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Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development

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Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development Session 15 The Evaluation of Change Objectives To understand issues dealing with the evaluation of change To ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development


1
Organizational Design, Diagnosis, and Development
  • Session 15
  • The Evaluation of Change

2
Objectives
  • To understand issues dealing with the evaluation
    of change
  • To consider some of the major problems in
    evaluating change programs
  • To review designs for evaluation

3
Where Evaluation Fits
Implementation of Intervention
Diagnosis
Design of interventions
Implementation Feedback
Evaluation Feedback
4
EVALUATING OD INTERVENTIONS
  • Evaluation to guide intervention -- formative
    evaluation
  • Is it reaching right audience?
  • Is the audience realizing some change?
  • Summative evaluation -- Impact on the
    organization
  • Is the organization realizing the effect it
    desired?

5
Problems in Evaluating Change
  • Vague goals
  • Strong promises
  • Weak effects
  • Other problems
  • Finding an appropriate criterion
  • Finding skilled personnel
  • The politics of evaluation
  • When to evaluate

6
Levels of Evaluation
  • Reaction
  • Learning
  • Behavior
  • Results

7
Questions to be Asked
  • Does examination of the criteria indicate change
    has occurred?
  • Can the change be attributed to the intervention?
  • Is it likely that new participants in the program
    will demonstrate similar changes?
  • Is it likely that new participants in the same
    program will demonstrate similar changes in a
    different site?

8
Pre-experimental Designs
  • One group post-test only
  • I (intervention) T (evaluation)
  • One group pretest/post-test design
  • T-1 (pre-test) I T-2 (post-test)

9
Experimental Designs
  • Pretest/post-test control-group design
  • E T-1 (pre-test) I T-2 (post-test)
  • C T-1 (pre-test) T-2 (post-test)
  • Solomon four-group design
  • G1T-1 (pre-test) I T-2 (post-test)
  • G2T-1 (pre-test) T-2 (post-test)
  • G3 I T-2 (post-test
  • G4 T-2
    (post-test)

10
Quasi-Experimental designs
  • Time series
  • T1 T2 T3 T4 I T5 T6 T7 T8
  • Non-equivalent control group
  • E T-1 (pre-test) I T-2 (post-test)
  • C T-1 (pre-test) T-2 (post-test)

11
Utility Analysis
  • Cost benefit analysis
  • Cost effectiveness analysis
  • An example for absenteeism program
  • document the rate of absenteeism
  • calculate absenteeism hours lost per year
  • calculate absenteeism compensation costs
  • calculate cost of managing absenteeism
  • calculate other costs of absenteeism

12
Threats to Evaluation Validity
  • Weak evaluation designs
  • Select groups for introducing intervention

13
Backwards Forwards
  • Summing up In todays session we examined some
    problems that surround evaluation, looked at
    several designs evaluation intervention
    (pre-experimental, experimental, and quasi
    experimental designs). Threats to evaluation
    validity were also discussed
  • Looking ahead Next time we begin our examination
    of human process interventions with a look at
    interpersonal and group process approaches
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