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Five Models of Staff Development


Five Models of Staff Development Sparks, Dennis and Loucks-Horsley, Susan(1989). Five Models of Staff Development. Journal of Staff Development. 10 1-26. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Five Models of Staff Development

Five Models of Staff Development
  • Sparks, Dennis and Loucks-Horsley, Susan(1989).
    Five Models of Staff Development. Journal of
    Staff Development. 10 1-26.

Five Models of Staff Development
  • Individually-guided staff development
  • Observation/assessment
  • Involvement in a development/improvement process
  • Training
  • Inquiry

I have come to feel that the only learning which
significantly influences behavior is
self-discovered, self-appropriated
learning. Rogers, 1969, p. 153
Individually-guided - Defined
  • A process through which teachers plan for and
    pursue activities they believe will promote their
    own learning.
  • Designed by the teacher
  • Teacher defined goals and activities

Individually-guided - Underlying Assumptions
  • Individuals can judge their own needs and that
    they are capable of self direction and
    self-initiated learning.
  • Adults learn most efficiently when they initiate
    and plan their learning rather than spend their
    time in irrelevant activities of little interest.
  • Most motivated when they select their own leaning
    goals based on their personal of their needs.

Individually-guided - Theoretical and Research
  • Adult learning theory
  • Kidd (1973) and Knowles (1980)
  • Increasingly self-directed
  • Stimulated by real life tasks and problems
  • Stage Theory
  • Levine (1989)
  • Different stages of development have different

Individually-guided - Theoretical and Research
  • Learning styles researchers
  • Dunn Dunn (1978) Gregorc (1979)
  • Individuals differ in the way they process
    information and in the manner they learn
  • Concerns-based Adoption Model (CBAM)
  • Hall Loucks (1978)
  • As individuals learn new behaviors and change
    their practice, they experience different
    concerns that in turn requires different types of
    responses from staff developers

Individually-guided - Phases of Activity
  • Identification of need or interest
  • Develop a plan to meet the need or interest
  • The learning activity
  • Assessment of whether the learning meets the
    identified need or interest.

Feedback is the breakfast of champions
Blanchard Johnson The One Minute Manager
  • Many teachers receive little or no feedback and
    in some cases they only observed once every three
  • May be a powerful staff development model but is
    perceived by teachers as evaluation.
  • In reality other forms such as peer coaching and
    clinical supervision fall into this category

Observation/Assessment - Underlying Assumptions
  • Reflection and analysis are central means of
    professional growth. Loucks-Horsley (1987, p.
  • Reflection by an individual on his or her own
    practice can be enhanced by anothers
  • Observation and assessment of classroom teachers
    can benefit both parties the observer and the
  • When teachers see positive results from their
    efforts to change they are more apt to engage in

Observation/Assessment theoretical and research
  • Teacher Evaluation
  • McGreal (1982)
  • Classroom observation plays a key role
  • Concern about reliability
  • Two ways to increase reliability
  • Narrow the range of what to look for (Madeline
  • Use a pre-conference to increase the knowledge of
    the observer prior to the observation

Observation/Assessment - Theoretical and Research
  • Clinical Supervision
  • Glatthorn (1984)
  • Recommends clinical supervisors (or coaches)
    alternate unfocused observations with focused
  • Unfocused observer usually takes verbatim notes
    on all significant behaviors
  • Data gathered is used to identify strengths and
    potential problems that are discussed in a
    problem-solving feedback conference
  • Focused observer gathers data related to
    identified problem

Observation/Assessment - Theoretical and Research
  • Clinical supervision
  • Glickman (1986)
  • Suggest that feedback be to provided teachers
    based on cognitive levels.
  • low-abstract receive direct conferences (
    problem identification and solution comes from
    the coach)
  • moderate-abstract receive collaborative
    conferences (an exchange of perceptions about
    problems and negotiated solutions)
  • high-abstract receive nondirective approach
    (coach or supervisor helps the teacher clarify
    problems and choose a course of action)

Observation/Assessment - Phases of Activity
  • Pre-observation conference
  • Observation
  • Analysis of data
  • Post-observation conference
  • In some cases, analysis of the observation/assessm
    ent process

Involvement in a Development/ Improvement Process
  • Teachers are asked to
  • Develop or adapt curriculum
  • Design programs
  • Engage in a systematic school improvement
  • Any or all of these with the focus of improving
    classroom instruction and/or curriculum.
  • Successful completion requires the teacher to
    gain additional knowledge to complete the task.
  • This model focuses on the combination of
    learnings that result from the involvement of
    teacher in the process.

Involvement in a Development/ Improvement Process
- Underlying Assumptions
  • Adults learn more easily when they have a need to
    know or a problem to solve (Knowles, 1980).
  • People working closest to the job best understand
    what is required to improve their performance.
  • Teachers acquire important knowledge or skills
    through their involvement in school improvement
    or curriculum development processes.

Involvement in a Development/ Improvement Process
- Theoretical and Research Underpinnings
  • Curriculum Development
  • Joyce and Showers (1988)
  • It has been well established that curriculum
    implementation is demanding of staff development
    essentially, without strong staff development
    programs that are appropriately designed a very
    low level of implementation occurs (p. 44).
  • Glickman (1987)
  • Three ways teachers can modify a districts
    curriculum guide
  • Taking lists of objectives and recommended
    teaching methods and turning them into a set of
    usable instructional guides
  • Adapt the guide to students special needs
  • Enhance the guide by developing optional
    enrichment units.

Involvement in a Development/ Improvement Process
- Theoretical and Research Underpinnings
  • Curriculum Development
  • Glatthorn
  • Activities should be done in groups thus teachers
    will become more cohesive and will share ideas
    about teaching and learning in general, as well
    as, on the development task at hand.
  • School Improvement
  • Loucks-Horsley and Hergert (1985)
  • Described seven action steps in a school
    improvement process that are based in research on
    implementation of new practices in schools
  • Cohen (1981)
  • Research on effective schools underpins an
    approach to school improvement through staff

Curriculum Development and School Improvement -
Phases of Activity
  • Identification of a problem or need by an
    individual, a group of teachers, a school
    faculty, or a district administrator.
  • Response is formulated
  • May be formal or informal
  • Response may be immediate or may require
    brainstorming sessions
  • May require consultation with a larger group
    (i.e., whole faculty)
  • Specific knowledge or skills may be required
  • Implement or produce the product

the purpose of providing training in any
practice is not simply to generate the external
visible teaching moves that bring that practice
to bear in the instructional setting but to
generate the conditions that enable the practice
to be selected and used appropriately and
integratively a major, perhaps the major,
dimension of teaching skill is cognitive in
nature Showers, Joyce, and Bennett (1987, p.
  • Many educators equate training with staff
  • Training session is conducted with a clear set of
    objectives or learner outcomes that may include
  • Awareness or knowledge
  • Skill development

Training - Underlying Assumptions
  • There are behaviors and techniques that are
    worthy of replication by teachers in the
  • That teachers can change their behaviors and
    learn to replicate behaviors in the classroom
    that were not previously in their repertoire

Training - Theoretical and Research Underpinnings
  • Training Model
  • Joyce and Showers (1988)
  • Depending on the desired outcomes, training might
  • Exploration of theory
  • Demonstration or modeling of a skill
  • Practice of a skill under simulated conditions
  • Feedback about performance
  • Coaching in the workplace
  • Combination of components is necessary if the
    outcome is skill development

Training - Theoretical and Research Underpinnings
  • Training Model
  • Sparks
  • Discussion and peer observation are important as
    training activities
  • Loucks-Horsley et al. (1987) Sparks (1983)
  • Training sessions spaced one or more weeks apart
    in order to allow for improved comprehension and
    so teachers have opportunities for classroom
    practice and peer coaching are shown to be more
    effective than one-shot sessions
  • Sparks (1983) Wu (1987) and Wood and Kleine
  • Point out the value of teachers as trainers of
    their peers

Training - Phases of activity
  • Involve participants in the planning
  • Allow for interaction in the training session
    among peers
  • After training, in-classroom assistance in the
    form of peer observation and coaching is critical
    to the transfer of more complex teaching skills

the most effective avenue for professional
development is cooperative study by teachers
themselves into a problem and issues arising from
their attempts to make practice consistent with
their educational valuesThe approach aims to
give greater control over what is to count as
valid educational knowledge to teachers. (Ingvar
son, 1987, p. 15.17)
  • Teacher inquiry may be a solitary activity, be
    done in small groups, or be conducted by school
  • May be formal or informal
  • May occur in the classroom, at a teacher center,
    or results from a university class
  • Research is an important activity in which
    teachers should be engaged, although they rarely
    participate in it other than as subjects.

Inquiry - Underlying Assumptions
  • Teachers are intelligent, inquiring individuals
    with legitimate expertise and important
  • Teachers are inclined to search for data to
    answer pressing questions and to reflect on the
    data to formulate solutions.
  • Teachers will develop new understanding as they
    formulate their questions and collect their own
    data to answer them. (Loucks-Horsley et al., 1987)

Inquiry - Theoretical and Research Underpinnings
  • Inquiry-oriented teachers
  • Dewey (1933)
  • Need for teachers to take a reflective action.
  • Zeichner (1983)
  • Advocacy for teachers as action researchers,
    teacher scholars. teacher innovators,
    self-monitoring teachers, and teachers as
    participant observers.

Inquiry - Theoretical and Research Underpinnings
  • Interactive research
  • Tikunoff (1983)
  • Interactive research and development promotes
    inquiry into the questions they are asking
    through close work with researchers (who help
    with methodology) and staff developers (who help
    with the creation of ways of sharing their
    results with others).
  • Lieberman (1986)
  • Teachers server on collaborative teams pursuing
    answers to schoolwide rather than classroom
  • Watts (1985)
  • Role of collaborative research, classroom action
    research, and teacher support groups in
    encouraging teacher inquiry.
  • Sparks (1985)
  • Use of action research to help teachers better
    relate research on teaching to their unique

Inquiry - Theoretical and Research Underpinnings
  • Action Research
  • Glickman (1986)
  • Advocates action research in the form of quality
    circles, problem-solving groups, and school
    improvement projects as a means to develop
    teacher thought.
  • Cross (1987)
  • Proposed classroom research as a means to
    evaluate their own teaching
  • Glatthorn (1987)
  • Action research by teams of teachers as a
    peer-centered option for promoting professional

Inquiry - Phases of Activity
  • Identify a problem
  • Explore ways of collecting data that may range
    from existing theoretical and research literature
    to gathering original classroom or school data
  • Analyze and interpret these data
  • Changes are made and new data are gathered to
    determine the effects of the intervention