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Response to Intervention


... nonresponders are not labeled to avoid stigma to avoid disability categories (e.g., learning disability, ... IDEA 2004 ties a lot of funding to Early ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Response to Intervention

Response to Intervention
  • Lou Danielson, Ph.D.
  • Director, Research to Practice Division
  • Office of Special Education Programs
  • June 21, 2006

  • Presentation topics
  • Define RTI
  • RTI and SLD
  • Four Parts of RTI Sequence
  • Advantages of RTI
  • Key Questions for RTI Implementation
  • Vanderbilt Reading Study

What is Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI)?
  • Implementation of a differentiated curriculum
    with different instructional methods
  • Two or more tiers of increasingly intense
    scientific, research-based interventions
  • Instructional intensity addressed through
    duration, frequency and time of interventions,
    group size, and instructor skill level
  • Individual problem-solving model or standardized
    intervention protocol for intervention tiers

What is Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI)?
  1. Screening and progress monitoring to assess
    entire class progress and individual student
  2. Explicit decision rules for assessing learners
    progress (e.g., level and/or rate)
  3. Fidelity measures to assess consistency of
    instructional methods and curriculum

Continuum of School-Wide Instruction
Tertiary Intervention (5) Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
Intensive Needs
Secondary Intervention (15) Specialized
Group Systems for Students with At Risk
Primary Instruction (80) School-/Classroom-wide
Systems for All Students, Staff and Settings
80 of Students
Adapted fromWhat is School-Wide PBS?
Simplified RTI Procedure Four Parts
  • All children in a class, school, or district are
    tested once in the fall to identify those
    students at risk for long-term difficulties
  • The responsiveness of at-risk students to general
    education instruction (Tier 1) is monitored to
    determine those whose needs are not being met and
    therefore require a more intensive intervention
    (Tier 2 Small Group)

Simplified RTI Procedure Four Parts (continued)
  1. For at-risk students, a research-validated Tier 2
    intervention is implemented student progress is
    monitored throughout and students are re-tested
    after the intervention
  2. Those students who do not respond to validated
    intervention are identified for
    multi-disciplinary team evaluation for possible
    disability determination and special education

Advantages of RTI Approach
  • Provides instructional assistance in a timely
    fashion (e.g., NOT a wait-to-fail model)
  • Helps ensure a students poor academic
    performance is not due to poor instruction or
    inappropriate curriculum
  • Informs teacher and improves instruction because
    assessment data are collected and closely linked
    to interventions

Advantages of Using RTI Approach (continued)
  • In some RTI models, nonresponders are not
  • to avoid stigma
  • to avoid disability categories (e.g., learning
    disability, behavioral disability, mental
    retardation) that have little instructional


Using RTI to Define Specific Learning
Disabilities (SLD) in Terms of Severe Low
  • RTI eliminates poor instructional quality as a
    possible explanation for learning difficulty
  • SLD designation is used only for nonresponders
    who have received validated instruction. The
    assumption If a child does not respond to
    instruction that is effective for the vast
    majority of children, then there is something
    different about the child causing the

Using RTI as Part of SLD Identification Process
  • Tier 2 intervention is viewed as the test to
    which at-risk students respond for determining
  • Using an appropriate measurement tool, response
    to Tier 2 intervention needs to be measured and
    categorized as either
  • Responsive to intervention (not SLD)
  • Unresponsive to intervention (evaluate for SLD)

EIS Provides an Assessment /Intervention
Framework within General Education
  • Early intervening services (EIS) is a process for
    ensuring students receive appropriate learning
    experiences in general education
  • The students response to EIS is very informative
    if a disability is considered as an explanation
    of the childs difficulties
  • RTI can be used as a component of SLD
    determination to assure the childs difficulties
    are adequately addressed

Implementing an RTI Approach 5 Dimensions
  • Number of tiers (2-5 this example uses 3)
  • Nature of preventive intervention
  • Individualized (e.g., problem solving)
  • Standardized scientific research-based protocol
  • How at-risk students are identified
  • Percentile cut on norm-referenced test
  • Cut-point on curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
    with 5 weeks of CBM progress monitoring

Implementing an RTI Approach 5 Dimensions
  • How response is defined
  • Final status on norm-referenced test or using a
  • Improvement from pretest to posttest
  • CBM slope and final status
  • What happens to nonresponders
  • Comprehensive multidisciplinary evaluation to
  • specific learning disability (SLD)
  • behavioral disability (BD)
  • mental retardation (MR)
  • speech-language impairment (SLI)