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The Turbulent 1960s

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The Turbulent 1960s ... From MLK to Black Power Several Cold War foreign policy crises. The Assassination of JFK, MLK, Malcolm X, RFK Vietnam Conflict, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Turbulent 1960s


1
The Turbulent 1960s
2
The 60s included all of the following
Civil Rights Movement From MLK to Black Power
Several Cold War foreign policy crises.
The Assassination of JFK, MLK, Malcolm X, RFK
Vietnam Conflict, Civil Unrest the Woodstock
Generation
3
There were three presidents in the 60s
John Kennedy 1961 - 1963 The New Frontier
Camelot
Lyndon Johnson 1964 - 1968 The Great Society
Vietnam I shall not seek nor shall I accept the
nomination of my party for another term as
president . . .
Richard Nixon 1969 - 1974 Vietnam Becomes
the first president to resign (more about that in
the 70s)
4
The decade that began with the election of the
youngest president and the quote, Ask not what
your country can do for you, ask what you can do
for your country, ended in civil unrest,
turmoil, and the election of a president who
would lie to his country and would be forced to
resign.
5
  • Classify the following pictures under one of the
    following topics
  • Woodstock Generation
  • Vietnam War
  • Cold War Conflicts
  • Camelot
  • Great Society
  • Black Power Movement
  • Social Unrest

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8
Kennedys youth, optimism and charisma inspired
Americans. His New Frontier agenda included
increased aid to education, health care for the
elderly and the creation of a Department of Urban
Affairs.
9
Kennedy created the Alliance for Progress, a
series of cooperative aide projects in Latin
America.
Kennedy created the Peace Corps to help less
developed nations fight poverty, training young
Americans for two year programs to assist
countries.
Kennedy promised a man on the moon by the end of
the decade, and on July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong
walked on the moon.
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11
Cuba under Castro allied with the USSR
Khrushchev. Ike the CIA had secretly planned an
invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles. Kennedy
proceeded with the plan, called the Bay of Pigs
(1961). Disaster struck as air support was
cancelled by Kennedy in the attempt to keep US
involvement a secret, and the exiles were
captured or killed by Castro.
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14
The Berlin Wall was built in 1961 it was a
violation of the postwar Potsdam Agreements,
which gave Great Britain, France and the United
States a say over the administration of the whole
of Berlin. The US government informed the Soviet
government that it accepted the Wall as "a fact
of international life" and would not challenge it
by force.
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17
In 1962, American intelligence discovered Soviet
equipment technicians had arrived in Cuba.
Photos proved that long-range missiles had been
placed there.
The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world to the
brink of nuclear war. Kennedy ordered a naval
blockade (quarantine) of Soviet ships headed to
Cuba. The Soviets ships turned at the last second
before reaching the American ships. An inside
deal had been made that the US would take
missiles out of Turkey and the Soviets remove
their missiles. Khrushchev fell from power,
leaving Brezhnev who was less interested in
negotiation and more interested in an arms race.
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20
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) pushed
for justice in political social institutions.
Tom Hayden, pres. of the U. of Michigan led the
SDS beginning in 1960.
The Free Speech Movement began in 1964 at
Berkeley when 700 protestors were arrested a
campus-wide strike stopped classes for two days.
The S. court validated the students right to
freedom of speech and assembly on campus
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22
Johnsons Vietnam strategy Fine-tuned
escalation of US force would lead to defeat with
minimum loss of life on both sides Enemy
matched every increase with more man and guerilla
warfare (Viet Cong)
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24
LBJs Great Society promised an end to racism and
poverty.
25
  • The Big Four legislative achievements of the
    Great Society
  • Aid to education
  • Medical care for elderly and indigent
  • Immigration reform
  • New voting rights bill

26
Judging the Great Society Conservatives
charged that the billions had been wasted In
Johnsons defense Poverty declined markedly
Medicare brought down poverty among elderly
Project Head Start increased educational
performance of underprivileged youth Infant
mortality rates fell in minority communities
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29
The leaders of the counterculture, the hippies,
did not seek to change society but wanted to
create their own society that included communal
living, rejection of materialism, long hair, and
drug use.
Haight-Ashbury was the center of the
counterculture.
The Woodstock concert in upstate NY was a
three-day celebration of 500,000. Entertainment
included Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin. Woodstock
had rain, mud, drugs, two deaths, and two births,
but no violence.
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31
After completing the 200 in first third place,
Tommie Smith John Carlos received their medals
shoeless, but wearing black socks, to represent
black poverty Smith wore a black scarf around his
neck to represent black pride. Carlos wore beads
which he described "were for those individuals
that were lynched, or killed that no-one said a
prayer for, that were hung and tarred and for
those who died in the middle passage.
32
The Austrian athlete, the silver medalist, showed
solidarity with the two American athletes. Carlos
had forgotten his black gloves, but Norman
suggested that they share Smith's pair, with
Smith wearing the right glove and Carlos the
left.
33
When The Star Spangled banner played, Smith and
Carlos delivered the salute with heads bowed and
their gloved hands raised. Smith later said "If I
win, I am American, not a black American. But if
I did something bad, then they would say I am a
Negro. We are black and we are proud of being
black. Black America will understand what we did
tonight."
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37
Passage of Voting Rights Act of 1965 marked end
of an era in civil rights movement Pre-1965
movement was focused on nonviolent demonstrations
in South, led by moderates like King, and wanted
to bring blacks into mainstream American society
Post-1965 movement marked by militant
confrontation, led by radical and sometimes
violent spokespersons, and often aimed not at
interracial cooperation but at black separatism
38
Conflicting interpretations of Black Power
among blacks Some saw it as a broad effort to
exercise political and economic rights and speed
integration Black nationalists (remembering
Marcus Garvey) emphasized black distinctiveness
Promoted Afro hairstyles and dress Dumped
slave names for new African ones Demanded
black studies programs in colleges
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41
The first large-scale demonstration against the
war in Vietnam took place in 1965. Small by later
standards, 25,000 people marched in Washington.
By 1968, strikes, sit-ins, rallies, and
occupations of college buildings had become
commonplace on campuses, such as Berkeley,
Columbia, and Harvard.
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44
  • August 11, 1965 Watts Riots
  • Blacks enraged by police brutality rioted for 5
    days
  • Property burned, stores looted in their own
    neighborhood
  • Aftermath
  • 31 blacks, 3 whites killed
  • Over 1,000 people injured
  • Hundreds of buildings had been burned

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46
1968 a disastrous year in American history Tet
Offensive USSR invades Czechoslovakia Vietnam War
brings down LBJ Robert Kennedy assassinated Martin
Luther King assassinated Democratic National
Convention riots
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