Adult Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

Adult Education


Adult Education Evolution U.S. Public Service/Adult Education Period Activities 17th & 18th Centuries Reading for Salvation/ Charity Religious ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:286
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: MSSchool5


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Adult Education

Adult Education
EvolutionU.S. Public Service/Adult Education
  • Period Activities
  • 17th 18th Centuries Reading for Salvation/
  • Religious
  • Revolutionary to Civil War Citizenship
  • General Knowledge
  • Nation Building
  • Civil to World War I Occupational
  • Industrialization Social Service
  • Immigration Citizenship/Americanization
  • Public Affairs

EvolutionU.S. Public Service/Adult Education
  • Evolution (continued)
  • Period Activities
  • Modern Era Occupational
  • Idealism Social Reform
  • Improved Work Practices Social Reconstruction
  • Social Progress
  • Post Modern Era Professionalism
  • Self-Help Quality of Life (all areas)
  • Rapid Change Change Management

Public Service Agencies/Adult Education
  • Type Role
  • Type I Established to Serve Adults
  • Propriety Schools
  • Independent Centers
  • Type II Established to Serve Youth
  • Public Schools
  • Colleges Universities

Public Service Agencies/Adult Education
  • Public Service (continued)
  • Type Role
  • Type III Established to Serve Educational
  • Libraries and Non-educational Needs
  • Museums
  • Health and Welfare
  • Type IV Established to Serve
  • Business Non-Educational Needs
  • Unions
  • Government
  • Churches
  • Associations

Public Service Program Terminology
  • Public Service Program Terminology
  • (Multiple Meanings)
  • 1. All educational activities for adults in the
  • 2. The total adult education activities of a
    given agency
  • 3. Activities for a single market segment
  • 4. Social role oriented activities (citizenship,
    home, etc.)
  • 5. A specific activity (course)

Four Components of a Good Program Plan
  • 1. NEED - The situation that has to be changed or
  • 2. OBJECTIVE - The educational needs of the
    target population translated into learning
  • 3. LEARNING EXPERIENCES - The learning
    experiences and plans for their implementation to
    achieve the desired objectives.
  • 4. EVALUATION - The design for determining the
    accomplishments of the program and assessing its
    strengths and weaknesses.

Examine Your PersonalPublic Service Philosophy
  • What segment of the population should learn? Why?
  • Who should be responsible for adult learning?
  • What should adults learn? Why?
  • How should adults learn? Why?
  • (Group Discussion)

Goals of Adult Education
  • (Paul Bergevin)
  • To help the learner (individual/organization/socie
    ty) achieve a degree of success, fulfillment,
  • To help the learner understand their
    capabilities, limitations, and relationships.
  • To help the learner recognize and understand the
    need for lifelong learning.

Goals of Adult Education
  • Bergevin (continued)
  • To provide conditions and opportunities for
  • advancement in the maturation process
  • culturally, physically, politically, and
  • To provide education for survival in literacy,
  • skills, and health measures.

Adult Education Defined
  • Key Words From Definitions
  • Literacy
  • Set Men Free
  • Essential Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Disseminate Information
  • Understanding Mutual Problems of Generations
  • Maturing
  • Organized Learning/Activities
  • Social System
  • Quality of Life

Adult Education Defined
  • Adult Education (continued)
  • Lifelong Learning--continuing or adult
  • a continuous learning process designed to
  • the quality of life for individuals,
    organizations, and
  • societies faced with an ever increasing rate of
  • change.

Conventional vs. Adult Education
  • Conventional Education Adult Education
  • Purpose
  • prepare persons to function enable
  • effectively within the prevailing persons to
  • socio-cultural system. the modification
  • and development
  • of their own
  • uniquely
  • constituted self
  • system

Conventional vs. Adult Education
  • (continued)
  • Conventional Education Adult Education
  • Function
  • ...a socialization process with the ...a
  • emphasis upon the development of
  • behavioral conformity. (The denial with the
  • of self for the asserting of the upon growing
  • curriculum and societys program.) toward
  • lity. The
  • promotion
  • of self toward
  • interdependence.

Conventional vs. Adult Education
  • (continued)
  • Conventional Education Adult Education
  • Basic Components
  • ...directive teaching-prescribed ...collaborativ
  • learning teaching- collaborative
  • learning.(All
  • parties considered
  • capable and
  • responsible.)

Conventional vs. Adult Education
  • (continued)
  • Conventional Education Adult Education
  • Relationships
  • ...unequal with authority in the ...equality of
  • important positions worth and
  • importance

Conventional vs. Adult Education
  • (continued)
  • Conventional Education Adult Education
  • Consequences
  • ...reinforcement of dependent ...growing toward
  • reliance upon authority figures
    and inter-dependence
  • personal irresponsibility in and acceptance
  • shaping ones behavior and life. of self-
  • responsibility.

Andragogy vs. Pedagogy
  • People who take the initiative in learning
    (proactive learners) learn more
  • things, and learn better, than do people who sit
    at the feet of teachers passively
  • waiting to be taught (reactive learners).
  • We are entering into a new world in which rapid
    change will be the only
  • stable characteristic. This implies that it is no
    longer realistic to define the
  • purpose of education as transmitting what is
    known.When a person leaves
  • schooling he or she must not only have a
    foundation of knowledge acquired in
  • the course of learning to inquire, but more
    importantly, also have the ability to
  • go on acquiring new knowledge easily and
    skillfully the rest of his or her life.
  • Typically, we think of learning as what takes
    place in school-it is being
  • taught. To be adequate for our new world we
    must come to think of learning
  • as being the same as living and working. We must
    learn from everything we
  • do.

Pedagogy and Andragogy
  • Pedagogy is defined as the art and science of
    teaching children. Andragogy is the art and
    science of helping adults to learn.
  • Knowles based Andragogy upon certain crucial
    assumptions concerning the differences between
    children and adults as learners.

Andragogy vs. Pedagogy
  • Difference 1
  • Self concept The child sees himself as a
  • personality the adult wants to be treated as a
  • person and with respect.
  • Implications (1) A climate of adultness is a
    necessity in
  • all adult program. (2) Engage the adult in
    diagnosing his
  • own needs for learning. (3) Involve the adults
    in the
  • planning of their own learning. (4) Allow the
    adults to
  • carry out their own learning. (5) Evaluation
    should be a re
  • self-diagnosis.

Andragogy vs. Pedagogy
  • Difference 2
  • Experience By virtue of a longer life, adults
    have had
  • more experiences, thus are richer resources for
  • Implication Allow the adult to express their
  • experiences. Action-learning and participative
  • learning techniques are good to use.

Andragogy vs. Pedagogy
  • Difference 3
  • Time Perspective A Youths learning orientation
  • one of postponed application, therefore learning
  • subject centered. An adults time perspective
  • learning is one of immediate application
    resulting in a
  • problem centered orientation.

Andragogy vs. Pedagogy
  • Implications
  • 1. Curriculum organization of adult education is
    based upon problem areas rather than subject
  • 2. The learning process begins with the problems
    that the learners bring with them.

Learning vs. Teaching
  • Learning is a conscious, self-directed process
  • occurs within us, at our directions, resulting in
  • modification of one or more facets of our
  • Teaching is something you do to somebody.
    Learning is
  • something that happens within a self. In one
  • teaching doesnt exist. Only learning exists and,
  • often than not, exists in spite of teaching.

  • Learning engages us emotionally as well as
    intellectually as
  • we move through a cycle.
  • 1. Frustration 4. Exploration
  • 2. Concern 5. Discovery
  • 3. Confusion 6. Integration
  • Unfortunately, in designing educational
    activities, we have
  • ignored this cycle.

Involving Adults in the Process
  • C. Houle found in his study, The Inquiring
    Mind, that adults
  • may attend for several reasons
  • For the love of learning - some persons will
    take a wide variety of courses simply because
    they love to be in a learning environment. These
    persons learn for the sake of learning.
  • To accomplish a specific goal - to get a better
    job, to attain a
  • certificate, to gain entry to a higher level
    of study.

Involving Adults in the Process
  • C. Houle found in his study, The Inquiring
    Mind, that adults
  • may attend for several reasons
  • For social purposes - some people join
    learning groups in order
  • to enjoy the social benefits of being in the
    group. A particular
  • learning group may be the primary support group a
    person has
  • and thus he may even forego graduation and its
    benefits in order
  • to remain with his peers.

Steps Toward Participation
  • Adults seem to go through a series of steps in
    deciding to participate in an
  • educational group.
  • Awareness This state is one of somehow getting
    initial information from one
  • or more sources. This information may be the
    result of the activities of the
  • mass media, i.e., newspapers, television, radio
    and billboards. The
  • effectiveness of mass-media in motivating adults
    to enter educational
  • programs depends on the nature of the program and
    the population being
  • recruited. The most successful motivator for
    recruitment is word of mouth,
  • i.e. people telling people. This form of
    recruitment is dependent on satisfied
  • students who feel that the program is meeting
    their needs.

Steps Toward Participation
  • Interest There is a strong dependence upon
    personal communications in developing an interest
    in a program. At this point adults usually turn
    to a trusted friend or individual for information
    and support.
  • Thus, interest in a program is most likely to
    occur when it is perceived to be important to the
    clients world when it poses little threat, and
    when people they trusts embrace the idea.

Steps Toward Participation
  • Evaluation Stage
  • This is the first stage of the actual
  • phase. To enroll or not to enroll, that is the
    question. Do
  • people I respect and trust endorse the program?
    Is there
  • any risk? How much does it cost Am I
    capable...will I
  • fail?

Steps Toward Participation
  • Trial Stage
  • The initial trial is a time of tentative
    testing. The client
  • may visit the program or attend with
  • knowing that if he does not like it he can
    usually back
  • out. The importance of first impressions is vital
    at this
  • step. The physical setting and the climate of
  • relationships are being tested.

Steps Toward Participation
  • Adoption Stage
  • After the initial testing and trial individuals
    or groups
  • arrive at the final decision whether to adopt
    the new
  • program or whether to withdraw and reject... the
  • day may be the most important. If the decision is
  • stay, an increasing commitment will be made and
  • change or new knowledge will be accepted into the
  • individuals or groups system of thinking.

Effective Adult Learning
  • 1. A learning experience must be personally
    meaningful if individuals are to become actively
    involved in it.
  • a. This calls for content which evolves from the
    genuine concerns of learners and for learners to
    actively share in shaping the context in which
    they learn.
  • b. It is our individualized concerns which give
    rise to educational needs and from which
    motivation to learn stems.
  • c. Matters foreign to our personal worlds of
    reality seem to generate little spontaneous
    action in us.

Effective Adult Learning
  • 2. We require an understanding and supportive
    social climate in order to learn and grow.
  • a. This calls for the active affirmation of
    differences among individuals and to actively
    uphold the uniquely personal way an individual
    feels and thinks.
  • b. None of us are inclined to let others know
    what really is on our minds if we sense that it
    will lead to being ignored, rejected,
    misunderstood, belittled or attacked.
  • c. All of us need to feel that our individual
    concerns will be accorded due respect and dignity
    before we are apt to make them known.
  • d. Likewise, the more free we feel to make known
    our individual concerns, the more involved we
    tend to become in the situation.

Effective Adult Learning
  • 3. We need to feel free to communicate honestly
    with our own self and with our fellow human
  • a. The prevalent practice of communication to
    our own self and to others what isnt so,
    simply directs us to a blank wall where so often
    we sit spinning our wheels.
  • b. The conditioned fear of being honest with
    ourselves and our fellow learners has tended to
    restrict educational content to abstract,
    impersonal and/or irrelevant matters.
  • c. If it is understanding that we seek, it
    should be borne in mind that a simple, honest
    statement is the shortest line of communication
    between people.

Effective Adult Learning
  • 4. We require understanding of the nature of
    learning and of our behavior as learners in order
    to make effective use of the learning process.
  • a. We are products of a socio-cultural
    environment whose spokesman have been generous in
    telling us what to learn, but for the most part,
    have overlooked our need for discovering how to
  • b. We cannot learn or do anything else very well
    unless we are consciously aware of what it
    involves and what is going on. In this way, we
    can free ourselves from the misconceptions and
    conditioned fears which have kept many of our
    positive qualities submerged.
  • c. We normally do best those things which we know
    how to do. Learning is no exception.

Group Roles
  • Much of adult learning occurs in a group
    environment and
  • involves the following functions
  • Task Functions
  • 1. Initiating
  • 2. Information or opinion seeking
  • 3. Information or opinion giving
  • 4. Clarifying or elaborating
  • 5. Summarizing
  • 6. Consensus testing

Group Roles
  • Much of adult learning occurs in a group
    environment and
  • involves the following functions
  • Maintenance Functions
  • 1, Encouraging
  • 2. Expressing group feelings
  • 3. Harmonizing
  • 4. Compromising
  • 5. Gate-keeping
  • 6. Standard setting

Creating Learning Conditions
  • The following seven areas are some of those which
    must be
  • examined in developing an effective
  • environment.
  • 1. What the learner brings to the transaction (in
    addition to ignorance and abilities)
  • 2. What the teacher (helper) brings
  • 3. The setting in which learning and change take
  • 4. The interaction process
  • 5. The conditions necessary for learning and
  • 6. The maintenance of change and utilization of
    learning in the life of the learner
  • 7. The establishment of the process on continued

Current Trends inContinuing Education
  • Just-In-Time Training (JITT)
  • Centralization vs. Decentralization
  • Any Time, Any Where, Any Language
  • Faculty as Facilitators
  • Work and Learning

Current Trends inContinuing Education
  • Current Trends (continued)
  • Private vs. Public
  • Certification
  • Funding
  • Regional vs. National vs. Local Programming
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)