • No, the exons will need to be cut out, the
    introns translated individually, and the peptides
    bound together after translation.

6
Try This!
  • You have isolated this eukaryotic gene and wish
    to express the protein it codes for in a culture
    of recombinant bacteria. Will you be able to
    produce a functioning protein with the gene as
    is?
  • yes
  • No, the exons will need to be cut out and the
    introns spliced back together.
  • No, the introns will need to be cut out and the
    exons spliced back together.
  • No, the exons will need to be cut out, the
    introns translated individually, and the peptides
    bound together after translation.

7
Weve come a long way!
  • 1995 first entire genome sequenced (bacteria)
  • 2007 only 12 years later
  • Sequencing under way for 2000 organisms
  • Complete human genome sequenced (3 billion base
    pairs!)
  • Can look it up on the internet

8
What are other examples of biotechnology feats?
  • Biotechnology manipulation of organism or their
    feats to make useful products
  • Selective breeding (farms, dogs)
  • Choosing who breeds with who!
  • Making wine and cheese and bread
  • Using bacteria/yeast!
  • Genetic engineering
  • Making new proteins

9
So... What are the main techniques for
manipulating DNA? Learning Intentions
  • You must know
  • The terminology of biotechnology.
  • The steps in gene cloning with special attention
    to the biotechnology tools that make cloning
    possible.
  • The key ideas that make PCR possible
  • How gel electrophoresis can be used to separate
    DNA fragments or protein molecules
  • Examples of genetic engineering products

10
Learning Intentions for AP Investigation Labs
See Handout
  • AP Investigation 7 Bacterial Transformation
  • The principles of bacterial transformation,
    including how plasmids are engineered and taken
    up by cells
  • Factors that affect transformation efficiency
  • Calculate transformation efficiency and express
    the results in scientific notation
  • Predict and justify how a change in the basic
    protocol for bacterial transformation would
    affect transformation efficiency
  • How to verify and screen for transformed cells
  • Bacterial transformation is a type of horizontal
    gene transfer, and increases genetic variation
  • AP Investigation 9 Restriction Enzyme Analysis
  • The function of restriction enzymes and their
    role in genetic engineering
  • How gel electrophoresis separate DNA fragments
  • How to use a standard curve to determine the size
    of DNA fragments
  • Apply mathematical routines to construct a graph
    of DNA fragments of known size
  • Use this standard curve to determine the size of
    unknown DNA fragments
  • Use the results of gel electrophoresis to map the
    restriction sites of a bacterial plasmid

11
Review PCR and Electrophoresis
  • http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/pcr/
  • http//www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labb
    ench/lab6/intro.html
  • http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/gel/
  • Complete Investigation How Can Gel
    Electrophoresis Be Used to Analyze DNA?

12
Try This! This segment of DNA is cut at
restriction sites 1 and 2, which creates
restriction fragments A, B, and C. Which of the
following electrophoretic gels represents the
separation of these fragments?
  • a)
  • b)
  • c)
  • d)

13
Lets learn how to clone genes.
  • Gene cloning
  • Process of producing multiple copies of specific
    DNA segments, making recombinant DNA in the
    process.
  • Tools
  • Restriction enzymes (Campbell some one log
    into their student account please to show the
    class) discovered in the 1960s by bacterial
    researchers

14
Cloning Genes
  • Restriction enzymes
  • How do they help bacteria in the wild?
  • Cut up foreign DNA (ex phage DNA)
  • How do they work?
  • Recognize restriction sites on DNA
  • Symmetrical/palindromal
  • 4-8 nuclotide base pairs long
  • Make many cuts produce restriction fragments
  • Cuts in a reproducible way
  • Bacterial DNA protected by methyl groups on
    restriction sites.

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18
Try This!
  • Which of the following DNA molecules is most
    likely to be cut by a restriction enzyme?
  • 5'-AAGCCT-3'
  • 5'-GGAAGG-3'
  • 5'-GGATCC-3'
  • 5'-AATTAA-3'

19
Try This!
  • Which of the following DNA molecules is most
    likely to be cut by a restriction enzyme?
  • 5'-AAGCCT-3'
  • 5'-GGAAGG-3'
  • 5'-GGATCC-3' (palindrome)
  • 5'-AATTAA-3'

20
The process of Cloning genes
  • Cloning a Gene in Bacteria Campbell Activity!

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26
NOW Transformation Lab!
  • Handout Lab
  • Prepare by reading and making flow chart.
  • INTENSE PROCEDURE!!!
  • Make sure you understand it. Come into the lab
    knowing what you are doing. If you have
    questions, please ask!.
  • Tues, Dec 3rd Bl 2-2 and lunch
  • Wed, Dec 4th lunch Results

27
Also
  • You should now be able to answer all the
    questions of this section Questions
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