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Chapter 12 Vitamins and Coenzymes

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Title: Author: x Last modified by: Created Date: 6/4/2003 7:01:45 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 12 Vitamins and Coenzymes


1
Chapter 12 Vitamins and Coenzymes ?????? 201
1.10.18
2
  • What are vitamins?
  • Vitamins are the organic compounds which
    play important roles in metabolism (mostly as
    coenzymes) but could not be synthesized by human
    (or animal) body itself. In principle, plants can
    synthesize all the vitamins they need.
  • Some vitamins are the coenzymes
    independently.
  • Some vitamins are components of coenzymes.

3
  • Classification of vitamins
  • Water-soluble (???) vitamins
  • vitamin B group?B1, B2, B6, B12
  • vitamin PP, pantothenic acid, biotin,
  • Folic acid, vitamin C.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins (???)
  • vitamin A, D, E and K

4
????????
  • ????
  • ????,???????
  • ??????,??????????
  • ??????,??????????????????????

5
1????B1??????????
(1)??????????B1?????
H
??????(thiamine pyrophosphate, TPP)
6
(2)???B1?????????
???
TPP???????????(???)?????????,??a-??????????
7
(3)???B1????????( beriberi )
  • ?????,?????,???????????
  • ?????????,????????,????????,??????

(4)???B1?????
  • ????????,??????????????????????

8
2????B2?FAD?FMN?????
(?)FAD?FMN????B2??????
  • ???B2?????(riboflavin)
  • ???????
  • ??????(FMN)
  • ?????????(FAD)

9
(2)???B2?????????
R
FAD (FMN)
FMN?FAD????????(???CoA??????????????????)???,?????
?????
10
(3)???B2???
  • ?????????????????,??????????????????????,??????
    ????????????

(4)???B2?????
  • ?????????

11
3????PP??????
(?)???PP?NAD?NADP?????
  • ???PP?????????,??
  • ???(nicotinic acid)(???)
  • ????(nicotinamide) (???)
  • ??????
  • ??????????(NAD)
  • ????????????(NADP)

12
(2)???PP?????????
NAD?NADP???????????(?????????????)???,????????
13
(3)???PP??????
  • ??????? (pellagra)
  • ?????????,???

(4)???PP?????
  • ?????????

14
4??????A
(1)?????A??????????????
  • ??(pantothenic acid)?????
  • ?????????A (CoA)???????(ACP)

4-????????
15
(2)???????????
CoA?ACP?????????,?????????,??acyl-S-CoA
16
5????B6??????
(1)???B6??????????
  • ???B6?????(pyridoxine)????(pyridoxal)????(pyridoxa
    mine)
  • ?????????(PLP)??????

17
(2)??????????????
  • ???????,????????a-?b-?????b-?g-??????????????
  • a-???aldimine (???,Schiffs base )

18
(3)???????????
  • ???????????
  • ???B6????????????????????????D??????
  • ??????200mg???????,??????????

(4)??????????
?????????,???????????B6????
19
6????
(1)???(biotin)???????????
?????????????????-??????????,????????,??CO2?????
20
(2)????????????
?????(??CO2)
21
????(???????,???????????)
22
(3)??????(avidin)
  • ??????avidin,??biotin????,?biotin???????
  • avidin???biotinyl-????????

23
7??????F
(1)????????????
  • ??(folic acid)???????
  • ???????????(FH4)

???????
???????
????
????
??
NADPHH
NADP
NADPHH
NADP
24
(2)????????????
FH4???????????,??????????N5?N10 ??????????
25
(3)????????
  • ??????????
  • ????????????,????????????????,????????

26
8????B12???5-???????
(1)???B12????????
  • ???B12?????(coholamine)
  • ?????????????5-???????

27
R5-???? 5-???????
28
(2)???B12?????????
  • ?????????????????
  • ?????
  • ????

29
(3)???B12??????
  • B12??????????????????????,????????
  • B12??L-?????CoA????,??????????,??????

(4)???B12?????
  • ?????????,????????

30
9????
???(lipoic acid)?????
31
10????C
(1)???C????????(L-????,ascorbic acid)
Oxidized Vc
Reduced Vc
32
(2)???C?????????
  • ???C?????????

????????????-????-??????????????
  • ???C???????????????????

????????
33
(3)???C??????
  • ???????
  • ???????(scurvy) ??????,????????,????,????????,??
    ??

(4)???C?????
  • ?????????????,?????,???????????

34
Key soluble vitamins, their corresponding
coenzymes and functions
  • Vitamin
    Coenzyme Function
  • B1(Thiamine) TPP(Thiamine
    pyrophosphate) Transfer of aldehyde
    group,


  • decarboxylation of a-keto acid
  • B2(Riboflavin ) FMN (Flavin
    mononucleotide) Redox reaction

  • FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide) transfer of
    hydrogens
  • 3. PP Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide
    NAD(,Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) Redox
    reaction

  • NADP(Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    phosphate) transfer of hydrogens
  • 4. Pantothentic acid CoASH
    Coenzyme A, CoA)
    Transfer of acyl groups
  • 5. B6 Pyridoxine, -al,-amine Pyridoxal,
    pyridoxamine
    Transamination, decarboxylation, racemization
  • 6. Folic acid (FA)
    FH4(Tetrahydrofolic acid,THFA)
    Carrier of one-carbon unit
  • 7. Biotin

    Coenzyme for carboxylase
  • 8. C(Ascorbic acid)

    Redox reaction
  • Lipoate

    Transfer of acyl group
  • 10. B12(Cobalamine)
    intramolecular
    rearrangement, methylation

35
????????
  • ????
  • ???????????????
  • ????,?????????
  • ?????????,????????
  • ????????????????????????????????

36
1????A
(1)???(retinol)????(retinal)????(retinoic
acid)????A?????
???(nyctalopia)
37
(2) ???????????????????
???????9-????????????????????????????,?DNA??????,?
????????? ?????(xerophthalmia)
(3) ???A???
????(????) ?????A?(?ß-????)
38
2????D
(1)???D??????1,25-?????D
  • ????D2(?????)?D3(????)
  • D2?????D3?7-?????
  • D3??????????D????(vitamin D binding protein,
    DBP)???????

39
(2)1,25-(OH)2D3????????????????
  • ???????1,25-(OH)2D3?????

1,25-(OH)2D3???????????????,???????????,?????????,
??????????????,????????? ???D??
?????(rickets)
?????(osteomalacia)?
  • ??????????
  • ???????????????
  • ???????????????

40
(3) ???D???
????????????,????????
41
3????E
  • (1)???E(???,tocopherol)????????,??????????

42
(2)???E????????????
  • ???E??????????????
  • ?? ??????????,???????????
  • ???E???????????

????,?????????????????,???????????,??????,???
  • ???E??????????????
  • ???????
  • ??????E??????????????

43
4????K
(1)???K?2-??1,4-??????
K1-----?????????
????
K2-----???????
????K3
44
(2)???K????-?????????
  • ???K????????
  • ?????N??g-??????????K????????????
  • ???K??????????
  • ???K???????????
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