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Theory to practice in professional development: illustrating and testing an essentialist or quidditative model through practical examples

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Title: Professionalism, Professionality and Professional Development Author: Linda Evans Last modified by: Linda Evans Created Date: 7/7/2007 2:22:46 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theory to practice in professional development: illustrating and testing an essentialist or quidditative model through practical examples


1
Theory to practice in professional
development illustrating and testing an
essentialist or quidditative model through
practical examples
  • paper presented at ECER 2009, University of
    Vienna, within the symposium
  • Examining Teachers Professional Development
    perspectives from the UK, Switzerland and Belgium
  • Wednesday 30th September
  • Dr Linda Evans
  • School of Education, University of Leeds, UK
  • l.evans_at_leeds.ac.uk

2
Teachers talking which of these represents
professional development?
  • Anne
  • It was a brilliant course! The tutors were
    really good and gave us some excellent ideas for
    different ways of using the maths equipment and
    Ive tried some of them out already and the
    children have loved them. Also, we learned a lot
    just through exchanging ideas with the other
    teachers on the course.

3
Teachers talking which of these represents
professional development?
  • Mark
  • I used to want to leave teaching to become a HE
    lecturer. Now Ive changed my mind and want to be
    a headteacher. I used to think being a
    headteacher would be too stressful for me with
    all the interpersonal conflict that it brings.
    Now I believe I could cope with that aspect of
    it.

4
Teachers talking which of these represents
professional development?
  • Hilary
  • Since our new boss was appointed, theres now,
    for me, more job satisfaction in what Im doing.
    I feel Ive got more direction and purpose than I
    had before, when I wasnt sure what I was doing.
    And thats quite fulfilling plus the fact that
    my new boss has got direction, and that helps as
    well I do feel, at times, more constructively
    used than I did.

5
Professional development Linda Evanss definition
  • Umbrella definition
  • Professional development is the process
    whereby peoples professionalism, or
    professionality, or professional practice may be
    considered to be enhanced, with a degree of
    permanence that exceeds transitoriness.

6
Professionality orientation teachers
Eric Hoyle, 1975
  • Restricted professionality
  • Skills derived from experience
  • Perspective limited to the immediate in time and
    place
  • Introspective with regard to methods
  • Value placed on autonomy
  • Infrequent reading of professional literature
  • Teaching seen as an intuitive activity
  • Extended professionality
  • Skills derived from a mediation between
    experience theory
  • Perspective embracing the broader social context
    of education
  • Methods compared with those of colleagues and
    reports of practice
  • Value placed on professional collaboration
  • Regular reading of professional literature
  • Teaching seen as a rational activity

7
The restricted-extended teacher
professionality continuum
8
Professional development an essentialist or
quidditative model (Evans, 2009, work in
progress)
professional development
functional development
intellectual development
attitudinal development
9
Definitions of the components functional,
attitudinal and intellectual development
  • Functional development is the process whereby
    peoples professional performance is modified
    with the result that her/his professionalism,
    professionality or professional practice may be
    considered to be enhanced, with a degree of
    permanence that exceeds transitoriness.
  • Attitudinal development is the process whereby
    peoples work-related attitudes are modified with
    the result that her/his professionalism,
    professionality or professional practice may be
    considered to be enhanced, with a degree of
    permanence that exceeds transitoriness.
  • Intellectual development is the process whereby
    peoples professional-related knowledge,
    understanding or reflective or comprehensive
    capacity or competence are modified with the
    result that her/his professionalism,
    professionality or professional practice may be
    considered to be enhanced, with a degree of
    permanence that exceeds transitoriness.

10
The hierarchy of the definitions
  • Each of the three componential definitions
  • functional development
  • attitudinal development
  • intellectual development
  • lies within the over-arching definition of
    professional development
  • professional development is the process whereby
    peoples professionalism, or professionality, or
    professional practice may be considered to be
    enhanced, with a degree of permanence that
    exceeds transitoriness.
  • The change referred to is, therefore, change
    for the better.
  • I define professional practice as all
    professional- or work- or work context-related
    physical or mental activity.

11
Dissecting professional development the change
dimensions
  • Comprehensive change - change in relation to what
    people know or understand
  • Epistemological change - change in relation to
    the knowledge base upon which people draw and
    which they apply to their practice
  • Rationalistic change - change relating to the
    extent of and the nature of the reasoning that
    people apply to their practice
  • Perceptual change - change in relation to
    peoples perceptions and beliefs
  • Evaluative change - change to peoples
    professional- or practice-related values,
    including the minutiae of what they consider
    important
  • Motivational change - change to peoples
    motivation and levels of job satisfaction and
    morale
  • Processual change - change in relation to the
    processes that constitute peoples practice how
    they do or go about things
  • Procedural change - changes to procedures that
    people utilise or apply within their practice
  • Productive change - changes to what people
    achieve, produce or do

12
Evaluating my model Three key questions
  • How sound is the componential structure within
    the model?
  • How sound is the classification and
    classificatory terminology?
  • How useful is the model as an analytical
    framework?

13
Testing the model
  • Evidential sources
  • Transcripts of research interviews with 21
    English primary school teachers
  • The research focus was not professional
    development
  • limited dataset
  • My own experiences as a schoolteacher and as an
    academic

14
Amanda
  • Teacher at Rockville County Primary School
  • At her job interview she asked about remedial
    teaching support she was told that the deputy
    head, Margaret, came into classrooms to do small
    group remedial teaching.
  • This didnt happen.
  • Amanda questioned the headteacher, Geoff, about
    it.
  • He referred Amanda to Margaret.
  • Amanda spoke to Margaret about it.
  • Nothing happened.
  • Amanda told Geoff of this.
  • Geoff said he would mention it to Margaret.
  • Margaret came and did small group work on one
    occasion. She promised to return the next day to
    continue with it.
  • Margaret failed to return ever again.
  • Amanda told Geoff of this.
  • Nothing was done about the problem

15
Amandas comments
  • I didnt know how to go about broaching this and
    so I did it, sort of generally, in conversation
    with Geoff Collins, and he said Id only to
    mention it to Margaret and it would be attended
    to. Now, I mentioned it and nothing was done
    about it. Nothing was done about it and so, as
    time went on, I became more and more open in what
    I was saying to him Geoff and less subtle, I
    suppose.
  • I began to realise then that er it was
    just me and the children.

16
Amandas comments
  • Perhaps I was expecting too much of the system
    and yet, in my heart of hearts, I knew that
    thats how it could be particularly when, in a
    school like that, there was so much back-up
    available. The children could have been helped
    more the staff couldve been helped more and
    it was more about administrative expediency not
    offending those who were easily offended. What I
    shouldve done I shouldve asked for an adviser
    to come in school, and I shouldve done it
    through the adviser. Because I understand the
    advisory service now, thats what I shouldve
    done. I shouldve asked to see my general
    adviser, discussed with the general adviser what
    the situation was, and told the general adviser
    that I was also writing to the senior adviser.

17
Amandas comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Functional development
  • processual change the processes that she
    adopted in collegial communication and
    interaction
  • I became more and more open in what I was saying
    to him Geoff and less subtle, I suppose
  • procedural change the procedures that she
    adopted for dealing with a problem
  • going through the hierarchy in order to express
    her dissatisfaction
  • accepting self-sufficiency as the best course of
    action
  • I began to realise then that er it was
    just me and the children.

18
Amandas comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Intellectual development
  • comprehensive change she increased her
    understanding of the micro-politically-determined
    power structure and operational norms that
    prevailed in her school
  • The children could have been helped more the
    staff couldve been helped more and it was more
    about administrative expediency not offending
    those who were easily offended.
  • comprehensive change she increased her
    understanding of systemic procedures and
    processes that she could have used to her
    advantage, if she had been aware of them earlier
  • I shouldve asked for an adviser to come in
    school, and I shouldve done it through the
    adviser. Because I understand the advisory
    service now, thats what I shouldve done. I
    shouldve asked to see my general adviser,
    discussed with the general adviser what the
    situation was, and told the general adviser that
    I was also writing to the senior adviser.

19
Amandas comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Attitudinal development
  • perceptual change - perception of her own
    agential capacity and potential for applying her
    increased knowledge and understanding of
    procedures, and designated roles and
    responsibilities, to initiate change that would
    impact upon her professional practice
  • Because I understand the advisory service now,
    thats what I shouldve done.

20
The change dimensions which ones are unaccounted
for?
?
  • Comprehensive change
  • Epistemological change
  • Rationalistic change
  • Perceptual change
  • Evaluative change
  • Motivational change
  • Processual change
  • Procedural change
  • Productive change

?
?
?
21
Hilarys comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Personally, for me, theres now more job
    satisfaction in what Im doing in direction and
    purpose I feel Ive got more than I had at the
    beginning, when I wasnt sure what I was doing.
    And thats quite fulfilling plus the fact that
    my boss has got direction, and that helps as well
    yknow what I mean? I do feel, at times, more
    constructively used than I did.

22
Hilarys comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Attitudinal development
  • motivational change her job satisfaction and
    motivation have increased as a result of her
    feeling that she is being given more direction
  • theres now more job satisfaction in what Im
    doing in direction and purpose I feel Ive got
    more than I had at the beginning, when I wasnt
    sure what I was doing. And thats quite
    fulfilling.

23
The change dimensions which ones are unaccounted
for?
?
  • Comprehensive change
  • Epistemological change
  • Rationalistic change
  • Perceptual change
  • Evaluative change
  • Motivational change
  • Processual change
  • Procedural change
  • Productive change

?
?
?
?
24
Marks comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Im back in the groove of wanting to get on, as
    a deputy head, and become a headmaster, which I
    didnt want to do when I spoke to you. The
    trouble was, I didnt fancy the social problems
    and the nastiness involved and parental
    conflict. But now I feel Ive got the personality
    that wont be a problem I can easily get over
    that. The thing that I feel now I feel that
    its always been there, but I have the confidence
    to know better now.

25
Marks comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Attitudinal development
  • motivational change he is re-motivated to
    become a headteacher
  • Im back in the groove of wanting to get on as
    a deputy head, and become a headmaster.
  • perceptual change - changes to his perception of
    his own potential agential influence on his
    interaction with other adults, including parents
    and teachers
  • I didnt fancy the social problems and the
    nastiness involved and parental conflict. But
    now I feel Ive got the personality that wont
    be a problem
  • evaluative change his values have changed in
    relation to his ideal job headship has increased
    in value to him

26
Marks comments what evidence of professional
development?
  • Intellectual development
  • rationalistic change he has examined the
    rationale underpinning his earlier disinclination
    toward becoming a headteacher, has found it
    wanting, and has re-rationalised his future
    career plans
  • The trouble was, I didnt fancy the social
    problems and the nastiness involved and
    parental conflict. But now I feel Ive got the
    personality that wont be a problem I can
    easily get over that. The thing that I feel now
    I feel that its always been there, but I have
    the confidence to know better now.

27
The change dimensions which ones are unaccounted
for?
?
  • Comprehensive change
  • Epistemological change
  • Rationalistic change
  • Perceptual change
  • Evaluative change
  • Motivational change
  • Processual change
  • Procedural change
  • Productive change

?
?
?
?
?
?
28
Linda Evanss professional development
experiences
  • Functional development
  • productive change - becoming computer-literate
    and using ICT as a central resource in my work
  • greater productivity and efficiency
  • Intellectual development
  • epistemological change transformation from a
    restricted to an extended professional
  • acceptance of educational research/ scholarship
    as a valid basis for practice and professional
    knowledge

29
Addressing the three key questions
  • How sound is the componential structure within
    the model?
  • How sound is the classification and
    classificatory terminology?
  • How useful is the model as an analytical
    framework?

30
How sound is the componential structure within
the model?
  • Have I omitted any components?
  • All 9 are supported by evidence.
  • Impossible to know if any are omitted
  • Any theory represents propositional knowledge.
  • Have I included any components that should not be
    there?
  • It is possible that overlap occurs.
  • The issue of potential overlap relates to the
    soundness of the classification and
    classificatory terminology.

31
How sound is the classification and
classificatory terminology?
  • Change dimensions that are currently missing will
    always be identifiable.
  • The key issue is whether or not these share the
    same classificatory level as those already
    identified.
  • Potentially missing are, for example
  • beliefs
  • self-efficacy
  • self-esteem
  • I consider these to be subsidiary elements of -
    and therefore to represent a different
    classificatory level from - perceptual change.
  • Ensuring the equivalence of the classificatory
    levels represented by the components is
    challenging.
  • I am uncertain of having got it right at this
    stage.
  • Can some of my components be conflated?
  • Can each be justified in its own right?
  • Is epistemological change, for example, a
    sub-component of comprehensive change or of
    perceptual change?

32
Professional development an alternative
essentialist or quidditative model
professional development
functional development
intellectual development
attitudinal development
comprehensive change
rationalistic change
33
Professional development an alternative
essentialist or quidditative model
professional development
functional development
comprehensive development
attitudinal development
epistemological change
rationalistic change
34
Professional development an essentialist or
quidditative model (Evans, 2009, work in
progress)
professional development
behavioural development
intellectual development
attitudinal development
processual change
procedural change
productive change
competential change
35
How useful is the model as an analytical
framework?
  • I have demonstrated the models potential and
    capacity for
  • dissecting empirical evidence of professional
    development episodes that have occurred
  • illuminating the nature and foci of such
    episodes.
  • The model may also potentially be used for
    examining and scrutinising
  • the comparative impact of specific kinds (i.e.
    dimensions) of professional development
  • the comparative prevalence of specific kinds
    (i.e. dimensions) of professional development
    within designated provision of professional
    development opportunities
  • the componential composition of effective (and
    ineffective) professional development
    initiatives.

36
  • Linda Evans
  • School of Education, University of Leeds,
  • l.evans_at_leeds.ac.uk
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