Session - 1 Basics Of Computers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Session - 1 Basics Of Computers PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 55cb8a-MDE4O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Session - 1 Basics Of Computers

Description:

Title: Basics Of Computers Author: UCO BANK Last modified by: Teresa Belchyk Created Date: 4/22/2004 5:41:21 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:638
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 71
Provided by: UCOB9
Learn more at: http://teacherweb.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Session - 1 Basics Of Computers


1
Session - 1 Basics Of Computers
2
A Desktop Machine
3
A Computer System
User
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • User

Software
Hardware
4
A Computer System (Contd.)
  • In general, a computer is a machine which accepts
    data, processes it and returns new information as
    output.

Processing
Data
Information
5
Software
  • Software is set of programs (which are step by
    step instructions) telling the computer how to
    process data.
  • Software needs to be installed on a computer,
    usually from a CD.
  • Softwares can be divided into two groups
  • - System SW
  • - Application SW

6
Software (Contd.)
  • System Software
  • It controls the overall operation of the system.
  • It is stored in the computer's memory and
    instructs the computer to load, store, and
    execute an application.
  • Examples Operating System (OS), Translators
  • DOS, Windows, Unix etc.

7
Software (Contd..)
  • Application Software
  • They are Softwares written to perform specific
    tasks.
  • The basic types of application software are
  • word processing, database, spreadsheet,
    desktop publishing, and communication.
  • Examples MSOffice, Tally, MSOutlook,
  • ISBS, MODBANKER BANKSOFT

8
Advantages of Using Computers
  • Speed Computers can carry out instructions in
    less than a millionth of a second.
  • Accuracy Computers can do the calculations
    without errors and very accurately.
  • Diligence Computers are capable of performing
    any task given to them repetitively.
  • Storage Capacity Computers can store large
    volume of data and information on magnetic media.

9
History of Evolution Of Computers
  • Two Eras
  • Mechanical Era (Before 1945)
  • Electronic Era (1945 - )
  • Can be divided into generations.
  • First Generation (1945 1954)
  • Second Generation (1955 1964)
  • Third Generation (1965 1974)
  • Fourth Generation (1975 - )

10
Types of Computers
  • On the basis of Computing Power Size
  • Laptop / Palmtop
  • Micro Computer / Desktop
  • Mini Computer / Mainframe
  • Super Computer

11
Language of Computers
  • Computers only understand the electronic signals.
  • Either Current is flowing or not.
  • Current Flowing ON
  • Current Not Flowing OFF
  • Binary Language
  • ON 1
  • OFF 0
  • Bit, Byte, KB, MB, GB

12
Computer Network
  • A Computer Network is an interconnection of
    Computers to share resources.
  • Resources can be Information, Load, Devices etc.

Host Computer or file server
13
Types Of Computer Networks
  • On the basis of Size
  • Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Its a network of the computers locally i.e.
    in
  • one room, one building.
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • Its a network of the computers spread widely
  • geographically.

14
Benefits of Computer Networks
  • Information Sharing
  • Device Sharing
  • Load Sharing
  • Mobility
  • Fast Communication
  • Anywhere Anytime Banking

15
Internet
  • Internet is a huge network of computer networks.
  • Internet provides many services
  • Email
  • World Wide Web (www)
  • Remote Login (Telnet)
  • File Transfer (FTP)

16
  • End Of Session 1
  • ANY Queries ??????

17
CPU ( Central Processing Unit)
  • The central processing unit (CPU), also
  • known as just a "processor, is the "brain"
  • of your computer.
  • It contains various electronic circuits.

18
VDU -Visual Display Unit Monitor
  • This is the television-like screen where the
    results of a computer's tasks are displayed.
  • Monitors come in all sizes, but most commonly
    they are either 15 or 17 inches
  • (measured diagonally from one corner of the
    screen to the opposite corner).

19
Keyboard
  • The keyboard looks like a typewriter.
  • It contains all the letters of the alphabet,
    numbers and some special symbols.
  • It operates like a typewriter keypad, but instead
    of moving an arm, which strikes the paper, it
    sends an electronic impulse to the computer,
    which displays a character on the monitor.

20
Mouse
  • Its a device that is used to control the
    computer.
  • A cable connects the mouse to the computer.
  • When the mouse is moved on a pad, called a
  • mouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves.
  • A cursor ( or )is a small symbol
    displayed on the
  • computer screen (normally a diagonal arrow that
  • is used as a pointer) that shows you what the
  • mouse is referencing on the screen.

21
Printer
  • A printer is designed to output information from
    a computer onto a piece of paper.
  • There are three kinds of printers
  • dot matrix, laser, and inkjet.

22
Scanner
  • A scanner is a device used to copy an image off
    paper and convert it into a digital image, which
    can be saved as a computer file and stored on a
    hard drive.
  • Scanners can also use a special kind of
    technology called Optical Character Recognition
    (OCR) to read text from paper and save it as an
    editable document file

23
Session 2
  • Inside The CPU Cabinet

24
A Look Inside.
Floppy
CD
25
A Look Inside ..
power supply
CD-ROM drive
floppy drive
cards
hard drive
motherboard
26
A Look Inside
  • Identify all the major components
  • Power Supply
  • Motherboard
  • Memory
  • Card Slots
  • Cards (sound, video, network)
  • CPU, heatsink and fan
  • Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM)

27
A Look Inside.
RAM BANK
CPU, Fan, Heatsink
Card Slots (ISA PCI)
28
What these components do.
  • Power Supply (heart) supplies power to all the
    circuitry and devices.
  • Motherboard (body) acts as a manager for
    everything on the computer connects all the
    other components together.
  • CPU Central Processing Unit (brain) this does
    all the work of computing.

29
What these components do..
  • RAM Random Access Memory (short-term memory)
    holds data and program instructions that the
    computer is currently using.
  • Hard Drive (long-term memory) holds all of the
    information that needs to be stored between uses
    of the computer.
  • Floppy and CD-ROM drives (mouth/ears) allow you
    to give data to the computer and take data away
    from the computer.

30
What these components do
  • Card Slots (fingers) Allows other components to
    be added to the computer.
  • Video card (face) Does all of the processing
    necessary to get stuff looking nice on screen,
    quickly.
  • Sound card (vocal cords) Allows sounds from HD
    or CD-ROM to be played.
  • Network Card (telephone) allows computer to
    talk to other computers over a wire.

31
Motherboard
32
CPU
CU
  • A Single Chip

ALU
Memory Registers
Examples Intel Family Pentium 4, 3, 2,
Pentium,
XEON, Itanium AMD --
Athlon, K62 IBM --
Cyrix Motorola -- 68000
Series
33
RAM Random Access Memory (short-term memory)
holds data and program instructions that the
computer is currently using.
34
Hard Drive
We wont remove this.
35
CD-ROM Drive
36
Ribbon Cables
polarized
37
Video Card
38
Sound Card
39
Back of Computer
Remove these screws
40
(No Transcript)
41
End of Session 2 Queries???
42
CPU
  • The central processing unit or (CPU) is the
    "brain" of your computer. It contains the
    electronic circuits that cause the computer to
    follow instructions from memory.
  • The CPU contains three main parts, all housed
  • in a single package (Chip)
  • Control Unit (CU)
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  • Memory

BACK
43
Session 3
Computer Peripherals
44
Major Peripherals or HARDWARE
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Hard Disk
  • Floppy Disk
  • CD ROM
  • Printer
  • Scanner
  • Joystick

45
Keyboard
  • Keypad contains
  • Alphabets
  • Numbers
  • Special Symbols
  • Function Keys
  • qwert Keyboard (Typewriter Keyboard).
  • On key press it sends a code (ASCII Code) to the
    CPU.
  • Plug N Play device.
  • Typical Cost is Rs.300 Rs.1200

46
Mouse
  • Pointing Click Device.
  • Two / Three Buttons
  • Wheel / Optical Mouse
  • Normally Left Click Select/ Run
  • Right Click Popup Menu
  • Typical Cost is Rs.100 Rs1000

47
Hard Disk
  • Magnetic Memory Device.
  • Non-removable storage device.
  • Several Circular Magnetic Disks are housed in a
    single case.
  • Data is stored as 1s 0s.
  • Typical Capacity is 20 GB -80 GB
  • Typical Cost is Rs.2200 Rs6000
  • Cost/Bit is Low.

48
CD ROM
  • Optical Device.
  • Removable Storage.
  • Read Only Memory.
  • Typical Capacity is 550 Mb 800MB
  • Typical Costs are
  • Drive -- Rs.1000
  • Disk Rs10 Rs.35
  • Related Terms
  • CD Writer
  • WORM
  • CD RW

49
Printer
  • Output Device, Produces Hard Copy
  • Types
  • Dot Matrix
  • Inkjet
  • Laser
  • Typical Cost Ranges from Rs.3500 Rs.2 lacs
  • Related Terms
  • Impact Non Impact
  • Ribbon, Cartridge, Toner, Duty Cycle
  • Major Vendors in India
  • HP, Cannon, Samsung, TVS, Epson etc.

50
Scanner
  • Input Device, Converts a hard copy into a
    computer file.
  • Used to Scan Signatures, Photographs etc.
  • Optical Device.
  • Typical Cost Rs.4000 Rs.75000
  • Major Vendors in India
  • HP, Umax, Cannon
  • Nowadays Scanners with OCR produces editable
    documents.

51
End of Session 3
  • Queries???

52
Session - 4 Overview of Operating System
53
What is Operating System
  • OS is system software, which may be viewed as
    collection of software consisting of procedures
    for operating the computer.
  • It provides an environment for execution of
    programs (application software).
  • Its an interface between user computer.

54
Computer Machine (Hardware)
55
Types of OS
  • Multiprogramming OS
  • Multitasking/Multiprocessing
  • Multiuser OS
  • Time Sharing OS
  • Real Time OS
  • Distributed OS

56
A Second Classification
  • This Classification is based on the type of
    interface Operating System provides for the user
    to work in.
  • Character User Interface (CUI)
  • The User has to type the commands on the
    command prompt to get the work completed.
  • Ex. DOS, UNIX.
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI)
  • The User need not type any commands. He/She
    just point and clicks on the desired Icon to get
    the work done.
  • Ex. Windows (9X, XP, NT, 2000), Linux.

57
Functions of OS
  • File Management
  • Memory Management
  • Process Management
  • Device Management

58
Types of Processing
  • Serial Processing
  • The job is processed at the time when it
    is submitted.
  • Batch Processing
  • The similar jobs are bunched together and
    are kept for processing at an later time.

59
MS-DOS Overview
  • MS-DOS is an acronym for MicroSoft Disk Operating
    System
  • It is a CUI based operating system.
  • It provides user with a command prompt (generally
    called as C\) where various command could be
    typed.
  • When one operates in the DOS environment, one
    interacts with the command interpreter, which
    interprets the commands given by user.
  • It provides an environment for execution of
    various application programs like MS-Word,
    MODBANKER, ISBS etc.

60
What is Command
  • It is a string of characters which tells the
    computer what to do.
  • When one types commands to a computer, one is
    conversing with the operating system's command
    interpreter.
  • For example, to copy a file called file.txt from
    the 3-1/2" floppy drive to the hard drive, one
    could type
  • C\gt copy a\file.txt c\
  • The word "copy" is a DOS command which causes
    files to be copied from one location to another

61
Files and Directory
  • Files
  • A file is a collection of Records.
  • It is the smallest unit of File System (Storage)
    in a computer.
  • Any document created using computer is a file.
    This document could either be a letter, any excel
    sheet, any image or even a database.
  • Directory
  • A collection of files is directory (in DOS) or
    folder (in Windows)
  • It is analogous to the Office Folder which
    contains various documents.
  • A directory/folder eases the management of
    related files/ documents, like the various
    circulars related to personnel could be placed in
    a directory called personnel and all the
    circulars related to loans could be placed in a
    directory called loans.

62
Overview of Windows
  • Windows is an GUI based operating system.
  • It is also developed by Microsoft Corporation,
    which is headed by Mr. Bill Gates.
  • Over the years the Microsoft have evolved various
    versions of Windows. Win95, Win98, Win2000, Win
    ME, Win NT, Win XP.
  • It gives user a handy environment where he
    doesnt have to remember and learn the syntaxes
    of various commands as is the case in DOS.
  • The user can just point and click on the Icons
    provided to him on the screen.

63
Folders and Documents
  • Folders are a way to organize your documents
    within drives in Windows as are the directories
    in DOS.
  • A document is each thing that you create on a
    computer. A document can be made using any type
    of software.

64
End of Session 4
  • Queries???

65
QUIZ
  • 1. Name any four devices of a Computer.
  • Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Light Pen.
  • 2. What is the job of CPU?
  • Central Processing Unit controls and coordinates
    all the activities of the computer.

66
QUIZ
  • 5. Name any three storage devices.
  • Hard Disk, Magnetic Tape, Compact Disk.
  • 4. What is a computer network?
  • It is interconnection of computers to make a
    LAN,MAN or WAN.

67
QUIZ
  • 7. What is Internet?
  • It is the network of networks.
  • 8. What are different types of printers?
  • Dot Matrix Printer, Inkjet, Laser

68
QUIZ
  • 9.What is the use of Scanner?
  • It is used to copy the real image on paper to
    be stored as digital image in the computer.
  • 10. Why Operating system is required?
  • It is required to provide the interface
    between the user and the computer.

69
QUIZ
  • 11. What is the difference between Primary
    Storage and Secondary Storage?
  • Primary Storage is temporary storage, fast
  • and costly.
  • Secondary storage is permanent, slow and
  • cheap.

70
QUIZ
  • 12. What is MODEM. Why it is required?
  • It is Modulator Demodulator. It is used to
    connect the PC to the Internet using Analog
    Telephone Lines.
  • 13. What are the two types of Software?
  • Systems Software
  • Application Software

71
Work Cited
  • VIVEK KUMAR SINGH
  • vivek_at_bhu.ac.in
About PowerShow.com