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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Second Edition

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Title: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Second Edition Created Date: 11/29/2004 2:15:52 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Second Edition


1
(No Transcript)
2
Chapter 4
  • Cellular Metabolism and Reproduction
  • Mitosis and Meiosis

3
Introduction to Cellular Metabolism
  • Metabolism total cellular chemical changes
  • Anabolism process of building up
  • Catabolism process of breaking down
  • Calorie measure of energy contained in food
  • ATP energy source available to the cell

4
Cellular Metabolism or Biochemical Respiration
5
Glycolysis
  • Breakdown of glucose
  • Anaerobic or aerobic process
  • Final outcome
  • 2 pyruvic acid molecules, 2 ATP molecules
    (anaerobic), 8 ATP molecules (aerobic)

6
The Krebs Citric Acid Cycle
  • Pyruvic Acid gt Acetic Acid gt Acetyl-CoA
  • Acetyl-CoA enters Krebs cycle in mitochondria
  • Final outcome
  • 6 CO2, 8 NADH2, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP (GTP)

7
The Electron Transport (Transfer) System
  • Series of reduction/oxidation reactions
  • Requires O2
  • Electron carriers
  • Number of ATP molecules dependent on electron
    carrier
  • Water is a waste product

8
Summary of ATP Production
  • During glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and
    electron transport
  • Glycolysis 8 ATP (aerobic)
  • Krebs cycle and electron transport
  • 28 ATP 2 GTP or
  • 30 ATP
  • 1 glucose molecule yields 38 ATP

9
Anaerobic Respiration
10
Fermentation
  • Yeast breaks down glucose anaerobically
  • Pyruvic acid broken down by decarboxylase
  • Forms carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde
  • Final products 2 ATP, CO2, ethyl alcohol

11
Anaerobic Production of ATP by Muscles
  • Pyruvic acid converted to lactic acid
  • Accumulation of lactic acid causes fatigue in
    muscles
  • When oxygen supplied, lactic acid turns back into
    pyruvic acid
  • 2 ATP produced per glucose molecule

12
Production of ATP from General Food Compounds
13
Production of ATP from General Food Compounds
(contd.)
  • Carbohydrates fit into cellular furnace at same
    level as glucose
  • Can be stored in liver or as fat
  • Fats digested into fatty acids and glycerol
  • Glycerol enters at PGA stage of glycolysis
  • Fatty acids enter Krebs citric acid cycle

14
Production of ATP from General Food Compounds
(contd.)
  • Proteins digested into amino acids
  • Enter into Krebs cycle at different stages
  • Dependent on chemical structure

15
Introduction to Cellular Reproduction
16
Introduction to Cellular Reproduction (contd.)
  • Process of cell duplication
  • Mitosis duplication of genetic material
  • Cytokinesis duplication of organelles
  • Meiosis reduction division only in gonads

17
The Structure of the DNA Molecule
18
The History of the Discovery of DNA
  • Friedrich Miescher, 1869 first discovery
  • P.A. Levine, 1920s composition
  • Rosalind Franklin helical structure
  • Watson and Crick three-dimensional structure

19
The Anatomy of the DNA Molecule
  • Double helical chain of nucleotides
  • Phosphate group
  • Five-carbon sugars (deoxyribose)
  • Nitrogen-containing base
  • Pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine)
  • Purines (adenine and guanine)
  • Pyrimidines pair with purines
  • Chains held together by hydrogen bonds

20
The Anatomy of the DNA Molecule (contd.)
  • Gene sequence of base pairs that codes for
    polypeptide or protein
  • Human Genome Project
  • 3 billion base pairs that code for 30,000 genes
  • Duplication of DNA molecule
  • Helicase separates at hydrogen bonds
  • DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides

21
The Cell Cycle
22
Introduction
  • All reproduction begins at cellular level
  • Interphase
  • Previously called resting stage
  • Mitosis
  • Cytokinesis

23
Interphase
  • Time between divisions
  • G1 Primary growth phase
  • S DNA duplication
  • G2 Centrioles complete duplication, mitochondria
    replicate, chromosomes condense and coil

24
Mitosis
  • Prophase
  • Chromosomes become visible as chromatids joined
    by centromere
  • Two kinetochores at the centromere
  • Centrioles move to opposite poles
  • Nuclear membrane breaks down
  • Microtubules attach kinetochores to spindle

25
Mitosis (contd.)
  • Metaphase
  • Chromatids align at equator of cell
  • Centromere divides

26
Mitosis (contd.)
  • Anaphase
  • Divided centromere pulls chromatids to opposite
    pole
  • Cytokinesis begins

27
Mitosis (contd.)
  • Telophase
  • Chromosomes uncoil and decondense
  • Spindle apparatus breaks down
  • New nuclear membrane forms
  • Cytokinesis nearly complete

28
Animation - Mitosis
  • Stop and watch a 3-D presentation of mitosis.
  • Insert mitosis.swf

29
Cytokinesis
  • Animal cells
  • Cleavage furrow forms
  • Cell is pinched into daughter cells
  • Plant cells
  • Cell plate forms at equator
  • Cell plate becomes new cell wall

30
Meiosis A Reduction Division
31
Introduction
  • Occurs only in the gonads
  • Reduces genetic material from diploid to haploid
  • Two divisions resulting in four cells

32
Stages of Meiosis
  • Prophase I homologous chromosomes pair and cross
    over
  • Metaphase I chromosomes align along equator
  • Anaphase I centromeres pulled to poles
  • One member to each pole
  • Telophase I one of each pair is at each pole

33
Stages of Meiosis (contd.)
  • Prophase II spindle forms centrioles move to
    poles
  • Metaphase II chromosomes line up at equator
  • Anaphase II centromeres divide
  • Telophase II chromatids at each pole new
    nuclear membrane forms

34
Animation - Meiosis
  • Now that you have learned about the stages of
    meiosis, watch the meiosis animation for a visual
    of this process.
  • Insert meiosis.swf

35
Gametogenesis The Formation of the Sex Cells
36
Gametogenesis The Formation of the Sex Cells
(contd.)
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Four cells produced
  • Develop into sperm
  • Oogenesis
  • Four cells produced
  • Only one becomes functional egg

37
Animation Cancer Metastasizing
  • Refer to the Common Disease, Disorder or
    Condition box on Cancer in your textbook and read
    about the growth of cancer cells. Now watch the
    3-D Cancer Metastasizing animation.
  • Insert cancer metastasizing.swf

38
Summary
  • Discussed how glucose is converted into ATP in
    the presence of oxygen
  • Discussed how glucose is converted into ATP in
    the absence of oxygen
  • Described how fats and proteins are converted
    into ATP
  • Discussed the cell cycle
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