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Behavioral Theory

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O'Leary, K.D., et. al. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Vol. 2. ... Skinner Behavior Modification Shaping Token Economy Contingency Contracting Social ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Behavioral Theory


1
Behavioral Theory
2
Operant Conditioning - Skinner
  • All behaviors are accompanied by certain
    consequences and the consequences that follow
    behavior are either pleasant and desirable or
    adverse
  • Voluntary responses of animals and humans are
    strengthened when they are reinforced and
    weakened when they are either ignored or punished
  • Assumes that while behavior appears on the
    surface to be random, it is governed by a set of
    laws

3
Operant Conditioning - Skinner
Present
Remove
Negative Reinforcement (Undesirable stimuli)
Positive Reinforcement (Desired stimuli)
Strengthen behavior
Presentation Punishment Type I (Undesirable
stimuli)
Removal Punishment Type II (Desired stimuli)
Weaken behavior
4
Reinforcement
  • Positive Reinforcement - Strengthen a target
    behavior by presenting a positive reinforcement
    after the behavior occurs think of positive as
    "adding" add stimulus to strengthen behavior
  • Negative Reinforcement - Strengthen a target
    behavior by removing an aversive stimulus after
    the behavior occurs remove stimulus to
    strengthen behavior
  • Three procedures that reduce the probability of a
    particular behavior being repeated
  • Punishment - presentation of an averse stimulus
    such as scolding or spanking
  • Time-out - temporarily removing the opportunity
    to receive positive reinforcement
  • Extinction - behavior ceases as a result of
    withholding positive reinforcement

5
Educational Application - Skinner
  • Be clear about what is to be taught
  • 2. Teach first things first
  • 3. Allow students to learn at their own rate
  • 4. Program the subject matter
  • present small amounts of specially designed
    written material to the student in a
    predetermined sequence
  • provide prompts to draw out the desired response
  • call for the response to be repeated for mastery
  • immediately reinforce correct responses

6
Behavior Modification
  • Shape behavior by ignoring undesirable responses,
    reinforcing desirable responses.
  • Techniques
  • Shaping
  • Token Economies
  • Contingency Contracting
  • Extinction, Time-out, and Response cost
  • Punishment

7
Shaping
  • Select the target behavior
  • Reinforce successive approximations of the target
    behavior each time they occur
  • Reinforce the newly established behavior each
    time it occurs
  • Reinforce the target behavior on a variable
    reinforcement schedule

8
Token Economy
  • A token is something that has little or no
    inherent value but can be used to "purchase"
    things that do have inherent value
  • A flexible reinforcement system used to
    strengthen behavior in the classroom
  • Effective in reducing behaviors, such as talking,
    being out of one's seat, and fighting

9
Contingency Contracting
  • Use of a contract to agree on a mutually
    acceptable form of reinforcement

Extinction, Time-out and Response Cost
  • Use to weaken or eliminate undesirable behavior,
    by removal of the stimulus

10
Social Learning Theory
  • De-emphasizes the role of reinforcement in
    learning by attributing initial changes in
    behavior to the observation and imitation of a
    model
  • Also called Observational Learning

11
Social Learning Theory - Bandura
  • Types of observational learning
  • Inhibition
  • Learning NOT to do something because the model
    refrains from the behavior
  • Disinhibition
  • Learning to do something that is normally
    disapproved because the model does it without
    consequences, or with positive consequences
  • Facilitation
  • We are prompted to do something we normally
    wouldnt do
  • The resistance to the action is lack of
    motivation, NOT social disapproval
  • True Observational Learning
  • Learning a NEW behavior pattern by watching
    someone else

12
Processes in Observational Learning
Students who have seen the behavior modeled are
more likely to be successful and
confident!!! Attention - Effects of
Observer-model Similarity
  • Children concerned about appropriateness of
    behavior, more likely to model peer's behavior
  • Children concerned about competence of peers will
    model the behavior of an adult
  • Children are more apt to model same sex models
  • Children with past learning problems more likely
    to model a peer who has overcome learning
    problems
  • Production -
  • Select and organize response elements
  • Refine response based on informative feedback

13
Observational Learning (cont.)
  • Retention - (example of retention)
  • Jim is entering his pin number at the ATM
    machine Susie is watching Jim enter the number,
    Bill is looking away politely
  • Susie observes that watching as someone enters
    their pin number is rude
  • Jim is entering his pin number Susie and Bill
    are looking away
  • Motivation - Reinforcement
  • Direct Individual watches model, imitates
    behavior, and is reinforced or punished by the
    model or someone else
  • Vicarious Observer anticipates a reward for
    certain behavior because someone else has been so
    rewarded
  • Self Individual strives to meet personal
    standards and does not care about the reactions
    of others

14
NOTES, RESEARCH STUDIES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES
15
Token Economy
  • Definition
  • A token economy is a flexible reinforcement
    system used to strengthen behavior in the
    classroom.
  • A token is something that has little or no
    inherent value but can be used to "purchase"
    things that do have inherent value.
  • Properties that a token should have in the
    classroom
  • 1. Their value should be readily understood
  • 2. They should be easy to dispense
  • 3. They should be identifiable as property of a
    particular child
  • 4. They should require minimal book keeping
    duties for the teacher
  • 5. They should be dispensed in a manner which
    will divert as little attention as possible from
    academic matters
  • 6. They should be dispensed frequently enough to
    insure proper shaping of desired behavior
  • Results
  • "A base rate of disruptive behavior was obtained
    for seven children in a second-grade class of 21
    children. Rules, Educational Structure, and
    Praising Appropriate Behavior while Ignoring
    Disruptive Behavior were introduced successively
    none of these procedures consistently reduced
    disruptive behavior. However, a combination of
    Rules, Educational Structure, and
  • Praise and Ignoring nearly eliminated disruptive
    behavior of one child. When the Token
    Reinforcement Program was introduced, the
    frequency of disruptive behavior declined in five
    of the six remaining children. Withdrawal of the
    Token Reinforcement Program increased disruptive
    behavior in these five children, and
    reinstatement of the Token Reinforcement Program
    reduced disruptive behavior in four of the five.
    Follow-up data indicated that the teacher was
    able to transfer control from the token and
    back-up reinforcers to the reinforcers existing
    within the educational setting, such as stars and
    occasional pieces of candy. Improvements in
    academic achievement during the year may have
    been related to the Token Program, and attendance
    records appeared to be enhanced during the Token
    phases. The Token Program was utilized only in
    the afternoon, and the data did not indicate any
    generalization of appropriate behavior from the
    afternoon to the morning."
  • These results show that token economies can work
    and do work in the classroom to reduce undesired
    behavior but the teacher can rely on the tokens
    for ever he or she at one point must remove the
    token and the student should continue the desired
    behavior.
  • WORKS CITED
  • Agras, Stewart. Behavior Modification Principles
    and Clinical Applications. Little, Brown and
    Company Inc. New York, 1972.
  • Gentry, Doyle. ed. Applied Behavior Modification.
    Mosby Company. New York, 1975.
  • Mikulas, William. Behavior Modification an
    Overview. Harper and Row Publishers. New York,
    1972.
  • O'Leary, K.D., et. al. Journal of Applied
    Behavior Analysis. Vol. 2. P. 3-13, 1969.

16
Bobo Doll Experiment -Bandura, Ross, and Ross
(1963)
  • A control group of preschoolers
  • Watched no model
  • Three other groups of preschoolers
  • Watched Bobo doll being verbally and/or
    physically abused by either a live model, a
    filmed model, or a female dressed in a cat
    costume
  • All children allowed to play with attractive toys
  • Children then placed in a playroom with less
    attractive toys, including Bobo doll
  • Children were irritated at being removed from
    attractive toys prone to aggression
  • Groups that witnessed the aggression showed
    aggression towards Bobo doll by modeling the
    behaviors witnessed
  • Group that did not witness aggression did not
    show aggression to Bobo doll
  • I. Operant conditioning Instrumental
    conditioning also known as operant conditioning
    holds the belief that our actions are
    "instrumental" in producing whatever pleasant or
    painful consequences follow a. II. Positive
    Reinforcement, b. Negative Reinforcement, c.
    Punishment (Time-out Extinction)
  • Positive Reinforcement brings pleasant
    consequences,
  • a. Rewards concrete rewards (money, toys,
    stickers, candy, etc.) and intangible rewards
    (affection, praise, attention, etc.)
  • b. E.L. Thorndike's Law of Effect
  • c. Positive reinforcement strengthens either by
    giving praise or recognition to the student after
    the behavior has occurred
  • III. Negative Reinforcement removes something
    unpleasant from the immediate situation.
  • a. This may be relief from pain or the removal
    of some barrier that is keeping us from obtaining
    something we want.
  • b. Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior
    by removing whatever barrier is in the way or
    causing us difficulty.
  • IV. When punishment occurs our tendency to repeat
    whatever action or behavior may have been is
    weakened.
  • a. Punishment may include spanking, scolding, to
    the removal of something pleasant.

17
  • Positive reinforcement brings pleasant
    consequences. Pleasant consequences may include
    concrete rewards (money, toys, stickers, candy,
    etc.) and intangible rewards (affection, praise,
    attention, or the satisfaction that comes with
    having successfully completed a challenging
    task). E.L. Thorndike's Law of Effect states
    "that organisms tend to repeat those responses
    that are followed by satisfying states of affairs
    (rewards)." With positive reinforcement a
    behavior is strengthened either by giving praise
    or recognition to the student after the behavior
    has occurred.
  • Negative Reinforcement removes something
    unpleasant from the immediate situation. This may
    be relief from pain, the ending of arguments or
    cries or the removal of some barrier that is
    keeping us from obtaining something we want. With
    negative reinforcement a behavior is strengthened
    by removing whatever barrier is in the way or
    causing us difficulty.
  • When punishment occurs our tendency to repeat
    whatever action or behavior may have been is
    weakened. Punishment may include any unpleasant
    consequence, from a spanking or a scolding to the
    removal of something pleasant such as not
    watching a favorite TV show or playing outside.
  • Two types of punishment are (1) Time-Out where a
    behavior is decreased or eliminated by
    temporarily removing the student from class
    participation, for example and (2) Extinction
    when responses that are not reinforced decrease
    in frequency or may even be eliminated such as
    ignoring. Thorndike's Law of Effect which
    contained two facets (1) in which rewards
    increase the likelihood of responses which
    preceded them and (2) punishments decreased the
    likelihood of responses which preceded them.
    Therefore, punishment either decreases or
    eliminates a particular behavior.
  • Bibliography
  • Hall, Elizabeth Hoffman, Lois Schell, Robert
    Scott, Paris (1988). Fifth Edition Developmental
    Psychology Today. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  • Schwartz, barry (1978). Psychology of Learning
    Behavior. New York W.W.Norton and Company, Inc.
  • Walters, Gary C. Grusec, Joan E. (1977).
    Punishment. San Francisco W.H. Freeman and
    Company.

18
Violence Studies
  • Desensitization to Violence Study
  • Drabman and Thomas, 1974
  • Two groups One group saw violent western movie
    One group saw no movie
  • Forty-four boys and girls
  • Third and fourth graders
  • Children asked to babysit two younger children
  • Younger children displayed on the television
  • Two children showed highly aggressive behavior to
    one another
  • Babysitters actions
  • Group that had seen violent movie waited to go
    get an adult
  • Group that had not seen violent movie went to get
    adult immediately
  • Long range Effects of Television Violence Study
  • William Belson
  • Two groups One group watched excessive amounts
    of television during childhood One group watched
    below average quantities of television
  • 1,565 teenage boys
  • Group that watched excessive television committed
    crimes, such as rape and assault 49 more often
    than other group
  • Group that watched below average amount
    television less likely to commit crimes

19
Violence Studies (cont.)
  • Conclusions
  • Children who witness violent behavior on
    television are very likely to
  • Imitate it
  • See it as normal
  • Commit various violent crimes
  • Television violence undoubtedly causes
    aggressive behavior in children
  • The basis behind the idea that media aggression
    will cause aggressive behavior in children is
    Banduras observational learning theory.
    Specifically, it is the idea that people,
    especially children, will model what they
    observe. In each of the above three studies, a
    group of children witnessed a model acting
    aggressively and not being punished for it, and
    another group of children saw no model. In each
    case, the children who had witnessed the
    aggressive behavior modeled it, while the
    children who had not witnessed the behavior did
    not act aggressively. In addition, Bandura
    conducted a number of variations of the Bobo Doll
    experiment which included rewards and punishment,
    and the results were virtually unchanged.
    Whatever the circumstances, the majority of
    children still modeled the aggressive behavior.
  • Bibliography
  • "Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory." 4pp.
    Online. Internet. 4 April 1998.
  • Boeree, George C. "Albert Bandura." 4pp. Online.
    Internet. 7 April 1998.
  • "Does Violence on Television Cause Aggressive
    Behavior?" 6pp. Online. Internet. 4 April 1998.
  • Hummel, John. "Observational (Social) Learning."
    Educational Psychology Interactive Observational
    Learning. 2pp. Online. Internet. 7 April 1998.
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