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Permanency

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... language Child s immediate and ongoing needs Level of care Siblings Permanency Visitation Caregiver s ability to keep child safe ... Foster Children ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Permanency


1
Permanency PlacementVersion 2.3, 2013Day 1
2
Goals for the Training
  • In this training we will cover
  • The rules and regulations governing permanency
    and placement
  • The importance of permanency
  • Cultural differences in permanency placement
  • The emotional and developmental consequences of
    placement
  • Placement decision making

3
Learning Objectives
  • Review the Learning Objectives
  • Identify your priorities
  • Establish the learning priorities of the group

4
Activity Whats in it for Me?
  • What do I hope to learn in this training?

5
Training Evaluation
  • Testing, testing

6
What is Permanency?
  • Permanence
  • Legal Permanency Options
  • Emotional Permanency
  • Concurrent Planning

7
Youth Permanency Essentials
  • Lifelong connections
  • Skills for living interdependently
  • Youth involvement

8
History of Child Welfare Placement
  • Complete the
  • time line of
  • events from
  • 1854 to 2011

9
Historical Timeline
  • 1854 Orphan Trains
  • 1874 Mary Ellen is protected in the first court
    intervention on behalf of a child
  • 1909 The White House Conference on Dependent
    Children identifies two key values
  • poverty alone is not grounds to remove children,
    and
  • children should be placed in homes, not
    institutions

10
Historical Timeline
  • 1935 Social Security Act
  • 1972 Stanley vs. Illinois recognizes the rights
    of unwed fathers
  • 1974 National Child Abuse Treatment and
    Prevention Act
  • 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act
  • 1980 Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act

11
Historical Timeline
  • 1990 Katz Concurrent Planning Study
  • 1994 Multi-Ethnic Placement Act
  • 1996 Interethnic Adoption Provisions
  • 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act

12
Historical Timeline
  • 2001 Promoting Safe and Stable Families Chafee
    Amendment
  • 2004 AB 408
  • 2005 AB 1412
  • 2012 Fostering Connections/ After 18 (AB 12)

13
How far have we come?
  • What are the key positive developments?
  • Were you surprised by the timing of the events?
  • Where do we need to focus our change efforts?

14
Laws and Policies Matching Game
  • Wait for all tables to receive the cards and
    instructions before turning the cards over
  • Match the card with the name of the law to the
    card with a longer explanation of the same law

15
Foster Childrens Bill of Rights
Enacted in 2001 and listed in WIC 16001.9 WIC
requires the bill of rights be explained to every
school-age child Any facility licensed to care
for six or more children in must post the bill of
rights
16
Honorary Honorables
  • The roles
  • The family
  • The factors to consider
  • The decision

17
Family Before the Court
  • The Washington Jackson children
  • LaTrecee Washington, 6
  • Joe Jackson, 6
  • The adults in the home
  • Rhonda Washington, 25
  • Dale Jackson, 25

18
Key Considerations
  • Cause for removal based on WIC 300
  • Reasonable efforts (from the Adoption Assistance
    and Child Welfare Act)
  • Remember ASFA time limits

19
Key Considerations
  • Right to reunification services (ASFA, WIC)
  • Visitation (WIC)
  • Foster care drift

20
Key Considerations
  • Best interest of the child
  • Ensuring placement decisions consider the childs
    developmental needs

21
Key Considerations
  • Non-custodial parents (WIC 361)
  • Placement in another state (ICPC)
  • Same-race placements (MEPA)

22
Key Considerations
  • Tribal sovereignty and tribal connections (ICWA)
  • Active efforts (ICWA)
  • Tribal Customary Adoption (AC 1325)
  • Sibling visits (WIC)
  • School placement (AB 490)

23
Key Considerations
  • Intersection of
  • ASFA
  • ICWA
  • MEPA
  • Working collaboratively with tribes
  • Conflicting guidelines
  • AB 408
  • Caregiver selection
  • SAFETY

24
Make a recommendation
  • What factors need to be considered?
  • How are you going to engage the parents?
  • How would you engage extended kin?
  • What are the educational needs of the children?
  • What is your recommendation?

25
Remember to consider
  • Concurrent planning for permanency -
  • Plan A and Plan B should be established at the
    same time

26
Permanency in California - Quiz
  • Take your best guess!
  • How do your experiences compare with the
    statewide data?

27
What the numbers show
  • As of December 31, 2010, what percentage of
    children and youth in out-of-home placement in
    California are living with kin?
  • Answer
  • a. 10 foster home
  • b. 34 relative home
  • c. 29 foster family agency
  • d. 7 group home
  • e. 21 other

28
What the numbers show
  • Overall in California, when children and youth
    are removed where are they most likely to be
    placed first?
  • Answer
  • a. Kinship home 22
  • b. Foster home 19
  • c. Foster Family Agency 45
  • d. Group home/Shelter 11
  • e. Other 3

29
What the numbers show
  • Some children and youth who are placed stay in
    foster care for only a few days. For those who
    stay at least eight days in placement, what
    percentage is still in out of home care one year
    later?
  • Answer
  • c. 55

30
What the numbers show
  • What percentage of foster care placements include
    some or all of a childs siblings?
  • Answer
  • c. 73

31
What the numbers show
  • How many of the children in foster care on 1/1/11
    had been in care for more than two years?
  • Answer
  • d. 41

32
What the numbers show
  • What percentage of foster children and youth in
    care for longer than 24 months have had more than
    2 placements?
  • Answer
  • b. 67

33
What the numbers show
  • 59 of youth aging out of the system at age 18
    were in care for 3 years or longer.
  • 57 of youth who aged out of the system between
    10/1/10 and 12/31/10 had completed high school or
    obtained a GED.
  • 30 of youth who aged out of the system between
    10/1/10 and 12/31/10 had a job.

34
Substantiated Allegations in California
  • Asian children Underrepresented
  • (3 per 1000)
  • Black children Overrepresented
  • (22 per 1000)
  • Hispanic children Proportionate
  • (9 per 1000)
  • Native American children Overrepresented (16 per
    1000)
  • White children Underrepresented
  • (7 per 1000)

35
Children Removed from Home in CA
  • Asian children Underrepresented
  • (1 per 1000)
  • Black children Overrepresented
  • (10 per 1000)
  • Hispanic children Proportionate
  • (3 per 1000)
  • Native American children Overrepresented (8 per
    1000)
  • White children Proportionate
  • (3 per 1000)

36
All Children in Placement in California
  • Asian children Underrepresented
  • (1 per 1000)
  • Black children Overrepresented
  • (24 per 1000)
  • Hispanic children Proportionate
  • (5 per 1000)
  • Native American children Overrepresented (17 per
    1000)
  • White children Underrepresented
  • (5 per 1000)

37
What the numbers show
38
How did you do?
  • What surprised you?
  • What bothered you?

39
Culture and Permanency
  • Families have values related to permanency
  • Social workers have values related to permanency
  • Cultural filters or cultural assumptions can
    impact permanency outcomes for children and
    youth

40
Culture and Placement
  • Race is the single greatest predictor of adoption
    as a permanency outcome with African American
    children and youth much less likely to be adopted
    (McRoy, 2000)
  • African American youth are less likely to have
    legal permanency (Potter and Klein-Rothschild
    2002)

41
Median length of time in care
  • Black children 32.3 months
  • White children 28 months
  • Hispanic children 31.3 months
  • Asian / Pacific Islander children 28.9 months
  • Native American children 33.8 months

42
Percent adopted within 24 months
  • Black children 25.9
  • White children 35.2
  • Hispanic children 28.5
  • Asian / Pacific Islander children 35.4
  • Native American children 28.6

43
Conflicting Data
  • African Americans more open to foster care and
    adoption of children with special needs
  • Relative caregivers interested in adoption
  • Relative caregiver not offered adoption as an
    option

44
Key Message
  • Now that you know about this,
  • what are you going to do
  • about it?

45
Video
  • Multiple Transitions A Childs Point of View
    about Foster Care and Adoption

46
Attachment Helps Children
  • Attain full intellectual potential
  • Develop a conscience
  • Trust others
  • Become self-reliant
  • Better cope with stress, frustration and jealousy
  • Overcome common fears and worries
  • Increase feelings of self worth
  • Fahlberg, 1991

47
Healthy Attachment
  • For infants and preschoolers
  • Exploration of surroundings
  • Relaxed and happy demeanor
  • Looking at others when communicating
  • Showing a response to separation
  • Demonstrating typical fears
  • May vary by culture

48
Implications of Separation
  • For infants and preschoolers
  • Distress at loss of trusted caregivers
  • Belief that the change is permanent
  • Belief that the separation is a punishment
  • Feeling powerless

49
Healthy Attachment
  • For school age children
  • Healthy self-esteem
  • Pride in accomplishments
  • Willingness to try new things
  • Establishing eye contact
  • Reacting positively to parent
  • Positive peer interactions
  • May vary by culture

50
Implications of Separation
  • For school age children
  • Anxiety
  • Guilt
  • Confusion about cultural differences in the
    foster home
  • Fear about siblings placed in other foster homes
  • Loneliness, isolation loss of friends

51
Healthy Attachment
  • For adolescents
  • Awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses
  • Awareness of parents values
  • Involved in interests outside home
  • Satisfactory school performance
  • Future goals
  • Positive peer interactions
  • May vary by culture

52
Implications of Separation
  • For adolescents
  • Stress overload, crisis
  • Guilt and anxiety about the separation
  • Depression
  • Difficulty developing autonomy

53
Implications of Separation
  • Feelings of anger and rage
  • Behaviors such as opposition, hypersensitivity,
    emotional outbursts, property destruction,
    aggression, lying, stealing, tantrums, or
    withdrawal
  • Physical symptoms such as abdominal pain,
    headaches, insomnia, extreme fatigue, binge
    eating or lack of appetite

54
Stages of Grief and Loss
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Blame
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Adaptation / Adjustment

55
Faiths Story
  • The impact of placement on the sibling
    relationship (the longest relationship most
    people will have in their lives)

56
What could we do differently?
  • What is your reaction to Faiths Story?
  • What impact did this have on Faith?
  • What has she done to cope with the impact?
  • What does this say to you about what CWS, the
    courts, and others should do when children need
    to be placed?

57
Activity
  • An Unplanned Move

58
Dont worry
59
Key Message
  • Social worker actions can reduce placement trauma
    for children and youth.

60
  • Taking it home..

61
Permanency Placement
Version 2.3, 2013 Day 2
62
Activity
  • Crisis Management

63
What is crisis?
  • Loss of control
  • Feelings of fear
  • Sudden changes
  • Feelings of desperation
  • Inability to focus

64
Components of Crisis
  • Stressor
  • Coping skills
  • Perception

65
Decrease Placement Trauma
  • Encourage the child to express feelings ask
    questions
  • Arrange a visit before the child leaves home
  • Develop a list of people the child trusts
  • Bring familiar comfort items with the child
  • Build a relationship between the parent foster
    parent
  • Arrange for services to treat the abuse or
    neglect and the trauma of placement

66
Cross Cultural Placement
  • Discuss the cultural differences (include things
    like religion, clothes, food, hair)
  • Empathize with feelings of being different
  • Help the foster parent child make a plan
  • Facilitate a conversation between the foster
    parent and birth parent
  • Talk to the family about the childs typical
    expression of sadness

67
Encourage Attachment
  • For infants and young children
  • Respond quickly to physical needs
  • Interact frequently
  • Express affection
  • For older children and adolescents
  • Share excitement over accomplishments
  • Participate in outside activities
  • Express affection
  • Plan activities to do together

68
Placement Protocol
  • Facilitate a meeting between the foster family
    and the biological family
  • Provide details about the child to the foster
    parent
  • Provide culturally specific information
  • Prepare the child for the transition to placement

69
Activity
  • Placement Needs of Children at Different
    Developmental Levels

70
The Cassel Family
  • The adults in the home
  • Anita Cassel, 34
  • Dan Cassel, 40
  • The children
  • Raul Lopez, 14
  • Ellen Cassel, 8
  • Christina Cassel, 5
  • Roberto Cassel, 2

71
Activity
  • Cassel Family Placement Considerations
  • Childs Needs
  • Ideas to Ease the Transition

72
Your Ideas
  • Roberto
  • Ellen
  • Christina
  • Raul

73
Concurrent planning means
  • considering all reasonable options for permanency
    at the earliest possible point following a
    child's entry into foster care, and
  • simultaneously pursuing those that will best
    serve the child's needs.

74
Start the conversation
  • Prepare a brief introductory statement (your 2
    minute pitch)
  • Acknowledge that the subject is difficult
  • Engage the family to work with you

75
Full disclosure includes
  • The rights of the parents
  • The safety concerns and the MSLC
  • The planning process (safety plan, case plan,
    concurrent permanency planning)
  • Family strengths and resources
  • Potential outcomes of the child welfare
    intervention
  • The timelines for reunification
  • Relinquishment
  • The importance of permanency and placement
    stability for children

76
For Successful Full Disclosure
  • Start with a discussion of strengths
  • Focus the middle portion of the meeting on the
    more difficult information
  • Close the meeting with a return to a more
    positive tone
  • From the NRCFCPP Concurrent Planning Training

77
Full Disclosure Engagement
  • Applicable skills
  • Partializing
  • Open-ended questions
  • Strengths finding
  • Mutual respect
  • Empathy
  • From the NRCFCPP Concurrent Planning Training

78
Key Message
  • Parents have a right to full disclosure and a
    right to participate in the permanency planning
    process.

79
Activity
  • Concurrent Planning Full Disclosure Role Play

80
Overcoming Full Disclosure Barriers
  • Stress the benefits of permanency
  • Acknowledge strengths
  • Establish a frequent and constructive visitation
    plan

81
Helping Parents to Help Kids
  • Making the placement process easier for parents
    allows them to focus on making the process easier
    for the kids
  • How can we make the process easier for parents?

82
Participatory Planning
  • Increases family involvement and ownership of
    processes and outcomes
  • Ensures that all involved have the same
    information
  • Helps identify services and supports
  • Builds on natural supports already available
    within the family

83
Teaming
  • Start with strengths
  • Use straight talk
  • Involve family and community
  • Build partnerships with foster parents and
    relative caregivers

84
Icebreakers
  • Facilitate a better relationship between birth
    parents and foster parents
  • Open communication for sharing information about
    the child
  • Decrease tension and feelings of divided loyalty
    for children

85
Decisions for the Cassel Family
  • Placement options
  • Pros and cons
  • Critical factors
  • Placement recommendation
  • Concurrent planning goal

86
Placement Decisions
  • Raul will be placed with Jesus family
  • Christina and Roberto will be placed with their
    mothers sister, Maria
  • Ellen will be placed with her grandparents, Dan
    and Monica Cassel

87
Permanency Assessment
  • The SDM reunification assessment includes a
    reassessment of risk, an assessment of the
    visitation plan, and a safety assessment.
  • The CAT Continuing Services Assessment includes a
    reunification readiness section addressing
    safety, risk and protective capacity.

88
Substantial Probability of Reunification
  • Consistent and regular contact and visitation
  • Significant progress in resolving problems that
    led to the initial removal
  • The capacity and ability both to complete the
    objectives of the treatment plan within the time
    limit and to meet the childs needs if the time
    is extended

89
Assessment of Substitute Caregivers
  • Important considerations
  • Childs strengths and needs
  • Culture and language
  • Childs immediate and ongoing needs
  • Level of care
  • Siblings
  • Permanency
  • Visitation
  • Caregivers ability to keep child safe and
    support case plan efforts

90
Caregivers and Permanency
  • Willingness is linked to
  • Previous experiences
  • Expectations
  • Relationship

91
Explaining Permanency Options
  • Reunification the first permanency priority
  • Adoption the legal transfer of all parenting
    rights and responsibilities to a new parent
  • Legal guardianship court appointment of a
    person to provide for a child until adulthood
  • Long term foster care a temporary placement
    which may end at any time

92
Caregivers and Permanency
  • Ability is linked to
  • Criminal history
  • Substance abuse
  • Mental health
  • Child welfare history
  • Use of physical punishment

93
Factors Linked to Placement Stability
  • Foster parent / birth parent contact in the
    foster home
  • Foster parent intention to adopt
  • Foster parent knowledge of child development
  • Foster parent access to support systems
  • Foster parent use of non-physical discipline
  • Foster parent use of positive reinforcement
  • Close monitoring and supervision

94
Your Role in Placement Stability
  • Increased social worker presence in the foster
    home leads to better placement stability
  • Why?

95
Is There a Permanent Connection?
  • Would the youth be asked to leave the house for
    mistakes or behavior?
  • Does the youth go on family vacations?
  • Is the same amount of money devoted to the youth
    as to other children in family?
  • Is the youth included in inheritance?
  • In all ways, is the youth treated as a member of
    the family?

96
Key Message
  • It is very important to address the emotional
    connection between youth and foster parents /
    relative caregivers.

97
Video
  • Voices of Youth Supporting Adolescents in Foster
    Care

98
Activity
  • Permanency Assessment Scenario

99
Key Message
  • Visitation is the most important factor related
    to reunification

100
Activity
  • Cassel Children Visitation Plan
  • Link to this case plan objective
  • Mr. Cassel will use rewards, praise and timeouts
    to address his childrens positive and negative
    behavior.

101
Visitation Observation
  • Assess visits to inform decisions about
    reunification
  • Develop a written visitation plan
  • Observe visits
  • Document visitation activities

102
Key Message
  • Talk to youth frequently about permanency,
    important people in the youths life and
    facilitating emotional connections

103
Activity
  • Talking to Youth about Permanency

104
Concurrent planning means
  • considering all reasonable options for permanency
    at the earliest possible point following a
    child's entry into foster care, and
  • simultaneously pursuing those that will best
    serve the child's needs.

105
Activity
  • Concurrent Planning Role Play Part 2
  • Be sure to include
  • Full disclosure
  • Information about permanency options
  • Engagement techniques
  • Acknowledgement of the feelings
  • Support for the foster parents role

106
Activity
  • Supporting Placement Stability
  • Be sure to include
  • Ongoing contact with birth families
  • Treatment to address grief and loss
  • Assistance with accessing services
  • Parenting training to assist caregivers
  • A Life book for the child
  • Purposeful and frequent social worker visits

107
Supporting Permanency
  • Services to address trauma
  • Services to meet developmental needs
  • Social supports
  • Support for developing emotional connections
  • Support for ongoing family contact
  • Life books

108
Making Permanency Decisions
  • What factors should be considered in making
    permanency decisions for the Cassel family?

109
  • Taking it home..

110
My Action Plan
111
Training Evaluation
  • Testing, testing
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