JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr. Teal McAteer DeGroote School of Business McMaster University 2BC3 Week 3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr. Teal McAteer DeGroote School of Business McMaster University 2BC3 Week 3


Title: Week 3 Subject: Job Analysis & Planning Author: Dr. McAteer Last modified by: TEAL McAteer-Early Created Date: 7/13/1997 9:07:06 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: JOB ANALYSIS and HR PLANNING ________________________ Dr. Teal McAteer DeGroote School of Business McMaster University 2BC3 Week 3

JOB ANALYSIS andHR PLANNING____________________
____Dr. Teal McAteerDeGroote School of
BusinessMcMaster University2BC3 Week 3
Motivational/Contextual Background
  • Job Enlargement
  • Job Enrichment
  • Job Characteristics Model
  • Job Rotation

What is a job?
  • Job
  • Group of related activities and duties
  • Made up of tasks
  • Tasks
  • Basic elements of jobs
  • what gets done

What is Job Analysis?
  • Job analysis (JA) systematically collects,
    evaluates, and organizes information about jobs
  • JA identifies behaviours, knowledge, skills, and
    abilities (KSAs) that are critical to a job

In-Class Exercise
  • Using jobs, tasks, and KSAs to design recruiting

What is the purpose of JA?
  • JA lays the foundation for HRM systems
  • Selection
  • Selection system developed to assess key KSAs
  • Ensures that it is job-related
  • Training
  • Gaps in KSAs of new hires represent training
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Job analysis establishes performance standards

What is the purpose of JA?
  • Compensation
  • Relative worth of jobs measured via job
  • JA helps you to select the right ee, evaluate the
    ee fairly, compensate, and train the appropriate
    skills to the appropriate ees
  • JA also ensures your system is legally defensible
    and perceived as fair (procedural justice)

Steps in Job Analysis Process
  • Phase 1 Preparation for job analysis
  • Familiarization with the organization and its
  • Determine the uses of the JA information
    (selection, training?)
  • Identify what jobs need to be analyzed
  • Critical to success of the organization
  • Difficult to learn
  • New technology

Steps in Job Analysis Process
  • Phase 2 Collection of JA information
  • Source of Job Data
  • Job incumbents, supervisors, subordinates,
  • Existing job descriptions
  • Manuals, publications
  • National Occupational Classification

Steps in Job Analysis Process
  • Phase 2 Collection of JA information
  • Data collection instrument design
  • Gather information systematically
  • Often involves questionnaire, checklist
  • Use same questionnaire for similar jobs
  • Different jobs may require different instrument
  • Information gathered
  • Status, key duties/tasks, KSAs, working
    conditions, performance standards

Steps in Job Analysis Process
  • Phase 2 Collection of JA information
  • Data collection method
  • Face-to-face interviews
  • Questionnaires
  • Employee log/diary
  • Observation
  • Combination of above
  • No best approach
  • Trade-offs re accuracy, time, and cost

Existing JA Methods(Instruments)
  • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
  • Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
  • Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
  • Note JAQ (Figure 2-4) Handout

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
  • McCormick (1972)
  • Developed because of criticism that JA relied on
    observation not quantifiable
  • Detailed questionnaire (194 tasks)
  • Determines extent to which each task is
    applicable to target job
  • Using a 5-point scale

Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
  • Fine Wiley (1971)
  • Focuses on task statements
  • Task statements include
  • What? - What gets done (the action/behaviour)
  • To whom or what? - The object of the action
  • Why? - Purpose of the action
  • How? - What facilitates the action?

Functional Job Analysis
  • Tasks are rated on scales reflecting varying
    degrees of involvement with Things, Data, and
    People as well as math, language, etc.
  • Each scale is arranged hierarchically
  • E.g., People scale ranges from taking
    instructions to leadership

Critical Incident Technique
  • Flanagan (1949)
  • Identifies behaviours that indicate success or
    failure on the job
  • Effective vs ineffective behaviours
  • Critical Incidents include
  • Context - in which the incident occurred
  • Behaviour - exactly what the individual did that
    was effective or ineffective
  • Consequences - of the behaviour and whether or
    not consequences were in the employees control

Developing Critical Incidents
  • Interview with people familiar with the job
  • E.g., supervisors, subordinates, customers
  • Ask them to describe specific incidents of
    effective / ineffective behaviour by incumbents
    of target job
  • Incident context What led up to the incident
    (background)? What was the situation?
  • Behaviour What exactly did the person do that
    was effective / ineffective?
  • Consequence - What was the outcome of the

Using Critical Incidents
  • Critical incidents are collected
  • Critical incidents that are similar in context
    are grouped into a behavioural item
  • 2 critical incidents
  • Rewarding employees for good performance
  • Publicly praising for good performance
  • Could be grouped into a behavioural item
    Praise/reward subordinates for effective

Using Critical Incidents
  • Similar behavioural items are grouped into a
    meaningful behavioural criterion
  • 2 behavioural items
  • Praise/reward employees
  • Counselling, giving advice to subordinates
  • Combine to form the behavioural criterion
    Interactions with subordinates
  • These form basis of selection system (e.g.,
    interview), performance appraisal instrument, etc.

Steps in Job Analysis Process
  • Phase 3 Uses of JA information
  • Job descriptionsTask requirements
  • Statement that explains functions, tasks,
    accountabilities, working conditions,
    competencies for a particular occupation or job.
  • Job specificationsPerson requirements
  • Statement of what a job demands of the incumbent
  • E.g., knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs) and
    other characteristics required to perform job

Steps in Job Analysis Process
  • Phase 3 Uses of JA information
  • Performance standards
  • What is expected of workers
  • JA may provide performance standards for job
    where performance is readily quantified,
    measurable, etc.
  • May need to be augmented e.g., participative

Uses of JA information cont..
  • 4. Job Design/Re-Design
  • - Employee considerations
  • - Organizational considerations
  • - Ergonomic considerations
  • - Environmental considerations
  • 5. Designing HRIS
  • 6. Changing HR systems
  • 7. Organizational change

In-Class Exercise
  • In groups, develop critical incidents for
    university instructors
  • Generate at least
  • 3 incidents of effective behaviour and
  • 3 incidents of ineffective behaviour

Critical Incident Technique
  • Think about instructors you have had over the
    last 12 months
  • Without telling me the name, think of someone who
    has been (in)effective in the role of instructor.
  • Think of a specific incident that you saw occur
    that made you think they were (in)effective
  • What were the circumstances surrounding the
    incident? What was the situation?
  • What exactly did they do that was (in)effective?
  • Make sure you are describing observable behaviour
  • What were the consequences of the behaviour?
    Were the consequences due to the persons

Human Resource Planning
  • HR Planning systematically forecasts an
    organizations future demand for and supply of
    employees and matches supply with demand.
  • Involves
  • -Forecasting demand
  • -Forecasting supply
  • -Addressing labour shortages and surpluses

HR Demand and Supply
  • Forecasting Demand
  • External
  • Socio-political-legal
  • Economic Technological
  • Competition
  • Organizational
  • Organizational strategy
  • Budgets Sales forecasts
  • New ventures orgl/job design
  • Workforce
  • Retirements, resignations, terminations, leaves
    of absence
  • Forecasting Supply
  • External
  • Labour market analysis
  • Community attitudes
  • Demographic trends
  • Internal
  • HR audit/Current employees KSAs
  • Succession planning replacement charts
  • Management inventories

Forecasting Techniques used to Predict HR Demand
  • Expert Forecasts
  • Trend Projection Forecasts
  • Other Forecasting Methods

Current State
  • Tight Labour Market
  • Loose Labour Market
  • Intermediate Labour Market

Strategies to Match Supply and Demand for HR
  • Strategies for a Loose Labour Market (Oversupply)
  • - hiring freeze
  • - job sharing/job splitting
  • - internal transfers
  • - layoffs, terminations, outplacements
  • - leave without pay
  • - loaning or flexforce

Matching Strategies cont
  • Strategies for a Tight Labour Market (Shortage)
  • - overtime
  • - PT, contingent, contract workers
  • - temporary employment agencies
  • - employee leasing
  • - transfers
  • - hiring FT workers

Emerging Work Options Arrangements
  • Shorter work week
  • Flextime
  • Flexiplace
  • Telecommuting
  • Virtual organizations

Strategic Issues re HR Planning
  • Must know organizations short and long- term
  • Different organizational strategies require
    different human resource plans
  • Human resource planning facilitates proactive
    response to environmental and legal challenges

Strategic Issues re HR Planning
  • 4. An organizations tactical plans must be
    aligned with HR plans
  • 5. Alignment between organizational and HR plans
    provides basis for timely and effective
    recruitment and selection.