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Special Problems


Title: Special Problems Author: Julius Wachtel Last modified by: Julius Wachtel Created Date: 4/5/2005 11:52:05 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Special Problems

Special Problems
What is terrorism?
  • Using force to intimidate or coerce society
    to advance a sociopolitical agenda
  • Creating change through violence
  • Destabilize society make authorities
    seem ineffective
  • Break a far more powerful enemys will by fear,
    psychological exhaustion and attrition
  • Example Soviet experience in Afghanistan
  • A way for powerless groups to multiply their
  • Methods
  • Individual terror assassinations and
  • Mass terror Bombings in public places
  • Guerrilla warfare

What propels terrorism?
  • Political elite in tight control
  • Large group that...
  • Is socially economically deprived
  • Has little opportunity to influence policy
  • Opposition develops
  • Revolutionary vanguard with a dynamic
  • Explanatory ideology, with justifications for
  • Recruitment of the dissatisfied, disenchanted and
  • Governments can lay the seeds of their own
  • Corruption
  • Over-response failure to respond
  • Missteps can diminish support from public, police
    and military

Historical examples
  • Russian Revolutionary terrorism
  • Italian left-wing terrorism (Red Brigades)
  • German left-wing terrorism (Baader-Meinhof)
  • Cuban revolution
  • Argentine Montoneros
  • Peruvian Shining Path
  • Northern Ireland (IRA v. the Loyalists)
  • Present places of concern
  • Ukraine Georgia
  • Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine
  • Pakistan Afghanistan
  • And on and on...

On November 10, 2005 Amman was rocked by a series
of bomb attacks. A suicide bomber set off a car
bomb at the Days Inn, another detonated a belt
bomb inside the Grand Hyatt, and a
husband-and-wife pair wore belt bombs into the
Radisson SAS. His went off, hers didnt.
Fifty-seven people were killed, mostly
Jordanians, including many attending a wedding
party at the Radisson.
International terror America as a target
1993 World Trade Center bombing
  • Al Qaeda plot to destroy the North Tower
  • Plot led by Ramzi Yousef, financed by Khalid
    Sheikh Mohammed, who later planned the 2001
  • Yousef came into the U.S. with an Iraqi passport
    and applied for asylum. An associate traveling
    separately on a forged Swedish passport was
    caught with a bomb-making manual and arrested.
  • Yousef was helped to acquire the explosives and
    make the bomb by extremist members of a New York
    City mosque
  • Ryder van contained a 1,300 pound urea/nitrate
    bomb, enhanced with oxygen cylinders. It caused
    major damage, killing six and injuring more than
  • Technicians traced a hidden VIN on a van part to
    its renter. That eventually led to the arrests
    of four who helped Yousef. Each was convicted
    and given life.
  • Yousef was arrested in Pakistan in 1995. He was
    returned to the U.S., tried and got life without
    parole. Khalid Mohammed was arrested in Pakistan
    in 2003. He and other are pending trial for
    terrorist acts, including 9/11.

9/11 attack
  • Nineteen Islamic terrorists hijacked four
    airliners in the Eastern U.S. They flew two into
    the WTC twin towers, killing 2,600.
  • Another airliner was crashed into the
    Pentagon, killing more than 100.
  • The fourth, supposedly intended for the Capitol,
    crashed in rural Pennsylvania after its
    passengers revolted. All onboard were killed.
  • All the attackers entered the U.S. legally on
    visitor and student visas, some passing through
    Bangkok, others through Hamburg. One was already
    a commercial pilot. Several took flight training
    in Arizona and Florida. Although unaware of the
    plot, a Phoenix FBI agent had alerted FBI HQ
    about suspicious persons of Middle Eastern
    descent taking flight training lessons.
  • Many tips were received during the preceding
    months that Al Qaeda was plotting to mount an
    attack using commercial airliners. The 9/11
    Commission Report severely criticized the FBI and
    CIA for failing to follow up on this and other

An uneven response
  • Created Department of Homeland Security
  • Consolidated agencies, created databases to vet
    travelers and visa applicants
  • FBI, CIA and NSA had too much political power and
    were left out
  • Tightened issuance of visas to nationals from
    certain countries
  • Loosened guidelines for initiating foreign
    intelligence cases
  • Removed firewall between intelligence and
    criminal investigation
  • Patriot Act - amended Federal law
  • Loosened restrictions on gathering electronic
    surveillance and conducting searches when
    foreigners are involved
  • Expanded the right to detain foreign nationals
  • Expanded authority to examine financial
  • One-third of FBI now dedicated to
  • Established major intelligence center to analyze
  • BUT -- is intelligence analysis the solution?
  • Police Issues Doing Nothing Flying Under
    the Radar

Lingering issues
  • FBI torn between criminal investigative and
    intelligence roles
  • How to demonstrate prowess and advance within the
    organization without making cases?
  • Rope a dope cases to respond to public
    pressures and demonstrate productivity
  • Police Issues
  • Sears Tower/Liberty City Six Rope-a-Dope
  • Fort Dix Six Making Terrorists
  • Newburgh Four The Men Who Talked Too Much
  • NYPD gets in the game Written, Produced and
  • An exception? The Najibullah Zazi case Dopes
    Not Roped
  • Shift of agents to intelligence impacted other
    investigations, especially financial crime
  • Expanded legal powers can lead to abuses
  • Making torture acceptable the waterboarding
    debacle Police Issues
  • Strained relations with Muslim communities

Domestic terror and hate movements
White supremacy
  • Common principles
  • Ethnic/religious supremacy
  • White, Christian, Anglo-Saxon origin
  • Oppose immigration
  • Guns and violence
  • Examples
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • Aryan Nations
  • Aryan Brotherhood
  • Identity Movement
  • The Order
  • National Alliance (neo-Nazi) Police Issues
  • The Face of Evil
  • Is This What the Framers Intended?

Militias and survivalists
  • Precepts
  • Paramilitary and survivalist orientations
  • Reject government authority
  • Claim government conspiracies to enslave free
  • Claim rights to use violence for self-defense
  • Anti-tax and anti-regulation
  • Oppose gun control
  • Oppose immigration
  • Militia groups in nearly every state
  • Notorious examples
  • Militia of Montana
  • Hutaree militia
  • Police Issues Is This What the Framers

Oklahoma City bombing
  • On the morning of April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh
    parked a rented truck full of explosives in front
    of the Federal Building. At 902am a massive
    explosion killed 168.
  • Two hours later McVeigh was stopped by a OK
    Highway Patrol officer for no rear license plate.
    The officer noticed a bulge in McVeighs jacket
    and arrested him for carrying a loaded .45.
  • McVeigh, an Army veteran, was a Nazi sympathizer,
    survivalist and unlicensed gun dealer. Angry at
    Waco and gun laws, he allied himself with Terry
    Nichols, acquired the explosives and carried out
    the attack -- by himself.

Apocalyptic movements
  • Groups clustered around an infallible prophet
  • Apocalyptic, end-game visions
  • Highly authoritarian
  • Obsessive control over membership,
    including mating and pairing
  • Relentless discipline, including beatings
  • Leaders engage in sexual and psychological abuse
  • Similarities with supremacists and survivalists
  • Hatred of Federal government
  • Guns and violence
  • Examples
  • Jim Jones Peoples Temple -- Jonestown
  • The Manson Family - Charles Manson
  • Covenant, Sworn and Arm of the Lord (CSA)
  • Branch Davidians and David Koresh (Waco)

Dissent and disorder
Causes of dissent
  • Vietnam war
  • U.S. presence 1956 1973 (heaviest fighting
  • More than 50,000 U.S. soldiers killed
  • Persistent racial and ethnic bias
  • Economic problems
  • Recession, inflation and high unemployment in the
  • Poverty
  • Inequality

The 1960s 1970s An era of violent protest
  • Students for a Democratic Society
  • Weathermen
  • Symbionese Liberation Army
  • Black Panther Party
  • Black Liberation Army
  • American Indian Movement

Police use of force has provoked riots
  • 1965 Watts riot
  • Rutgers homepage on the riots of the 1960s
  • 1967 Detroit Riot
  • 1967 Newark Riot
  • 1992 Rodney King Riot
  • 2009 Oakland Riots

Watts Riot -- August 11-16, 1965
  • CHP officers made a DUI arrest in South-Central
    Los Angeles
  • A disorderly crowd gathered. They were egged on
    by the suspects mother and family members. CHP
    officers arrived and dragged them away. Rock and
    bottle-throwing began, then things quickly
  • More than 30 died, more than 1,000 injured,
    hundreds arrested. Widespread looting and
    fire-setting leveled a large chunk of the Watts
    commercial district. The area never fully

1992 Rodney King Riot
  • Rodney King, drunk and high on drugs,
    was speeding. After a high-speed pursuit he
    finally stopped.
  • He ignored orders and was nearly shot by
    a nervous CHP officer. An LAPD sergeant and
    three officers took over.
  • They beat King with their batons to get him
    to comply. All were fired but acquitted of
  • Their acquittal sparked rioting and looting
    in South-Central Los Angeles. In the next seven
    days 55 persons died, 2,000 were injured
    and 12,000 were arrested.
  • Two of the officers were later convicted of
    Federal civil rights violations and served prison

Paris riots -- October 2005
  • Rioting began in the Paris suburb
    of Clichy-sous-Bois, where two youths of African
    descent being chased on foot by police were
    electrocuted in a power station.
  • Things got worse when a police tear-gas canister
    was thrown into a Mosque and then-Interior
    Minister Nicolas Sarkozy (now the President of
    France) made comments disparaging youths.
  • Soon the unrest spread to other cities, with many
    structures and hundreds of vehicles burned
  • Although the worst of the rioting was over in a
    week, a state of emergency wasnt lifted until
    January 2006

Athens riots, December 2008
  • The shooting death of a teen by Athens police in
    early December 2008 propelled a week of
    rioting, injuring scores, burning stores and
    laying waste to large areas of the city center.
  • The uprising was joined by citizens upset with
    poor economic conditions and Government
  • The two officers involved in the shooting, which
    took place during a routine confrontation
    between police and student anarchists, were
    arrested one for the killing, the other as an
  • A defense lawyer claims that the fatal bullet was
    a ricochet from a warning shot.

London riots August 2011
  • On August 4 surveillance officers in north London
    stopped a cab occupied by Mark Duggan, a young
    Caribbean drug dealer and gangster whom they
    thought was planning to avenge the stabbing death
    of his cousin.
  • The youth, who had a gun, was shot dead after
    refusing to obey police orders to stop.
  • Duggans death ignited a week of riots, arson and
    looting in lower and working-class areas of
    London and in several other British cities.
  • More than 3,000 people were arrested and more
    than 1,000 were charged.
  • Nearly 200 police officers and numerous civilians
    were injured.
  • At least five deaths were blamed on the disorder,
    including one incident where wheree men were
    charged with murder for purposively running down
    three others who were protecting their
  • Many of the rioters were unemployed minority
    youths who deeply distrust police and are
    alienated from mainstream British society.
  • However, there were also many opportunists.

2009 BART shooting
  • On January 1, 2009 BART officer Johannes
    Mehserle, 27, shot and killed a 22-year old man
    whom he and other officers had on the ground and
    were struggling to search. Mehserle stood, drew
    his gun and fired once into the mans back.
  • The shooting led to demonstrations and several
    nights of disturbances. The D.A. charged Mehserle
    with 2nd. degree murder, calling the
    shooting unlawful and done purposefully.
  • Mehserle resigned from the force. At his trial
    he claimed that he accidentally drew and fired
    his gun instead of a Taser. Jurors convicted him
    of involuntary manslaughter.
  • Police Issues postings 1 2

Ethnic crime
  • Bound through ethnicity and shared values BUT
    with highly materialistic goals
  • Fear of infiltration and ruthless enforcement
  • Traditional profit centers narcotics,
    prostitution and gambling, extortion,
    racketeering, bribery
  • Emerging profit centers alien smuggling,
    computer chip theft, international car theft,
    credit card fraud, health care fraud, insurance
    fraud, identity theft, money laundering
  • La Cosa Nostra - Italian Mafia
  • Russian Mafia
  • Prison gangs
  • Criminal street gangs
  • Motorcycle gangs Hells Angels, Bandidos and

M.S. 13 Mara Salvatrucha
  • Street gang, origins in El Salvador
  • Estimated 50,000 members in U.S. and Central
  • Began in McArthur Park area of L.A., now in 33
    States and D.C.
  • Loosely-structured federation
  • Concerns about increasing cohesiveness and
    development of a traditional OC structure
  • Armed and very violent
  • Many originally trained as Salvadoran guerrillas
  • Extortion of immigrants and small businesses
  • Immigrant smuggling
  • Carjacking, robbery, false documents, drug

Outlaw motorcycle gangs
  • Traditionally white and ride Harley- Davidsons
  • Largest gangs in the West Coast include Hells
    Angels, Bandidos, Hessians, Mongols and Vagos
  • Heavily involved in drug trafficking, especially
    the manufacture of methamphetamine
  • Many clandestine labs in the Inland Empire region
    (San Bernardino Riverside counties)
  • Try to rehabilitate their image with
    charity rides and toy drives

Street gang responses
  • Response styles
  • Concentrated enforcement Sweeps, stop-and-fris
    k campaigns, serve warrants, drug buys
  • Mixed prevention enforcement efforts Ceasefire,
    civil injunctions
  • Coordination L.A. gang czar
  • Prevention GREAT
  • Specialized gang units
  • Why are they formed -- for objective reasons or
    public pressure?
  • What do they do? What should they do?
    Enforcement? Investigation? Intelligence?
  • Are they properly guided? Officers well trained?
    Held accountable?
  • Are they providing added value? Are their
    accomplishments measured?
  • Are they excessively decoupled from their
    agencies? What are the consequences?

L.A. has a new gang czar
  • Mayor Villaraigosa finally succeeded in getting
    control of gang programs away from the City
  • Programs placed under a gang czar in the
    Mayors office
  • He was supported by City Controller Laura Chick,
    who said that uncoordinated programs were
    wasting money
  • After one year, the impact of the new system is
    an open question

When the police go too far
  • Crimes root causes are outside police control
  • Liberty interests
  • Narrow definition of criminal conduct
  • Legal constraints on police
  • Limits on wiretaps and surveillance
  • Commercial interests
  • Lax enforcement of environmental,
    commercial, immigration laws
  • Practical limitations
  • Time, money and manpower
  • Too much information
  • What information to collect? What to share? When
    to act?
  • Police better equipped to react than anticipating
  • Focus on past crimes, not prevention

Does monitoring protests have a chilling effect?
  • According to the New York Times UC NYPD officers
    infiltrate marches and bicycling events
  • Police videotapes show UC officers and informers
    at seven major events between 8/04 and 12/05
  • Officers carried protest signs, rode bicycles and
    videotaped participants
  • Police admit the surveillance. They say its
    purpose is to keep order and protect free
  • Protestors say officers distort their message and
    purposely provoke trouble
  • Bike ride sham arrest of UC officers led to the
    arrest of two protesters who came to the UCs
  • Poor Peoples March, 8/30/04 UC officer used to
    provoke disorder at end of march

Fighting domestic terrorism COINTELPRO
  • Secret FBI program (1956-1971) to discredit
    groups considered to be anti-Government
  • Black Panthers
  • Students for a Democratic Society
  • Socialist Workers Party
  • Native Americans
  • Anti-war protesters
  • NAACP and Dr. Martin Luther King
  • Methods
  • Infiltration by spies the agent provocateur
  • Burglaries and illegal phone taps
  • Fake letters and phony propaganda to create rifts
    between individuals and groups

Fighting domestic terrorism LAPD Public Disorder
Intelligence Division
  • Formed during the Red scare following WW-II
  • Spied on alleged Communists and sympathizers
  • Expanded to include anti-war protestors and
  • Infiltrated undercover officers
  • Extensive physical and electronic surveillance
  • Created a huge records system
  • Cooperated with COINTELPRO
  • Targets included L.A.s Mayor, members of the
    City Council, the Governor and members of
    Congress, the National Organization for Women,
    the Beverly Hills Democratic Club, religious,
    civil rights and environmental groups
  • In 1981 a lawsuit forced it to disband and open
    up its records
  • PDID functions were taken over by the
    Anti-Terrorist Division, with much more
    restrictive guidelines for initiating
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