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Chapter 8 Attitude Change and Interactive Communications


Title: Consumers Rule Author: Susan A. Peterson Last modified by: Aziz Madi Created Date: 9/8/2005 12:53:29 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 8 Attitude Change and Interactive Communications

Chapter 8Attitude Change and Interactive
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8eMichael Solomon
Chapter Objectives
  • When you finish this chapter you should
    understand why
  • The communications model identifies several
    important components for marketers when they try
    to change consumers attitudes toward products
    and services.
  • The consumer who processes such a message is not
    necessarily the passive receiver of information
    marketers once believed him to be.
  • Several factors influence a message sources

Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  • The way a marketer structures his message
    determines how persuasive it will be.
  • Audience characteristics help to determine
    whether the nature of the source or the message
    itself will be relatively more effective.

Changing Attitudes Through Communication
  • Persuasion effectiveness of marketing
    communications to change attitudes
  • What influences people to change their minds or

  • Societies throughout the world abide by the norm
    of reciprocity
  • the rule of reciprocity remains engaged for those
    we do not know and have not met (even to those
    whom we do not like )
  • door-in-the-face
  • The reciprocal concessions tactic is a unique
    influence strategy because it actually empowers
    the requester through rejection!

  • Items and opportunities appear more attractive as
    they become less available
  • THE DESIRABLE. First, items that are difficult to
    obtain are nearly always more desirable than
    those that require little effort (heuristic cue
    in decision making)
  • THE FORBIDDEN. Desire to preserve our freedom of
    choice. (we will react against that interference
  • Loss Framing
  • E.g. limited edition, "deadline" technique,
    "limited number,

  • Legitimate authorities are extremely influential
  • We have been raised from childhood to look to
    authorities for information and guidance
  • Symbols of Authority Titles, Tailors Tone
  • Uniforms are another universally recognized
    symbol of authority
  • Credible Communicators (Expert power,
    Trustworthiness, )

Commitment Consistency
  • The need for consistency (to be consistent/ to
    appear consistent)
  • Once an individual takes establishes a position,
    there is a tendency to respond in ways that are
    stubbornly consistent with it.
  • Foot-in-the-door, lowball, Even a penny will
    help, Labeling Tactics
  • Existing Commitments values (laddering)
  • A commitment is likely to be maximally effective
    in producing consistent future behavior
    voluntary, active or effortful ,public

  • It is hardly surprising that people prefer to say
    yes to those they know and like
  • Physical attractiveness - Similarity
    Compliments - Cooperation
  • Tupperwares "home party"
  • Survey sender Robert Greer - Bob Gregar while
    Cynthia Johnston - Cindy Johanson.

Consensus (Social Validation)
  • We can use the actions of others (social proof)
    as a means to locate and validate correct choices
  • Because the desire to choose correctly is
    powerful, and the time in which to choose is
    forever diminishing, the tendency to follow the
    crowd is both strong and widespread
  • Uncertainty similar others -
  • largest selling or fastest growing in the
  • E.g. our salesmen are waiting on the phone
    gtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtif the lines were busy, call again

Tactical Communications Options
  • Who will be source of message?
  • How should message be constructed?
  • What media will transmit message?
  • What target market characteristics will influence
    ads acceptance?

Traditional Communication Model
  • Communications model a number of elements are
    necessary for communication to be achieved

Figure 8.1
Interactive Communications
  • Consumers have many more choices available and
    greater control to process messages
  • Permission marketing marketer will be much more
    successful in persuading consumers who have
    agreed to let him try

?Click to view Quicktime video on Sony
Metreons interactive entertainment store
Uses and Gratifications Theory
  • Consumers are active, goal-directed, and draw on
    mass media to satisfy needs
  • Media compete with other sources of entertainment
    and information
  • Advertising entertainment, escaping, play,

Updated Communications Model
  • Consumers are now proactive in communications
    process VCRs, DVRs, video-on-demand,
    pay-per-view TV, Caller ID, Internet

Figure 8.2
New Message Formats
  • M-commerce (mobile commerce) marketers promote
    goods and services via wireless devices
  • Blogging people post messages to the Web in
    diary form
  • New forms of blogging
  • Moblogging
  • Video blogging (vlogging)
  • Podcasting
  • RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
  • Flogs (fake blogs)
  • Twittering

The Source
  • Source effects the same words by different
    people can have very different meanings
  • A sourceoften a spokesperson in an admay be
    chosen because s/he is expert, famous,
    attractive, or a typical consumer
  • What makes a good source?
  • Source credibility a sources perceived
    expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness
  • Source attractiveness movie star, super model

Sleeper Effect
  • Sometimes sources become irritating or disliked
  • Sleeper effect over time, disliked sources can
    still get a message across effectively
  • We forget about negative source while changing
    our attitudes

Source Biases
  • Consumer beliefs about product can be weakened by
    a source perceived to be biased
  • Knowledge bias sources knowledge about a topic
    is not accurate
  • Reporting bias source has required knowledge but
    sources willingness to convey it is compromised

Hype versus Buzz
  • Buzz authentic message generated by customers
  • Hype inauthentic message generated by corporate

Hype Buzz
Advertising Word-of-mouth
Overt Covert
Corporate Grass-roots
Fake Authentic
Skepticism Credibility
Table 8.1
Source Attractiveness
  • Source attractiveness perceived social value of
  • Physical appearance
  • Personality
  • Social status
  • Similarity

What Is Beautiful Is Good
  • Halo effect people who rank high on one
    dimension are assumed to excel at other
  • Example good-looking people are thought to be
    smarter, cooler, happier
  • Physically attractive source leads to attitude
  • Directs attention to marketing stimuli
  • Beauty source of information

Star Power
  • Celebrities as communications sources (Symbolizes
    important categories such as status, social
    class, gender, age, and personality type)
  • Tiger Woods62 million/year in endorsements!
  • Famous faces capture attention and are processed
    more efficiently by the brain
  • Enhance company image and brand attitudes
  • Celebrities embody cultural and product meanings
  • Q-Score for celebrity endorsers (familiarity
    level No. Favorable)
  • Match-up hypothesis celebritys image and that
    of product are similar

  • Many marketers use celebrity endorsers to
    persuade. These spokespeople often are cool
    musicians, athletes, or stars.
  • Who would overall be the most effective celebrity
    endorser today, and why?
  • Who would be the least effective, and why?

Nonhuman Endorsers
  • Often, celebrities motives are suspect as
    endorsers of mismatched products
  • Thus, marketers seek alternative endorsers
  • Cartoon characters
  • Mascots/animals
  • Avatar cyberspace character that can be moved
    around in a virtual world

The Message
  • Positive and negative effects of elements in TV
  • Most important feature stressing unique product

Positive Effects Negative Effects
Showing convenience of use Extensive information on components, ingredients, nutrition
Showing new product/improved features Outdoor setting (message gets lost)
Casting background (i.e., people are incidental to message) Large number of onscreen characters
Indirect comparison to other products Graphic displays
Table 8.2
The Message (cont.)
  • Message is it conveyed in words or pictures?
  • Message issues facing a marketer
  • How often should message be repeated?
  • Should it draw an explicit conclusion?
  • Should it show both sides of argument?
  • Should it explicitly compare product to

Sending the Message
  • Visual versus verbal communication of message
  • Visual images big emotional impact
  • Verbal message high-involvement situations
  • Factual information
  • More effective when reinforced by a framed
  • Require more frequent exposures (due to decay)

Dual Component of Brand Attitudes
Figure 8.3
  • Powerful description/graphics command attention
    and are strongly embedded in memory
  • Concrete discussion of product attribute

  • Mere Exposure People tend to like things that
    are more familiar to them, even if they are not
    keen on them initially.
  • Habituation Consumer no longer pays attention to
    the stimulus because of boredom or fatigue
  • Two-factor Theory Explains the fine line between
    familiarity and boredom.
  • Positive affect Increases familiarity, reduces
  • Negative affect Boredom increases with each

Repetition and the Two-Factor Theory
  • Two-factor theory fine line between familiarity
    and boredom

Figure 8.4
One- versus Two-Sided Arguments
  • One-sided supportive arguments
  • Two-sided both positive and negative information
  • Refutational argument negative issue is raised,
    then dismissed
  • Positive attributes should refute presented
    negative attributes
  • Effective with well-educated and not-yet-loyal

Comparative Advertising
  • Comparative advertising message compares two
    recognizable brands on specific attributes
  • Unlike McDonalds, all of Arby's chicken
    sandwiches are made with 100 all-natural
  • But, confrontational approach can result in
    source derogation
  • An ad for a new product should not
  • Merely, say it is better than leading brand
  • Compare itself to an obviously superior competitor

Emotional versus Rational Appeals
  • Appeal to the head or to the heart?
  • Many companies use an emotional strategy when
    consumers do not find differences among brands
  • Especially brands in well-established, mature
    categories (e.g., cars and greeting cards)
  • Recall of ad contents tends to be better for
    thinking ads
  • Although conventional ad effectiveness measures
    may not be entirely valid to assess emotional ads

Sex Appeals
  • Sexual appeals vary by country
  • Nude models generate negative feelings/tension
    among same-sex consumers
  • Erotic ads draw attention, but strong sexual
    imagery may make consumers less likely to
  • Buy a product (unless product is related to sex)
  • Process and recall ads content

  • Name ads that rely on sex appeal to sell products
  • What benefits are communicated in the ad?
  • Is the message implicit or explicit? How?

Humorous Appeals
  • Different cultures have different senses of humor
  • Humorous ads get attention
  • Theyre a source of distraction
  • They inhibit counterarguing, thus increasing
    message acceptance

Humorous Appeals (cont.)
  • Humor is more effective when it
  • Doesnt swamp message of clearly defined brand
  • Doesnt make fun of potential consumer
  • Is appropriate to products image

Fear Appeals
  • Emphasize negative consequences that can occur
    unless consumer changes behavior/attitude
  • Fear is common in social marketing
  • Most effective when
  • Threat is moderate
  • Solution to problem is presented
  • Source is highly credible
  • The strongest threats are not always the most

Message As Art Form
  • Advertisers use literary elements to communicate
    benefits and meaning
  • Allegory story about an abstract concept
    personified in a fictional character
  • Metaphor two dissimilar objects in a close
    relationship (A is B)
  • Simile compares two objects (A is like B)
  • Resonance play on words with pictures

Examples of Advertising Resonance
Product Headline Visual
Embassy Suites This Year, Were Unwrapping Suites by the Dozen Chocolate kisses with hotel names underneath each
Toyota auto parts Out Lifetime Guarantee May Come as a Shock Man holding a shock absorber
Bucks filter cigarettes Herd of These? Cigarette pack with a picture of a stag
Bounce fabric softener Is There Something Creeping Up Behind You? Womans dress bunched up on her back due to static
Pepsi This Year, Hit the Beach Topless Pepsi bottle cap lying on the sand
ASICS athletic shoes We Believe Women Should Be Running the Country Woman jogging in a rural setting
Table 8.3
Forms of Story Presentation
  • Lecture speech in which the source speaks
    directly to the audience
  • Attempts to persuade
  • Cognitive responses may occur
  • Drama story that draws viewers into the action
  • Characters indirectly address the audience
  • Interact with each other in an imaginary setting

  • Sell the steak or the sizzle?
  • Whats more important in an advertisement
  • What is said? or
  • Who says it?
  • Give examples of ads that use one strategy versus
    the other. What types of ads are more effective
    for each strategy?

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of Persuasion
  • ELM assumes that once consumers receive message,
    they begin to process it

Figure 8.5
Support for the ELM
  • Variables crucial to the ELM
  • Message-processing involvement
  • Argument strength
  • Source characteristics
  • High-involvement consumers are swayed by powerful
  • Low-involvement consumers are swayed by source

Group homework!
  • Design a print ad for 1 or 2
  • 1. Social goal (University students behavior!)
  • absenteeism, study hard, change Att to learn
  • 2. Product/ service.
  • Product or service may be real or fictitious.
  • You may get as elaborate as you wish (employing
    graphic software) or the old-fashioned method of
    designing one by hand.
  • You should apply the principles discussed in the
    chapter to make the ad an effective tool of