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E-Business Textbook

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Title: E-Business Instructor Guide Author: Steve Murray Last modified by: Steve Created Date: 5/29/2001 6:57:35 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: E-Business Textbook


1
E-Business Textbook
Chapter 1 Applications Review
2
Introduction
  • A suite of application software lies at the heart
    of every medium to large sized organization
  • An early mistake in e-commerce applications
  • Failing to integrate with companys legacy
    business applications
  • The difference between successful and failed
    business
  • Effective and innovative use of current
    technology to manage and drive business
  • 1979 Fortune 500 40 no longer exist
  • Must understand core, line of business
    applications to effectively design an e-commerce
    strategy

3
The Software Evolution
  • Advancement of programming languages, databases,
    and tools for developing systems
  • Software offerings key to evaluating technology
    solutions
  • Hardware purchases largely based on compatible
    software
  • Modern computing
  • Began at end of WWII, initiated by U.S. Military
    projects
  • By 1950s came commercial systems from IBM
    UNIVAC
  • By 1960s large companies began to rely on
    computing

4
The Software Evolution
  • Software vendors
  • By early 1970s U.S. government ruled that IBM
    held a monopoly on the computer market
  • IBM could no longer bundle hardware with software
    and services for technology solutions
  • This opened door for rapid growth of software
    vendors
  • Software
  • Term coined in 1960s to refer to programmable
    instruction sets used to run applications
  • High Level Languages popularized FORTRAN, COBOL

5
Programming Languages
  • Third Generation Languages (3GL)
  • Examples COBOL and IBMs RPG
  • 3GLs are sustaining the majority of business
    applications today
  • In IBM server market, many employed programmers
    are skilled in COBOL or RPG
  • UNIX and C programming language
  • A lot of OS code, including UNIX, is written in C
  • In 1980s, C was hyped as open language that could
    be developed on one platform, then migrated to
    other platforms
  • But in reality, it didnt happen very easily . . .

6
Programming Languages
  • The PC and BASIC programming language
  • BASIC developed by Microsoft to run on PC and DOS
  • In 1980s, BASIC allowed vendors to produce
    software for emerging PC market
  • BASIC later gave birth to Visual Basic a key
    language in client/server and desktop
    applications
  • Object-Oriented Languages
  • Apples SmallTalk, C, SUNs Java (write once,
    run anywhere guarantee)
  • Extending legacy apps to e-Business apps
  • Involves integrating with 3GLs (COBOL, RPG, C)

7
Application and Database Design
  • The 1980s brought on the progression of
  • Relational data modeling
  • Superior programming languages
  • Structured techniques for application design
  • Key relational database modeling principles
    defined
  • Normal form
  • Entity relationship diagrams
  • Process models
  • An understanding of relational database
    structures is important because most corporate
    databases have been designed with these principles

8
Systems Application Architecture
  • SAA
  • IBMs framework defining how applications could
    be developed to run consistently and port easily
    across their major computing platforms
  • Organizations adhering to SAA standards produced
    applications with commonalities for easier
    usability
  • CUA (Common User Interface)
  • A subset of SAA standard ways of using menus,
    function keys, help panels, and so on such that a
    user could grow to expect a common interface
    amongst software interfaces
  • Examples F1Help, F3Exit, F4Prompt Work With
    screens

9
CASE Technologies
  • Sophisticated tools allowing IT shops to build
    applications better and faster
  • Upper CASE tools
  • Assisted project managers and software designers
    in graphically modeling a system to be developed
  • Lower CASE tools
  • Development environments that included a
    proprietary, higher-level language which would
    generate lower level code, such as RPG, COBOL, or
    C
  • Fourth Generation Languages
  • A result of CASE tools
  • For iSeries platform, examples LANSA, Synon,
    AS/SET

10
Client/Server
  • Successful CASE tools evolved to include
    capabilities to produce GUI interfaces,
    multi-tiered architectures, and internet access
  • This helped revolutionize the client/server
    market
  • Shift from server-centric to client-centric
    interfaces
  • Server-centric application interface resides on
    server and is text-based
  • Client-centric database resides on server, but
    interface resides on client PC for better visual
    appeal
  • PC client and server talk to each other via
    Local Area Networks (LANs)

11
Client/Server
  • Middleware
  • Required software to facilitate client/server
    computing
  • Allows programs on client workstation to interact
    with programs and/or databases on server platform
  • Resulting standards ODBC, APPC, OLE 2
  • Fat client vs Thin client
  • Fat client large part of application is
    installed and running on client workstation
  • Thin client more of the application resides on
    the server
  • Three-tiered model
  • User Interface, Business Logic, and Data could be
    spread over three platforms, but model failed to
    take off

12
Business Intelligence
  • When corporations are able to analyze business
    trends through the use of query and reporting
    tools to be able to make sound decisions about
    their company
  • Several buzzwords to be familiar with
  • Data Warehousing (predecessor term for BI)
  • OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing)
  • EIS (Executive Information System)
  • DSS (Decision Support System)

13
Lotus Notes
  • Allows sharing of both document-based information
    and multimedia objects within workgroups
  • Allows distribution of this information to entire
    enterprises via replication or outside the
    enterprise via global networks
  • Moved full force into the Web arena for
    collaboration style applications via
  • Notes 4.5
  • Domino Server

14
Back Office vs Front Office
  • As desktop and LAN solutions evolved, many
    organizations invested in PC server technology,
    and desktop solutions, to deploy departmental
    applications like sales force automation tools,
    image and document management, email, and
    groupware offerings.
  • To differentiate this style of solution from the
    more typical, business application suite which
    would be used to run the core business processes,
    these desktop applications were termed Front
    Office and the core line of business
    applications were termed Back Office.

15
Emergence of Internet Applications
  • IT thought it had it all figured out, until the
    mid-1990s, when the Internet took center stage
  • IT quickly realized it could serve an additional
    user base trading partners and end customers
    via distributed systems and web-enabled
    applications
  • This marked the birth of e-Business, or
    e-Commerce
  • The leads us to the goal of this class
  • To explore the various approaches and
    technologies for integrating e-Business with the
    rest of an organizations business application
    suites

16
Industry Verticals
  • A grouping of similar organizations representing
    the nature of their business and, therefore, are
    indicative of their typical business model,
    customer focus, objectives and, of course, the
    type of software applications that they will need
    to run their business
  • Every application software vendor, and many of
    the big hardware solution vendors, like IBM, have
    defined their own groupings for industry
    verticals with many similarities and some
    variations
  • See textbook for key industry verticals and
    common sectors for each vertical

17
Home Grown vs Packaged Software
  • Home Grown applications
  • Developed in house by the organizations
    development team as opposed to software that was
    purchased
  • Some organizations start with packaged software
    but then customize it to such an extent that they
    can no longer use upgrades from the package
    vendor, and it essentially becomes in-house,
    maintained software
  • Timeframes exist in an organizations history
    when they decide its time to replace
    applications versus continue to maintain the old
  • For example, Y2K-compliant applications

18
Home Grown vs Packaged Software
  • Situations driving business to replace an
    application
  • Operational Problems
  • Competitive Edge
  • Technology Issues
  • Significant Changes Needed with Core Application
  • Factors influencing companies to decide between
    choosing package software or building their own

Fit to the Business Timeframe for Delivery
Initial Implementation Costs Ongoing Costs
Maintainability and Control Staying Competitive
Risk Integration Strategies
19
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • A common acronym to describe back office systems
    and packaged software solutions representing
    large, integrated application suites offered by
    vendors like
  • SAP
  • JDEdwards
  • Baan
  • Oracle
  • PeopleSoft

20
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • Represents the integrated suite of applications
    or modules within an enterprise that are
    dedicated to the core line of business
    transaction processing which encompasses
    everything from
  • production planning to
  • inventory management to
  • order taking and tracking to
  • accounting

21
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • ERP applications and how they relate to both the
    customer centric and supply chain centric areas
    of a business have been refined, leading to
    solutions for
  • Customer Relationship Management
  • Supply Chain Management

22
Customer Relationship Management
  • Focuses on technology solutions dedicated to
    managing and improving all dealings and
    interactions with an organizations customer base
  • The customer relationship touches just about all
    systems and functional areas within the company
  • Why companies should invest in a CRM strategy
  • Retain customers
  • Increase customer loyalty
  • Generate new business
  • Increase revenue and profit

23
Supply Chain Management
  • Supply Chain Management software and solutions
    have become a focus in the new millennium
  • A traditional supply chain identifies the various
    business partnership and customer relationships
    from raw materials to finished product sold to a
    consumer

nd
2
Tier
Suppliers
1
st
Tier
Suppliers
Assembly,
2
nd
Tier
Distribution
Manufacturing,
Retailers
Suppliers
Centers
st
1
Tier
Packaging
nd
2
Tier
Suppliers
Suppliers
Downstream
Upstream
24
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • Used in automation of supply chain interactions
  • Been around since the 1970s
  • Adopted by only less than 10 of businesses
  • Mostly by the very large corporations who may
    enforce their trading partners to exchange
    transactions electronically with them
  • Setting up EDI has been an expensive proposition
  • Typical example of an EDI transaction set
  • Purchase Request followed by a Purchase Order
    Acknowledgement, sent back to the original
    requestor
  • The data exchanged between trading partners to
    perform this transaction would be set up using a
    predefined record layout
  • The partners agree on an EDI standard, such as
    ANSI X.12 or EDI-FACT

25
Summary
  • One must keep up with rapidly changing
    technologies, while understanding organizations
    business goals and its corporate applications
    infrastructure
  • Many organizations support a variety of
    applications developed using various computer
    languages, tools, platforms, and architectures,
    plus a mixture of packaged and home grown
    software solutions that all must inter-relate
  • Some companies have implemented ERP solutions
  • Highly effective applications infrastructures
    require that the organizations suite of
    applications be tightly integrated with
    streamlined business processes and information
    flowing easily between the applications
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