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TRAFFICKING AND HUMAN POVERTY:

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Roma Last modified by: saprm004 Created Date: 3/18/2003 9:38:47 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TRAFFICKING AND HUMAN POVERTY:


1
TRAFFICKING AND HUMAN POVERTY USING ICTS FOR A
TRANSFORMATIVE RESEARCH, POLICY AND GOVERNANCE
AGENDA Dr. Roma Bhattacharjea Policy Advisor UNDP
Bureau of Development Policy South and West Asia
Kathmandu, Nepal Roma.bhattacharjea_at_undp.org 20t
h March 2003
2
  • TRAFFICKING CURRENTLY HIGH ON THE
    INTERNATIONAL AGENDA
  • Pioneering conferences in the nineties
  • Different gender networks-national, regional and
  • global
  • Gender experts, the UN system, civil society
    actors,
  • multilaterals, bilaterals, scholarship and
    research
  • Placed trafficking high on the international
    agenda

3
  • UN PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH
    TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND
    CHILDREN (2000)
  • First internationally agreed definition of
    trafficking
  • The recruitment, transportation, transfer,
    harbouring,
  • receipt of persons, by means of the threat
    or use of
  • force or other forms of coercion, of
    abduction, of
  • fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power
    or of a
  • position of vulnerability or of giving or
    receiving of
  • payments or benefits

4
  • UN PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH
    TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND
    CHILDREN (2000)
  • Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the
  • exploitation of the prostitution of others or
    other
  • forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour
    or
  • services, slavery or practices similar to
    slavery
  • The consent of the victim of trafficking in
    persons to
  • the intended exploitationshall be irrelevant
    where
  • any of thefore-mentionedmeanshave been
    used
  • "Child" shall mean any person under eighteen
    years of
  • age (Art.3)

5
  • TRAFFICKING IS A COMPLEX PHENOMENON
  • Transnational
  • Affects mainly women and children though not
  • exclusively
  • Global UN estimates suggest it affects 70000 to 4
  • million persons per annum
  • Profits from illegal syndicates gross to 7
    billion USD

6
TRAFFICKING-MULTI-FACETED WITH DIFFERENT
DIMENSIONS     Gender inequality, gender-based
violence, human rights violation, violation of
international law, international criminal codes,
human poverty issues, social exclusion,
ethno-linguistics, information poverty, lack of
adequate research, policies and appropriate
institutional structures etc
7
  • THIS PRESENTATION TWO SECTIONS
  • First, conceptualising trafficking in the context
    of
  • human poverty and other developmental
    challenges in
  • South Asia
  • Second, exploring the particular potential of
    ICTs to
  • combat these challenges

8
EMERGING LITERATURE ON TRAFFICKING BROADER
CONTEXTS Trafficking of women and children
must be seen in a broader context of labour
migration, movement of people from conflict
zones, refugees and Internally Displaced People"
- Noeleen Heyzer, Executive Director, UNIFEM
9
  • GENDER ANALYSES OF TRANSITION ECONOMIES OF
    EASTERN EUROPE AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION
  • how structural changes during transition
  • combined with the absence of a social safety net
    impacted
  • negatively on women's employment
  • leading to a large numbers of dislocated poor,
    unskilled
  • female labour forming
  • a potential supply source for trafficking.

10
  • GENDER ANALYSES OF THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION
    IN ASIA
  • ILO-led studies of the impact of globalisation on
    the
  • sex sector in Thailand and other countries
  • More conventional studies of the impact of
  • globalisation in South Asia
  • Feminisation of poverty and unemployment
  • Shows negative trends for female labour
  • Bangladesh-rising labour force participation but
    wages
  • below minimum standards
  • Numbers of women working poor go up etc.

11
  • TRAFFICKING AND HUMAN POVERTY
  • South Asia more research needed - understanding
    the
  • interrelationships between trafficking and
    human
  • poverty
  • The 1997 Human Development Report offered us a
  • broader understanding of poverty from just
    income
  • poverty
  • " Poverty can mean more than a lack of what is
    necessary for material well-being. It can also
    mean the denial of opportunities and choices
    most basic to human development -to lead a long,
    healthy, creative life and to enjoy a decent
    standard of living, freedom, dignity,
    self- esteem and the respect of othersPoverty
    must be addressed in all its dimensions, not
    income alone."

12
  • TRAFFICKING - MULTIPLE CONTEXTS OF HUMAN
    POVERTY IN SOUTH ASIA
  • Combination of
  • The greatest numbers of poor in the world
  • A set of socio-economic inequalities mediated by
  • gender inequality
  • Emerging insecurities in the context of
    globalisation

13
  • INSECURITIES ATTENDANT ON GLOBALISATION
  • Unemployment
  • Growing feminisation of labour in the informal
    sector
  • Lack of a social security net
  • Forced migration
  • (Asian women make up the fastest-growing
    category of the world's burgeoning 35 million
    plus population of migrant workers and in
    Sri Lanka alone of the estimated 858000
    migrants, 590420 are women migrant workers of
    whom 78 per cent are in the unskilled category)

14
  • INSECURITIES ATTENDANT ON GLOBALISATION     
  • Contd.
  • Armed conflict (women refugees and IDPs),
    presence of
  • military troops
  • High incidence of HIV/AIDS- in terms of absolute
  • numbers, 4.2.million, the region has the
    largest incidence
  • of HIV/AIDs in the world.
  • Porous borders
  • Patriarchical societies

15
  • ICTS, A POWERFUL TOOL TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING OF
    WOMEN
  • Through a transformative agenda
  • research
  • policy
  • governance
  •  

16
  • ICTS-MAJOR ADVANTAGES IN COMBATING TRAFFICKING
  • Trafficking is multi-faceted
  • ICTs are ideally suited in promoting
    multi-sectoral linkages by connecting
    different stakeholders virtually
  • Trafficking is transnational,
  • ICTs are uniquely placed to cut across
    physical distances

17
  • ICTS AND E-GOVERNANCE
  • Very important dimension of human poverty-lack
  • of "voice"-
  • The trafficked are often invisible and lack a
  • "voice" institutionally
  • ICTs-powerful role in enabling the poor, the
  • socially excluded, the trafficked
  • A voice" -in research, in policy and in
    governance

18
  • FORMING E- COMMUNITY/COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
  • Connecting wide cross-section of stakeholders
    virtually
  • Researchers, statisticians, activists, academics,
    civil society organisations, government
    officials, policy and decision-makers, legal
    experts, macroeconomists, poverty experts,
    officials working with cross-border issues, media
    experts for shared learning

19
  • INFORMATION, DATA, RESEARCH AND PUBLIC
    AWARENESS
  • ICTs can help with information-poverty for
    different
  • stakeholders
  • First potential victims of trafficking, families
    of those
  • trafficked,
  • Activists, researchers, decision-makers,
    policy-makers,
  • regional networks and institutions
  • Including means for those trafficked to share
    their
  • information and experiences

20
  • USING MEDIA AND ICTS TO CREATE INFORMED PUBLIC
    AWARENESS
  • Education and public awareness of all
    constituents of
  • society-using a variety of technologies
    depending on
  • where and what constituency is being targeted
  • e.g. Canadian International Development Agency
    (CIDA)- sponsored project, under Shakti Gender
    Equity Project, supports Centre for Womens
    Research (CENWOR) in Sri Lanka
  • hot-line telephone service, weekly
    awareness-raising
  • radio-programmes and island-wide poster
    campaign to
  • raise awareness about difficulties faced by
    workers abroad

21
  • POTENTIAL BEST PRACTICES
  • The Information Data Bank of the SLBFE (Sri Lanka
  • Bureau of Foreign Employment)-the SLBFE
    provides
  • skills training, assistance with contracts
    and labour
  • rights, foreign language skills, some form of
  • insurance etc
  • Worldview Sri Lanka (WSL) with UNICEF Sri Lanka
  • workshops on raising awareness about sexual
  • harrasment at the workplace and skills for
    decision-
  • making training of women migrant workers

22
  • ICTS CONNECTING DIFFERENT ORGANIZATIONS
  • Connecting data collection, analysis and research
    on
  • trafficking with
  • Organizations formulating public information and
  • awareness campaigns
  • Share learning
  • Provide targeted information to potential victims
    of
  • trafficking who are information-poor
  • To educate society at large about these issues
  • Allowing those who have been trafficked to
    contribute
  • to the knowledge base and their ideas for
    solutions

23
  • BEST PRACTICE UNIAP- TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND
    CHILDREN IN THE MEKONG SUB- REGION
  • Regional inter-UN agency collaboration, involving
  • UNDP and others along with other
    multilateral, bilateral
  • and non-governmental organizations with six
  • participating countries include Cambodia,
    China, Lao
  • PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

24
  • BEST PRACTICE UNIAP- TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND
    CHILDREN IN THE MEKONG SUB- REGION
  • Represents a platform for five principle
    activities
  • Building a knowledge base
  • Information dissemination
  • Creating linkages and mainstreaming trafficking
  • issues
  • Value added interventions
  • Strategic analysis, priority setting and policy
  • advocacy

25
  • CONNECTING DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS, KNOWLEDGE
    COMMUNITIES AND THOSE PARTICIPATING IN
    ROUNDTABLES TO FEED INTO E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES
  • Creating an enabling environment for policy
    change
  • Best practice in Georgia WOMEN AID INTERNATIONAL
    CAUCUS
  • Round Table Dialogues-multi-stakeholder dialogues
  • Media Advocacy Platforms-promoting public
    awareness and stimulating debates

26
  • POLICY RESEARCH BEST PRACTICE
  • Using media and ICTs to connect different
  • stakeholders to facilitate informed policy
    advocacy
  • networks
  • Allowing a combination of research-based policy
  • advocacy and informed public media campaign
    to
  • create an enabling environment for
    legislative reform
  • and the formulation of appropriate policies

27
  • POLICY RESEARCH BEST PRACTICE
  • Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR) Sri Lanka
  • and the Marga Institute-social costs of
    migration and to
  • the family left behind-the Regional Policy
    Dialogue on
  • International Migration and Employment and
    National
  • Policies -cooperation between NGOs and
    governments
  • Connecting research between human poverty, labour
  • and unemployment, forced migration,
    international law,
  • human rights, education, gender, public
    health, law
  • dimensions of trafficking
  • Presidential Task Force on Policy Formation for
  • Migrant Workers in Sri Lanka

28
  • E-GOVERNANCE POTENTIAL
  • Recent initiatives including UN inter-agency
    efforts to take up the issue of trafficking at
    the highest policy levels in the following
    regional policy fora
  • The Asia Regional Initiative on Trafficking
    (ARIAT),
  • Asia-Europe (ASEM) process
  • SAARC Convention on Trafficking of Women and
  • Children,
  • ASEAN

29
  • CONCLUSIONS
  •  
  • Trafficking-complex set of development challenges
  • E-solutions Potential not fully tapped
  • Currently ICTs being used more for e-government
    or women and e-commerce
  • More can be done to move ICTs from e-government
    to e-governance where those trafficked and their
    issues can have a voice
  • Through e-communities of practice
  • In research, policy and governance
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