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Effect of Design Quality on Manufacturing Cost [Ull97, p.3]

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Title: Effect of Design Quality on Manufacturing Cost [Ull97, p.3] Author: Engineering Last modified by: Paul Kurowski Created Date: 12/6/2000 12:49:31 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effect of Design Quality on Manufacturing Cost [Ull97, p.3]


1
THIS WEEK LAB Form design teams and decide
what youll design THIS WEEK HOMEWORK QFD
Design Specifications Read PDS and QFD
PDS and QFD ES1050 lecture CDEN2006 Ins
tall SolidWorks2011
2
(No Transcript)
3
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS
  • Specification Development / Planning Phase
  • Determine need, customer and engineering
    requirements
  • Develop a project plan
  • Conceptual Design Phase
  • Generate and evaluate concepts
  • Select best solution
  • Detail Design Phase
  • CAD models
  • Engineering drawings
  • Design documentation
  • Part specification
  • Prototype and testing
  • Production Phase
  • Component manufacture and assembly

This is the extend of MME2259a design project
Production, service and retirement phases
consideration will have an impact on the MME2259a
design project, especially in the detailed design
phase.
4
DESIGN INFLUENCES THE FOLLOWING Product
Quality Product Manufacturing Cost Product Cost
5
DESIGN INFLUENCE ON PRODUCT QUALITY
Quality is a composite of factors that are
responsibility of the design engineer. Decisions
made during the design process determine the
products quality as perceived by the
customers. Quality cannot be built into a
product unless it is designed into it
6
DESIGN INFLUENCE ON MANUFACTURING AND PRODUCT COST
100
of product cost committed
80
of product manufacturing cost committed
60
40
20
0
Time
Specification Development
Conceptual Design
Detailed Design
Note that ¾ of the product cost associated with
design is committed by the end of the conceptual
design phase Early design decisions have the
greatest effect on the final product cost.
7
DESIGN PROCESS PARADOX
Freedom
Knowledge of Design
100
Design Freedom
0
Time into Design Process
8
SEQUENTIAL VS. CONCURRENT PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Marketing
Research and Development
Engineering
Manufacturing
Sequential Product Development should be avoided
9
SEQUENTIAL VS. CONCURRENT PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Research and Development
Marketing
Engineering
Voice of customer
Satisfaction of customer needs
Manufacturing
Service
Concurrent Product Development is preferred
10
WE ARE NOW READY TO DESIGN A PRODUCT BUT HOW DO
WE KNOW THAT CUSTOMERS WILL BUY IT?
11
Time was when a man could order a pair of shoes
directly from the cobbler. By measuring the foot
himself and personally handling all aspects of
manufacturing, the cobbler could assure the
customer would be satisfied
http//www.qfdi.org
12
TODAY MANUFACTURING HAPPENS VERY FAR FROM
CUSTOMERS, ITS EASY TO LOST TOUCH ...
As sales ordered it
As engineering designed it
As marketing requested it
As production manufactured it
What the customer really wanted !!
As plant installed it
13
IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMER RESEARCH
Customer research is essential to developing any
new product or service. Without a complete
understanding of your customers wants and needs,
you may be developing a product that is
out-of-sync with your market and ultimately
doomed to failure. http//www.ams-inc.com/
14
DIFFERENT WAYS TO FIND WHAT CUSTOMERS NEED AND
WANT
  • Use existing feedback
  • Surveys
  • Customer interviews
  • Competitive analysis
  • Just ask them
  • Actual ways companies use to find customers
    needs and wants are tightly guarded trade secrets!

15
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS WHAT?
  • Must be discriminatory
  • Must be measurable
  • Must be orthogonal no overlapping of
    requirements, each requirement should identify a
    unique feature
  • Must be universal applicable to all alternatives
    under consideration
  • Must be external to problem must not impose
    design choices

16
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
Must be discriminatory
17
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
Must be measurable
18
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
Must be orthogonal no overlapping of
requirements, each requirement should identify a
unique feature
19
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
Must be universal applicable to all alternatives
under consideration
20
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
Must be external to problem must not impose
design choices
21
WE SATISFY CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS BY DESIGNING A
PRODUCT THAT IS CHARACTERIZED BY CERTAIN
SPECIFICATIONS
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION HOW?
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS WHAT?
22
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS HOW
  • Other names for engineering design specifications
    include
  • Engineering design specifications
  • Engineering requirements
  • Design requirements
  • Functional requirements
  • Objectives and constraints
  • Technical requirements
  • Technical specifications

23
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION (PDS) LIST Is a
detailed summary of the design requirements to be
met in order to produce a successful product or
process. BASIC APPROACH TO CREATE PDS Write a
separate specification for each element of the
PDS list. If possible, the specification should
be expressed in quantitative terms, and when
appropriate it should give limits within which
acceptable performance lies. Performance
attributes may be divided into (i) attributes
that must be satisfied (ii) attributes that you
want to satisfy
24
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS (PDS) LIST
  • 1. Performance - List the functions to be
    performed by the product, and the desired level
    of performance (eg. engineering requirements,
    targets, specifications).
  • 2. Operating Environment - Specify the operating
    environment for the product (eg. range of
    temperature, pressure range, abuse by operator,
    etc).
  • 3. Standards - List relevant standards that must
    be adhered to (eg. ANSI, ASTM, CSA, ISO)
  • 4. Materials - Poorly chosen materials can lead
    to product failure or unnecessary costs (eg.
    material performance characteristics, key
    material properties)
  • 5. Customer - List any information on customer
    likes, dislikes, preferences, and prejudices
    (customer driven design)
  • 6. Ergonomics - Identify any man-machine
    interfaces (eg. need for handles, buttons,
    displays).
  • 7. Aesthetics, Appearance and Finish - Consider
    color, shape, texture, and form at the onset of
    the design (this is what the customer sees
    first).
  • 8. Competition Benchmarking - Perform a thorough
    analysis of existing and future competitors
    (determine how the customer perceives the
    competitions ability to meet each design
    requirement).

25
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS (PDS) LIST
  • 9. Quality and Reliability - High risk areas of
    the product should be identified, and the risks
    minimized using formal trade-off techniques in
    the design process (product must meet or exceed
    customers expectations).
  • 10. Testing and Inspection - Specify the tests
    required to demonstrate that the product meets
    the desired specifications, and any quality
    requirements.
  • 11. Maintenance and Logistics - Specify ease of
    access to the components likely to require
    maintenance (speed and ease of repair can
    influence customers acceptance of the product).
  • 12. Service Life - Establish the expected service
    life and operation duty cycle for the product
    (How long is it expected to last while in
    operation).
  • 13. Market Constraints - List any feedback from
    the marketplace.
  • 14. Target Product Cost - Establish selling cost
    at the onset of the design process (Retail price
    is often 3X manufacturing cost for mass produced
    items).
  • 15. Quantity - Estimate the number of products to
    be produced (cost/unit to fabricate is influenced
    by production method).
  • 16. Product Life Span - Predict how long the
    product is to remain on the market (influences
    investment decisions, potential sales).

26
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS (PDS) LIST
  • 17. Shelf Life in Storage - Consideration must be
    made for protecting parts from the natural
    elements while not in use (some products must be
    stored on hazardous sites for prolonged periods
    of time).
  • 18. Size - This is an important constraint for
    shipping, storage and marketing.
  • 19. Weight - An important factor in handling a
    product on the manufacturing floor,
    transportation and installation (weight is
    related to size and cost).
  • 20. Shipping - Determine how the product will be
    delivered to the customer (size of box cars,
    weight on transport trucks).
  • 21. Packaging - Specify the type of packaging
    required for shipping and storage (protection
    during transportation, display).
  • 22. In-House Processes - Identify any specified
    treatment of parts (eg. heat treatment, water
    resistant coating).
  • 23. Manufacturing Facilities - Determine whether
    the product is to be produced in an existing
    facility or a new plant must be built (effects
    design choices such as materials and shape,
    directly effects cost).
  • 24. Patents - Consult all areas of useful
    information prior to launching the design
    (prevent costly lawsuits).

27
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS (PDS) LIST
25. Design Schedule - List definite milestones
that the design team is required to meet
(schedule adequate time to due design activity,
testing). 26. Company Constraints - Any
constraints imposed by company must be spelled
out (limits on new plant investments, preferred
vendors/suppliers). 27. Social and Political
Factors - List any constraints arising from
government regulation (eg. pollution laws,
seatbelt legislation, ). 28. Safety - Critical
parts whose failure will cause injury must be
identified and documented (Warning labels should
be devised and operating manuals should clearly
spell out what is abusive use of the product).
Ullman 1992
28
YOU WILL HAVE TO DEVELOP DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
CONSIDERING THESE 28 FACTORS
1. Performance 2. Operating Environment
3. Standards 4. Materials 5. Customer
6. Ergonomics 7. Aesthetics, Appearance and
Finish 8. Competition Benchmarking 9. Quality
and Reliability 10. Testing and Inspection
11. Maintenance and Logistics 12. Service Life
13. Market Constraints 14. Target Product Cost
15. Quantity 16. Product Life Span 17. Shelf
Life in Storage 18. Size 19. Weight
20. Shipping 21. Packaging 22. In-House
Processes 23. Manufacturing Facilities
24. Patents 25. Design Schedule 26. Company
Constraints 27. Social and Political
Factors 28. Safety
29
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION A WATER MIXER TAP
Selected specifications Maximum pressure 15
bar Maximum temperature 60OC (standard) 100OC
(short time) Flow 20L/min Service life 8
years
These specifications are input for a designers
analysis of the required functionality and
constraints.
30
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION A WATER MIXER TAP
The specification is an input for a designers
analysis of the required functionality and
constraints. For example The flow of water is
either stopped or metered such that the mixed
temperature can be adjusted to any desired value
regardless of the water flow rate. Furthermore,
the water flow rate must remain unchanged as
temperature changes.
  • Functions Meter
  • Stop
  • Adjust
  • Mix
  • Inputs Pressure
  • Flow rate
  • Temperature of hot and cold water
  • Outputs Pressure
  • Flow rate
  • Temperature of mixed water

31
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION AN ELECTRIC
TOOTHBRUSH
32
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION A SEAT SUSPENSION
33
WE NOW KNOW WHAT ARE CUSTOMERS NEEDS AND WE KNOW
HOW TO DEVELOP PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS TO MEET
THOSE NEEDS. HOWEVER, DESIGN PROCESS IS FULL OF
TRADE-OFFS AND NOT ALL SPECIFICATIONS CAN BE
FULLY SATISFIED. WE NEED A WAY TO PRIORITIZE
THOSE SPECIFICATIONS. WE ALSO NEED A
QUANTITATIVE WAY TO COMPARE OUR (YET TO BE
DESIGNED) PRODUCT TO EXISTING COMPETITIVE
PRODUCTS. HOW DO WE CONNECT CUSTOMERS NEEDS TO
PRIORITIZED DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS?
34
WE SATISFY CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS BY DESIGNING A
PRODUCT IS CHARACTERIZED BY CERTAIN
SPECIFICATIONS
PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION HOW?
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS WHAT?
QFD LINKS CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS WITH PRODUCT
DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
35
QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)
Deployment The distribution of forces in
preparation for battle or work
36
QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)
QFD was developed to bring this personal
interface to modern manufacturing and business.
In today's industrial society, where the growing
distance between producers and users is a
concern, QFD links the needs of the customer (end
user) with design, development, engineering,
manufacturing, and service functions. Quality
Function Deployment is a technique developed in
Japan during the mid-1970's for better
understanding the design problem, in particular
of customer needs and to relate them to product
design specifications.
37
AN INFLATABLE KAYAK
In class exercise
38
AN INFLATABLE KAYAK
  • STEPS IN QFD EXERCISE
  • Identify the customers 
  • Determine the customers' requirements What do
    the customers want?  
  • Determine relative importance of the
    requirements 
  • Generate engineering specifications How will the
    customers' requirements be met? 
  • Relate customers requirements to engineering
    specifications
  • Identify relationships between engineering
    requirements
  • Identify and evaluate the competition How
    satisfied is the customer now? 
  • Set engineering targets How much is good enough?

39
1. Identify customers Who are they?
CORRELATION MATRIX
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
WHO?
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
QFD Chart also called HOUSE OF QUALITY
40
2. Determine customers requirements What do
customers need and want?
CORRELATION MATRIX
WHO?
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
41
3. Determine the relative importance of
customers requirements.
CORRELATION MATRIX
WHO?
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
42
4. Generate engineering requirements (PDS) How
will the customers requirements be met?
CORRELATION MATRIX
WHO?
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
43
5. Relate customers requirements to engineering
requirements
CORRELATION MATRIX
WHO?
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
44
6. Identify relationships between engineering
requirements
CORRELATION MATRIX
WHO?
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
45
7. Identify and evaluate competition. How
satisfied is the customer now?
CORRELATION MATRIX
WHO?
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
46
8. Set engineering targets How much is good
enough?
CORRELATION MATRIX
WHO?
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS
RELATIONSHIP MATRIX
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
IMPORTANCE
COMPETITION
TARGETS
47
HAVE WE MET OUR TARGETS AT THE END OF THE DESIGN
PROCESS?
Beginning of design process PDS
End of design Process Prototype
?
Well do this at the end of the design project
48
AN INFLATABLE KAYAK
Competitor B
Competitor A
49
AN INFLATABLE KAYAK
Mass
76
73
50
DESIGN INFLUENCE ON PRODUCT COST
100
of product cost committed
80
60
40
20
0
Time
Specification Development
Conceptual Design
Detailed Product Design
Having completed the design specification phase
we have already committed 40 of product cost!
51
FOUR PHASE QFD APPROACH
1. Product Planning- Translating what the
customer wants (in their language, e.g.,
portable, convenient phone service) into a list
of prioritized product/service design
requirements (in your language, e.g., cell
phones) that describes how the product works. It
also compares your performance with your
competition's, and sets targets for improvement
to differentiate your product/service from your
competitor's. 2. Part Planning - Translating
product specifications (design criteria from step
1) into part characteristics (e.g., light weight,
belt-clip, battery-driven, not-hardwired but
radio-frequency based). 3. Process Planning -
Translating part characteristics (from step 2)
into optimal process characteristics that
maximize your ability to deliver Six Sigma
quality 4. Production Planning - Translating
process characteristics (from step 3) into
manufacturing or service delivery methods that
will optimize your ability to deliver Six Sigma
quality in the most efficient manner (e.g.,
cellular antennas installed with overlapping
coverage to eliminate dropped calls).
52
FOUR PHASE QFD APPROACH
Product Planning
Component Design
Process Planning
Production Planning
53
TWO PHASE QFD APPROACH
54
LOG SPLITTER
Partial PDS Size of log Width Diameter Time to
split Type of wood (pine, oak, ) Weight Portabili
ty Terrain? Max towing speed?
Customer requirements Any log size Works
fast Tow-able Lightweight Inexpensive Last
forever
55
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