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Modern Evolutionary Classification

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Title: How are evolutionary relationships determined? Author: James Brown Last modified by: Julie Brown Created Date: 12/10/2007 12:52:55 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Modern Evolutionary Classification


1
Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Section 17-2

2
Problems with Traditional Classification
  • Originally, organisms were grouped according to
    their physical features.
  • Biologists now group organisms into categories
    based on their evolutionary history, not just
    physical similarities.
  • ?

3
How are evolutionary relationships determined?
  • Structural similarities
  • Geographical distribution
  • Biochemistry
  • Similar DNA and proteins
  • Chromosome comparison
  • and structure of chromosomes
  • Breeding behavior
  • Ex. Different calls keep mates from within same
    group
  • Embryonic development

4
Phylogeny
  • What is it?
  • The evolutionary history of a species
  • How is it shown?
  • Using models called phylogenetic trees

5
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6
Cladistics
  • A system of classification based on phylogeny
  • It classifies organisms according to the order
    that they diverged from a common ancestor.

7
Cladistics
  • Scientists look at ancestral characters, those
    found in the entire line of descent
  • They also identify a groups derived traits
    (unique inherited characteristics not found in a
    common ancestor) and use them to construct a
    branching diagram called a cladogram, a model of
    the phylogeny of a species.

8
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9
How does a cladogram work?
  • 2 groups on diverging branches probably share a
    more recent common ancestor than those groups
    farther away.
  • They show a probable evolution of a group of
    organisms from ancestral groups.

10
The Six Kingdoms of Organisms
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plants
  • Animals

11
Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • Unicellular
  • No membrane-bound nuclei
  • Most live in harsh environments
  • Swamps, deep-ocean vents, etc.
  • Mostly no oxygen (anaerobic)

12
Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • 5000 species
  • Very strong cell walls
  • Live in most habitats, except extreme
  • Some causes diseases, most are harmless

13
Kingdom Protista
  • Eukaryotic
  • Lacks complex organ systems
  • Lives in moist environments
  • Some unicellular, some multicellular
  • Example kelp

14
Kingdom Fungi
  • Eukaryotic
  • Heterotrophicabsorbs nutrients from organic
    materials in the environment
  • Immobile (unmoving)
  • Unicellular or multicellular
  • Over 50,000 species

15
Kingdom Plantae
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Photosynthetic
  • Immobile
  • Cells? tissues? organs? organ systems
  • Over 250,000 species

16
Kingdom Animalia
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Mobile (move from place to place)
  • Cells? tissues? organs? organ systems
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