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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

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Title: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach


1
Chapter 10
  • Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity The
    Ecosystem Approach

2
Chapter Overview Questions
  • How have human activities affected the earths
    biodiversity?
  • How should forest resources be used, managed, and
    sustained globally and in the United States?
  • How serious is tropical deforestation, and how
    can we help sustain tropical forests?
  • How should rangeland resources be used, managed,
    and sustained?

3
Chapter Overview Questions (contd)
  • What problems do parks face, and how should we
    manage them?
  • How should we establish, design, protect, and
    manage terrestrial nature reserves?
  • What is wilderness, and why is it important?
  • What is ecological restoration, and why is it
    important?
  • What can we do to help sustain the earths
    terrestrial biodiversity?

4
Core Case Study Reintroducing Wolves to
Yellowstone
  • Endangered Species
  • 1850-1900 two million wolves were destroyed.
  • Keystone Species
  • Keeps prey away from open areas near stream
    banks.
  • Vegetation reestablishes.
  • Species diversity expands.

Figure 10-1
5
HUMAN IMPACTS ON TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY
  • We have depleted and degraded some of the earths
    biodiversity and these threats are expected to
    increase.

Figure 10-2
6
Human Population
Size and resource use
Human Activities
Agriculture, industry, economic production and
consumption, recreation
Direct Effects
Changes in number and distribution of species
Degradation and destruction of natural ecosystems
Alteration of natural chemical cycles and energy
flows
Pollution of air, water, and soil
Indirect Effects
Loss of Biodiversity
Climate change
Fig. 10-2, p. 192
7
Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?
  • Use Value For the usefulness in terms of
    economic and ecological services.
  • Nonuse Value existence, aesthetics, bequest for
    future generations.

Figure 10-3
8
MANAGING AND SUSTAINING FORESTS
  • Forests provide a number of ecological and
    economic services that researchers have attempted
    to estimate their total monetary value.

Figure 10-4
9
Natural Capital
Forests
Economic Services
Ecological Services
Support energy flow and chemical cycling Reduce
soil erosion Absorb and release water Purify
water and air Influence local and regional
climate Store atmospheric carbon Provide
numerous wildlife habitats
Fuelwood Lumber Pulp to make paper Mining Live
stock grazing Recreation Jobs
Fig. 10-4, p. 193
10
Types of Forests
  • Old-growth forest uncut or regenerated forest
    that has not been seriously disturbed for several
    hundred years.
  • 22 of worlds forest.
  • Hosts many species with specialized niches.

Figure 10-5
11
Types of Forests
  • Second-growth forest a stand of trees resulting
    from natural secondary succession.
  • Tree plantation planted stands of a particular
    tree species.

Figure 10-6
12
Weak trees removed
Clear cut
Seedlings planted
25
15
10
30
Years of growth
5
Fig. 10-6, p. 195
13
Global Outlook Extent of Deforestation
  • Human activities have reduced the earths forest
    cover by as much as half.
  • Losses are concentrated in developing countries.

Figure 10-7
14
Natural Capital Degradation
Deforestation
Decreased soil fertility from erosion Runoff
of eroded soil into aquatic systems Premature
extinction of species with specialized
niches Loss of habitat for native species and
migratory species such as birds and
butterflies Regional climate change from
extensive clearing Release of CO2 into
atmosphere Acceleration of flooding
Fig. 10-7, p. 196
15
Animation Hubbard Brook Experiment
PLAY ANIMATION
16
How Would You Vote?
  • Should there be a global effort to sharply reduce
    the cutting of old-growth forests?
  • a. Yes. Old-growth forests can only be saved by
    rapid international action and the setting aside
    of large reserves of the forests.
  • b. No. Only local citizens and not global efforts
    led by the UN can save these forests.

17
Case Study Deforestation and the Fuelwood Crisis
  • Almost half the people in the developing world
    face a shortage of fuelwood and charcoal.
  • In Haiti, 98 of country is deforested.
  • MIT scientist has found a way to make charcoal
    from spent sugarcane.

18
Harvesting Trees
  • Building roads into previously inaccessible
    forests paves the way for fragmentation,
    destruction, and degradation.

Figure 10-8
19
Cleared plots for grazing
Highway
Highway
Cleared plots for agriculture
Old growth
Fig. 10-8, p. 197
20
Harvesting Trees
  • Trees can be harvested individually from diverse
    forests (selective cutting), an entire forest can
    be cut down (clear cutting), or portions of the
    forest is harvested (e.g. strip cutting).

Figure 10-9
21
(a) Selective cutting
Fig. 10-9a, p. 198
22
(b) Clear-cutting
Fig. 10-9b, p. 198
23
(c) Strip cutting
Uncut
Cut 1 year ago
Dirt road
Cut 310 years ago
Uncut
Stream
Fig. 10-9c, p. 198
24
Harvesting Trees
Effects of clear-cutting in the state of
Washington, U.S.
Figures 10-10 and 10-11
25
Trade-Offs
Clear-Cutting Forests
Disadvantages
Advantages
Reduces biodiversity Disrupts ecosystem
processes Destroys and fragments wildlife
habitats Leaves large openings Increases water
pollution, flooding, and erosion on steep
slopes Eliminates most recreational value
Higher timber yields Maximum profits in shortest
time Can reforest with fast-growing trees Short
time to establish new stand of trees Needs less
skill and planning Good for tree species needing
full or moderate sunlight
Fig. 10-11, p. 198
26
Solutions
  • We can use forests more sustainably by
    emphasizing
  • Economic value of ecological services.
  • Harvesting trees no faster than they are
    replenished.
  • Protecting old-growth and vulnerable areas.

Figure 10-12
27
Solutions
Sustainable Forestry
Identify and protect forest areas high in
biodiversity Grow more timber on long
rotations Rely more on selective cutting and
strip cutting Stop clear-cutting on steep
slopes Cease logging of old-growth forests
Prohibit fragmentation of remaining large blocks
offorest Sharply reduce road building into
uncut forest areas Leave most standing dead
trees and fallen timber for wildlife habitat and
nutrient recycling Certify timber grown by
sustainable methods Include ecological
services of forests in estimating their economic
value Plant tree plantations on deforested
and degraded land Shift government subsidies
from harvesting trees to planting trees
Fig. 10-12, p. 199
28
CASE STUDY FOREST RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT IN
THE U.S.
  • U.S. forests cover more area than in 1920.
  • Since the 1960s, an increasing area of old
    growth and diverse second-growth forests have
    been clear-cut.
  • Often replace with tree farms.
  • Decreases biodiversity.
  • Disrupts ecosystem processes.

29
Types and Effects of Forest Fires
  • Depending on their intensity, fires can benefit
    or harm forests.
  • Burn away flammable ground material.
  • Release valuable mineral nutrients.

Figure 10-13
30
Solutions Controversy Over Fire Management
  • To reduce fire damage
  • Set controlled surface fires.
  • Allow fires to burn on public lands if they dont
    threaten life and property.
  • Clear small areas around property subject to fire.

31
Solutions Controversy Over Fire Management
  • In 2003, U.S. Congress passed the Healthy Forest
    Restoration Act
  • Allows timber companies to cut medium and large
    trees in 71 of the national forests.
  • In return, must clear away smaller, more
    fire-prone trees and underbrush.
  • Some forest scientists believe this could
    increase severe fires by removing fire resistant
    trees and leaving highly flammable slash.

32
How Would You Vote?
  • Do you support repealing or modifying the Healthy
    Forests Restoration Act of 2003?
  • a. Yes. Local officials and scientists are
    probably most qualified to manage their local
    forests.
  • b. No. The initiative favors the timber companies
    rather than effectively protecting and managing
    the forests.

33
Controversy over Logging in U.S. National Forests
  • There has been an ongoing debate over whether
    U.S. national forests should be primarily for
  • Timber.
  • Ecological services.
  • Recreation.
  • Mix of these uses.

Figure 10-14
34
Trade-Offs
Logging in U.S. National Forests
Disadvantages
Advantages
Provides only 4 of timber needs Ample private
forest land to meet timber needs Has little
effect on timber and paper prices Damages
nearby rivers and fisheries Recreation in
national forests provides more local jobs and
income for local communities than
logging Decreases recreational opportunities
Helps meet countrys timber needs Cut areas
grow back Keeps lumber and paper prices
down Provides jobs in nearby communities Promo
tes economic growth in nearby communities
Fig. 10-14, p. 202
35
Solutions Reducing Demand for Harvest Trees
  • Tree harvesting can be reduced by wasting less
    wood and making paper and charcoal fuel from
    fibers that do not come from trees.
  • Kenaf is a promising plant for paper production.

Figure 10-15
36
American Forests in a Globalized Economy
  • Timber from tree plantations in temperate and
    tropical countries is decreasing the need for
    timber production in the U.S.
  • This could help preserve the biodiversity in the
    U.S. by decreasing pressure to clear-cut
    old-growth and second-growth forests.
  • This may lead to private land owners to sell less
    profitable land to developers.
  • Forest management policy will play a key role.

37
CASE STUDY TROPICAL DEFORESTATION
  • Large areas of ecologically and economically
    important tropical forests are being cleared and
    degraded at a fast rate.

Figure 10-16
38
CASE STUDY TROPICAL DEFORESTATION
  • At least half of the worlds terrestrial plant
    and animal species live in tropical rain forests.
  • Large areas of tropical forest are burned to make
    way for cattle ranches and crops.

Figure 10-17
39
Why Should We Care about the Loss of Tropical
Forests?
  • About 2,100 of the 3,000 plants identified by the
    National Cancer Institute as sources of
    cancer-fighting chemicals come from tropical
    forests.

Figure 10-18
40
Rauvolfia Rauvolfia sepentina, Southeast
Asia Tranquilizer, high blood pressure
medication
Fig. 10-18a, p. 205
41
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea, Europe Digitalis
for heart failure
Fig. 10-18b, p. 205
42
Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia, Pacific
Northwest Ovarian cancer
Fig. 10-18c, p. 205
43
Cinchona Cinchona ledogeriana, South
America Quinine for malaria treatment
Fig. 10-18d, p. 205
44
Rosy periwinkle Cathranthus roseus,
Madagascar Hodgkin's disease, lymphocytic
leukemia
Fig. 10-18e, p. 205
45
Neem tree Azadirachta indica, India Treatment
of many diseases, insecticide, spermicide
Fig. 10-18f, p. 205
46
Causes of Tropical Deforestation and Degradation
  • Tropical deforestation results from a number of
    interconnected primary and secondary causes.

Figure 10-19
47
Oil drilling Mining Flooding from dams
Tree plantations Cattle ranching Cash crops
Settler farming Fires Logging Roads
Secondary Causes
Not valuing ecological services Exports
Government policies Poverty Population growth
Basic Causes
Fig. 10-19, p. 206
48
Solutions
Sustaining Tropical Forests
Restoration
Prevention
Protect most diverse and endangered
areas Educate settlers about sustainable
agriculture and forestry Phase out subsidies
that encourage unsustainable forest use Add
subsidies that encourage sustainable forest
use Protect forests with debt-for-nature swaps
and conservation easements Certify sustainably
grown timber Reduce illegal cutting Reduce
poverty Slow population growth
Reforestation Rehabilitation of degraded
areas Concentrate farming and ranching on
already-cleared areas
Fig. 10-20, p. 207
49
Kenyas Green Belt MovementIndividuals Matter
  • Wangari Maathai founded the Green Belt Movement.
  • The main goal is to organize poor women to plant
    (for fuelwood) and protect millions of trees.
  • In 2004, awarded Nobel peace prize.

Figure 10-10A
50
MANAGING AND SUSTAINING GRASSLANDS
  • Almost half of the worlds livestock graze on
    natural grasslands (rangelands) and managed
    grasslands (pastures).
  • We can sustain rangeland productivity by
    controlling the number and distribution of
    livestock and by restoring degraded rangeland.

51
MANAGING AND SUSTAINING GRASSLANDS
  • Overgrazing (left) occurs when too many animals
    graze for too long and exceed carrying capacity
    of a grassland area.

Figure 10-21
52
MANAGING AND SUSTAINING GRASSLANDS
  • Example of restored area along the San Pedro
    River in Arizona after 10 years of banning
    grazing and off-road vehicles.

Figure 10-22
53
Case Study Grazing and Urban Development in the
American West
  • Ranchers, ecologists, and environmentalists are
    joining together to preserve the grasslands on
    cattle ranches.
  • Paying ranchers conservation easements (barring
    future owners from development).
  • Pressuring government to zone the land to prevent
    development of ecologically sensitive areas.

54
NATIONAL PARKS
  • Countries have established more than 1,100
    national parks, but most are threatened by human
    activities.
  • Local people invade park for wood, cropland, and
    other natural resources.
  • Loggers, miners, and wildlife poachers also
    deplete natural resources.
  • Many are too small to sustain large-animal
    species.
  • Many suffer from invasive species.

55
Case Study Stresses on U.S. National Parks
  • Overused due to popularity.
  • Inholdings (private ownership) within parks
    threaten natural resources.
  • Air pollution.

Figure 10-23
56
  • Suggestions for sustaining and expanding the
    national park system in the U.S.

Figure 10-24
57
Solutions
National Parks
Integrate plans for managing parks and nearby
federal lands Add new parkland near threatened
parks Buy private land inside parks Locate
visitor parking outside parks and use shuttle
buses for entering and touring heavily used
parks Increase funds for park maintenance and
repairs Survey wildlife in parks Raise
entry fees for visitors and use funds for park
management and maintenance Limit the number of
visitors to crowded park areas Increase the
number and pay of park rangers Encourage
volunteers to give visitor lectures and tours
Seek private donations for park maintenance and
repairs
Fig. 10-24, p. 211
58
NATURE RESERVES
  • Ecologists call for protecting more land to help
    sustain biodiversity, but powerful economic and
    political interests oppose doing this.
  • Currently 12 of earths land area is protected.
  • Only 5 is strictly protected from harmful human
    activities.
  • Conservation biologists call for full protection
    of at least 20 of earths land area representing
    multiple examples of all biomes.

59
How Would You Vote?
  • Should at least 20 of the Earth's land area be
    strictly protected from economic development?
  • a. No. Such protections would encourage people to
    poach and illegally extract resources from the
    expanded reserves.
  • b. Yes. The project is desperately needed to
    protect the Earth's biodiversity.

60
NATURE RESERVES
  • Large and medium-sized reserves with buffer zones
    help protect biodiversity and can be connected by
    corridors.
  • Costa Rica has consolidated its parks and
    reserves into 8 megareserves designed to sustain
    80 if its biodiversity.

Figure 10-10B
61
Caribbean Sea
Guanacaste
Nigaragua
Llanuras de Tortuguero
Costa Rica
La Amistad
Arenal
Bajo Tempisque
Panama
Cordillera Volcanica Central
Pacifico Central
Peninsula Osa
Pacific Ocean
Fig. 10-B, p. 213
62
NATURE RESERVES
  • A model biosphere reserve that contains a
    protected inner core surrounded by two buffer
    zones that people can use for multiple use.

Figure 10-25
63
Biosphere Reserve
Core area
Buffer zone 1
Buffer zone 2
Research Station
Human Settlements
Tourism and education center
Fig. 10-25, p. 214
64
NATURE RESERVES
  • Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping can
    be used to understand and manage ecosystems.
  • Identify areas to establish and connect nature
    reserves in large ecoregions to prevent
    fragmentation.
  • Developers can use GIS to design housing
    developments with the least environmental impact.

65
NATURE RESERVES
  • We can prevent or slow down losses of
    biodiversity by concentrating efforts on
    protecting global hot spots where significant
    biodiversity is under immediate threat.
  • Conservation biologists are helping people in
    communities find ways to sustain local
    biodiversity while providing local economic
    income.

66
  • 34 hotspots identified by ecologists as important
    and endangered centers of biodiversity.

Figure 10-26
67
NATURE RESERVES
  • Wilderness is land legally set aside in a large
    enough area to prevent or minimize harm from
    human activities.
  • Only a small percentage of the land area of the
    United States has been protected as wilderness.

68
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
  • Restoration trying to return to a condition as
    similar as possible to original state.
  • Rehabilitation attempting to turn a degraded
    ecosystem back to being functional.
  • Replacement replacing a degraded ecosystem with
    another type of ecosystem.
  • Creating artificial ecosystems such as
    artificial wetlands for flood reduction and
    sewage treatment.

69
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
  • Five basic science-based principles for
    ecological restoration
  • Identify cause.
  • Stop abuse by eliminating or sharply reducing
    factors.
  • Reintroduce species if necessary.
  • Protect area form further degradation.
  • Use adaptive management to monitor efforts,
    assess successes, and modify strategies.

70
Will Restoration Encourage Further Destruction?
  • There is some concern that ecological restoration
    could promote further environmental destruction
    and degradation.
  • Suggesting that any ecological harm can be
    undone.
  • Preventing ecosystem damage is far cheaper than
    ecological restoration.

71
How Would You Vote?
  • Should we mount a massive effort to restore
    ecosystems we have degraded even though this will
    be quite costly?
  • a. No. Less expensive alternatives, such as
    remediation, replacement, and the creation of
    artificial ecosystems, should be readily
    considered.
  • b. Yes. Alternatives will probably not achieve
    the same biodiversity as ecological restoration.

72
WHAT CAN WE DO?
  • Eight priorities for protecting biodiversity
  • Take immediate action to preserve worlds
    biological hot spots.
  • Keep intact remaining old growth.
  • Complete mapping of worlds biodiversity for
    inventory and decision making.
  • Determine worlds marine hot spots.
  • Concentrate on protecting and restoring lake and
    river systems (most threatened ecosystems).

73
WHAT CAN WE DO?
  • Ensure that the full range of the earths
    ecosystems are included in global conservation
    strategy.
  • Make conservation profitable.
  • Initiate ecological restoration products to heal
    some of the damage done and increase share of
    earths land and water allotted to the rest of
    nature.

74
What Can You Do?
Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity
Adopt a forest. Plant trees and take care
of them. Recycle paper and buy recycled paper
products. Buy sustainable wood and wood
products. Choose wood substitutes such as
bamboo furniture and recycled plastic outdoor
furniture, decking, and fencing. Restore a
nearby degraded forest or grassland. Landscape
your yard with a diversity of plants natural to
the area. Live in town because suburban sprawl
reduces biodiversity.
Fig. 10-27, p. 219
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