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Unit I: Colonialism and the American Revolution

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Unit I: Colonialism and the American Revolution Examining the formation of the American Identity Essential Questions: 1. What elements in colonial society fostered ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit I: Colonialism and the American Revolution


1
Unit I Colonialism and the American Revolution
  • Examining the formation of the American Identity

2
Essential Questions 1. What elements in
colonial society fostered revolution?2. How did
the issues of the American Revolution contribute
to the formation of a unique American Identity?
3
Colonial AmericaAmerican Pageant Chapters 2-4
  • 1500s-1750s

4
Planting English America
  • America was multicultural from the beginning.
  • Who came before the English?
  • Spanish South America and Southeast
  • French Interior, Canada and Louisiana
  • What were some of the issues they experienced?
  • Who did they affect in their pursuit of the New
    World?
  • What led the English to colonize America?

5
Planting English America
  • Incentives for Colonization Resources
  • Wool The demand for wool made many in England
    use their land for Sheep herding rather than
    farming.
  • Food The supply declined while the population
    was rebounding from the plague. People needed
    LAND.
  • Mercantilism This is the belief that the worlds
    wealth was finite. One person or nation could
    grow wealthy at the expense of another. This led
    to a dash for land in the New World for
    RESOURCES.
  • All this contributes to the industrial revolution
    and the great changes in Europe - leading to the
    other incentive to find new lands - Religion.

6
Planting English America
  • Incentives for Colonization Reformation
  • Martin Luther Germany 1517. He challenged some
    of the basic principles of Catholicism. The 95
    theses led the movement against the church.
  • John Calvin Rejected the notion that human
    behavior affected salvation. Believed in
    predestination. God elected those who would
    succeed.
  • English Reformation King Henry VIII broke ties
    with the Catholic church, making himself the head
    of the Church of England. The Pope refused to
    grant a divorce from his wife. This led to
    widespread issues among Catholics and
    Protestants.
  • Queen Mary After the death of the King brought
    back the Catholic church.
  • Elizabeth I Upon taking the throne, severed ties
    with the church once again.
  • Puritans and Separatists Wanted to completely
    reject the Catholic doctrine. They felt that the
    Church of England was too much like the old
    church.

7
Planting English America
  • First Colonies in America
  • Roanoke The Lost Colony
  • Charter Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Walter Raleigh
    obtained permission to begin a venture into the
    New World. Gilbert was lost at sea in 1583 and
    left Raleigh with the charter.
  • The Colony With Sir Richard Grenville, the two
    led a small group of men to Roanoke island.
    Grenville left the colony to fend for themselves
    in 1585. The settlers had a difficult time with
    the Natives and the venture was abandoned.
  • Croatoan In 1587, they tried again, leaving a
    group on the island. This time the colony
    disappeared. After the war with the Spanish in
    1588, the English reurned to only find CROATOAN
    etched on a tree.

8
Roanoke Colony
9
Planting English America
  • First Colonies in America
  • Jamestown
  • Aftermath of Roanoke The failed venture defined
    the next attempts in many ways 1. Colonies
    became businesses 2. Most colonies were tied to
    the crown 3. Each colony would transplant a
    piece of the English society 4. Nothing worked
    out as planned
  • Early Chesapeake 104 settlers survived the
    journey to America and settled on the shores of
    the Chesapeake bay in 1607. They established a
    colony on a river they names James. They called
    the colony Jamestown.
  • Problems and Leadership Malaria and other
    epidemics plagued the colonists. JOHN SMITH a 27
    year old traveler took the lead and devised a
    system, imposing work and order to help the
    colony.

10
Jamestown
11
Planting English America
  • First Colonies in America
  • Jamestown
  • Virginia Company Was the business venture that
    led to the creation of Jamestown. Through
    Indenture Servitude they gave settlers free
    passage to Virginia as long as they provided 5-7
    years of service.
  • Starving Time From 1609-1610 the colony
    experienced drought and disease. The Native
    Americans from the region fought the settlers,
    keeping them in the fort. They lived on anything
    possible.
  • John Smith Recounts the Starving Time
  • The starving time is representative of the clash
    of cultures that happened in the New World. It
    led to issues with the Powhatan (The Native
    American Chief) and the settlers.

12
Planting English America
  • First Colonies in America
  • Jamestown
  • First Anglo-Powhatan War Lord De La Warr came to
    the colony after the starving time and declared
    war against the Native Americans. The peace
    settlement ended with John Rolfes marriage to
    Pocahontas.
  • Tobacco Rolfe figured out a way to harvest the
    tobacco, saving the colony from financial ruin.
    Indentured servants were originally the primary
    labor force for the colonies, but in 1619 the
    first slaves were introduced to the colonies from
    a Dutch Ship.
  • War Despite the cooperation between Rolfe and
    the Natives, another attack came from the
    Powhatan in 1622, which killed Rolfe and other
    settlers.
  • Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644 the Natives
    tried to remove the settlers one last time, but
    failed. Eventually the Native Americans were no
    longer a factor in the region.

13
Planting English America
  • First Colonies in America
  • Jamestown
  • Question to discuss
  • How does the treatment of the Powhatan set the
    tone for future relation with Native Americans
    and the English?
  • How does this treatment contribute to the
    development of American Identity?

14
Maryland
  • Maryland and the Calverts
  • George Calvert The first lord of Baltimore,
    wanted to establish a colony in the new world,
    but died before he could achieve this goal. He
    was a Catholic Convert and wanted a place to get
    away from Anglican oppression. His son achieved
    the charter in 1632.
  • The Ark and The Dove brought the new settlers to
    the new colony and established it.
  • They wanted Catholics but needed the Protestants
    to make the colony fruitful. Therefore, the
    colony had Catholics in the minority. 1649 they
    instilled the Act of Toleration, which guaranteed
    the freedom to express what ever religion they
    wanted.
  • Maryland soon became the center of Tobacco
    cultivation and brought money in from that cash
    crop.

15
Restoration Colonies
  • The English Civil War
  • Charles I Dissolved Parliament in 1629. In need
    of money, he brought them back in 1640 to levy
    taxes on the people. He dismissed them twice in
    the next tow years and the members of Parliament
    organized a military force against the King.
  • Cavaliers vs. The Roundheads Cavaliers
    (Supporters of the King) and Roundheads (Puritans
    who were against the King from Parliament)
    battled for seven years. 1649the Roundheads
    defeated the King and beheaded him.
  • Oliver Cromwell replaced the King and assumed the
    role as protector. Cromwell died in 1658 and two
    years later King Charles II son of the beheaded
    monarch came back to regain the throne in what
    became known as the restoration. Charles II
    rewarded the faithful with lands in the New World
    (Carolina, NY, NJ, and Penn.)

16
Restoration Colonies
  • The Carolinas
  • John Locke Helped draw up the State Constitution
    in 1669 after the people came over to Charlestown
    and Port Royal. The King would eventually make
    them separate colonies.
  • North Many people from Virginia came to the
    colony to help establish it. It began to
    distinguish itself from the south. Rice was a
    major export for both colonies. Also, the
    colonies were able to export resources such as
    lumber and indigo to England.

17
Restoration Colonies
  • Georgia
  • The English needed a barrier between the colonies
    and the Spanish. Originally developed to assist
    in this venture, it slowly had a similar society
    to that of South Carolina.
  • General James Oglethorpe was the man who led the
    settlers there and began to fortify the colony.
  • Oglethorpe made it into a debtors colony -
    helping those who had financial ruin.

18
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