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Essential Terms

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Essential Terms Jenks Middle School 8th Grade Science Instrument used for measuring metric length or distance. Meterstick Instrument used to measure metric mass. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essential Terms


1
Essential Terms
  • Jenks Middle School
  • 8th Grade Science

2
Instrument used for measuring metric length or
distance.
  • Meterstick

3
Instrument used to measure metric mass.
  • Triple-beam Balance

4
Instrument used to measure metric volume.
  • Graduated Cylinder

5
Instrument used to measure temperature.
  • Thermometer

6
Instrument used to measure weight.
  • Scale

7
A situation or question concerning the natural
world.
  • Problem

8
A proposed solution to a problem educated guess
  • Hypothesis

9
An organized test for the hypothesis that
includes controls variables.
  • Experiment

10
The part of the experiment that is being tested
does change
  • Variable

11
The part of the experiment that is kept at normal
conditions does not change
  • Control

12
The information that is gained from an
experiment graphs charts
  • Data

13
Statements concerning whether the experiment
accepts/rejects the hypothesis.
  • Conclusion

14
Invisible envelope of gasses that surrounds the
Earth.
  • Atmosphere

15
The rigid outer layer of Earth contains the
crust upper mantle
  • Lithosphere

16
The water portion of the Earth contains all the
seas, oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.
  • Hydrosphere

17
Naturally occurring inorganic, crystalline solids
that make up rocks.
  • Mineral

18
The compound of Oxygen Silicon that forms the
majority of the minerals.
  • Silicate

19
Mineral characteristic of breaking into smooth,
definite surfaces.
  • Cleavage

20
The powder left behind when a mineral is rubbed
on a rough surface.
  • Streak

21
A mineral's ability to resist being scratched.
  • Hardness

22
The way light reflects off of a mineral's
surface.
  • Luster

23
List of 10 minerals according to hardness used
to identify unknown hardnesses.
  • Mohs Scale

24
A hard substance made of one or more minerals.
  • Rock

25
A type of rock produced by cementing compacting
(Clastic/Chemical)
  • Sedimentary

26
A type of rock changed by heat, pressure or by
chemicals (Foliated/Nonfoliated)
  • Metamorphic

27
A type of rock formed by cooling lava/magma
(Coarse grained/Fine grained)
  • Igneous

28
This idea states that the Earth's crust is broken
into moving sections.
  • Theory of Plate Tectonics

29
He proposed the Theory of Continental Drift
  • Wegener

30
The name for the "original" single landmass of
Earth.
  • Pangaea

31
Area that divides the mantle from the crust
  • Moho Boundary

32
Type of plate boundary where the plates collide
  • Convergent

33
Type of plate boundary where the plates separate
(seafloor spreading)
  • Divergent

34
Type of plate boundary where the plates grind
past each other in opposite ways.
  • Transform Fault

35
Molten rock that cools hardens inside the
Earth's crust
  • Magma

36
Molten rock that is expelled from a volcano or
fissure onto the surface.
  • Lava

37
Type of dome shaped volcano made of lava flows
  • Shield

38
Type of volcano made of pyroclastic material
  • Cindercone

39
Type of volcano that has long dormancies with
short violent eruptions
  • Composite

40
A crack in the Earth's crust
  • Fault

41
A bend in the Earth's crust
  • Fold

42
An upward fold in the rock.
  • Anticline

43
A downward fold in the rock
  • Syncline

44
Scale used to measure the intensity of seismic
energy during an earthquake.
  • Richter Scale

45
Instrument used to measure seismic energy waves.
  • Seismograph

46
The collective processes that result in the
formation of mountains.
  • Orogenesis

47
The removal transportation of rock/soil by
wind, water, or ice.
  • Erosion

48
Proportion of dissolved salts to pure water in
bodies of water.
  • Salinity

49
Massive sheets of compacted ice snow found at
high elevations the poles.
  • Glacier

50
Water that soaks into the ground and remains
there.
  • Ground water

51
Longest era in Earth's history
  • Precambrian

52
Era containing the Age of Invertebrates, Fish,
Amphibians
  • Paleozoic

53
Era containing the Age of Reptiles/Dinosaurs
  • Mesozoic

54
Era containing the Age of Reptiles/Dinosaurs
  • Mesozoic

55
Current era known as the Age of Mammals
  • Cenozoic

56
Period that ended with the largest extinction in
Earth's history
  • Permian

57
He stated that the Earth was the center of the
Universe and designed a model.
  • Ptolemy

58
He calculated that the planets have elliptical
orbits around the Sun
  • Kepler

59
He stated that the Sun was at the center the
Earth rotates on an axis.
  • Copernicus

60
He discovered the general laws of motion and
gravity.
  • Newton

61
This idea states that the Universe began in a
cataclysmic explosion.
  • Big Bang Theory

62
This idea states that our solar system formed
from a cloud of interstellar gas.
  • Nebula Hypothesis

63
This idea states that objects in motion stay in
motion, ones at rest stay at rest.
  • Law of Inertia

64
This idea states that objects in space have
elliptical orbits.
  • Law of Planetary Motion

65
This idea states that for every action there is a
reaction in the opposite direction.
  • Law of Action/Reaction

66
Plant that has the fastest revolutionary period.
  • Mercury

67
Hottest planet in the solar system due to the
greenhouse effect.
  • Venus

68
Largest planet in the solar system that could
have become a very small star.
  • Jupiter

69
Planet that has the most elaborate ring system
made of rock ice.
  • Saturn

70
Blue-green planet that rotates on its side.
  • Uranus

71
Blue planet that has the fastest recorded wind
speeds in the solar system.
  • Neptune

72
Planet that has a moon half its size.
  • Pluto

73
The spinning of an astronomical object on an
imaginary axis
  • Rotation

74
The distance it takes for an object to make a
full orbit around another in space
  • Revolution

75
Instrument used to measure doppler effect
composition of stars.
  • Spectrometer

76
Apparent shift in the wavelength of light/sound
caused by an object's movement
  • Doppler Effect

77
Fusing of 2 or more elemental atoms to form a
single atom producing energy.
  • Thermonuclear Fusion

78
The amount of light that a star actually gives
off.
  • Absolute Magnitude

79
The brightness of a star as it appears in the
night sky.
  • Apparent Magnitude

80
Smallest of all stars that have high density,
spin fast, and blink/pulse.
  • Neutron Star

81
Collapse of a massive star to a point where
gravity prevents the escape of light
  • Black Hole

82
Small stars that are usually cool in temperature
and dim in brightness.
  • Dwarf Star

83
Classification for the majority of stars on the
H-R diagram
  • Main Sequence

84
Most massive/largest of all star sizes in the
Universe
  • Supergiant

85
Large sized stars that range from very cool to
very hot.
  • Giant

86
Physical process of heating liquid water so it
changes into water vapor (gas)
  • Evaporation

87
Physical process of water vapor (gas) cooling to
change into liquid water.
  • Condensation

88
Water that falls to the ground in the form of
rain, sleet, snow, or hail.
  • Precipitation

89
The push of the atmosphere on the Earth's crust
due to the pull of gravity
  • Air Pressure

90
Instrument used to measure air pressure.
  • Barometer

91
The lateral movement of air due to changes in air
pressure.
  • Wind

92
Instrument used to measure wind speed.
  • Anemometer

93
Phenomena caused by Earth's rotation that
air/water is shifted a certain direction
  • Coriolis Effect

94
The measurement of the amount of water vapor in
the atmosphere.
  • Humidity

95
Instrument used to measure relative humidity.
  • Psychrometer

96
Suspended droplets of water (aerosol) in the
atmosphere.
  • Clouds

97
A warm air mass invades a cold air mass possibly
producing long periods of rain
  • Warm Front

98
A cold air mass invades a warm air mass possibly
producing fast thunderstorms.
  • Cold Front

99
A cold air mass catches up to a warm air mass and
overtakes it.
  • Occluded Front

100
A cold air mass and warm air mass collide
producing no further air movement.
  • Stationary Front

101
A dry air mass invades a moist air mass possibly
producing fast thunderstorms.
  • Dry Line
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