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Title: Implementing a Response To Intervention Model at the Secondary Level


1
Implementing a Response To Intervention Model at
the Secondary Level
  • John E. McCook, Ed.D.
  • NEGARESA
  • December 3, 2008

2
WHY RTI?
  • Einsteins definition of insanity Doing the
    same thing over and over again and expecting
    different results
  • USDOE has written the obituary for the
    discrepancy model
  • Based upon Presidents Commission on Excellence
  • Based upon IDEIA 2004
  • Based upon LDA research findings

3
Why RTI?
  • The United States is the only country in the
    industrialized world where children are less
    likely to graduate from high school than their
    parents were. New York Times, page A29, Nicholas
    D. Kristof, November 13, 2008. (study by
    Education Trust, advocacy group based in
    Washington, D.C.) emphasis added

4
The Five Phases of Implementation
  • Awareness
  • Commitment
  • Capacity
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

5
Non Negotiable Components of RTI
  1. Universal screening
  2. Multiple tiers of intervention
  3. Progress monitoring
  4. Problem-solving or standard protocol approach
    the SAT Team
  5. Integrated data collection/assessment system
  6. Scientific, research-based interventions
  7. Fidelity
  8. Professional Development

6
The Secondary Problem
  • Very few students enter secondary school with the
    pre requisite SKILLS to complete grade level work
  • Many students leave secondary schools
    unmotivated, limited skills and very limited
    futures

7
The Critical Question
  • Do YOU have students who struggle in reading?
  • What are YOU DOING about it?

8
Brutal Facts
  • Virtually all instruction in secondary school
    assumes competence in reading
  • Virtually ALL assignments for competence at grade
    level require the student to read
  • Parents are sending us the best they have- they
    are not hiding their best children at home

9
How Have We Handled the Issue?
  • Blame
  • Parents
  • Society
  • Lack of work ethic
  • Middle school
  • Elementary school
  • Race
  • Low SES
  • Ethnicity
  • Etc..

10
The Student Needs to Fit Our Model
  • This is our schedule
  • This is how we teach
  • If the student is not performing---
  • It is his fault
  • He must be disabled

11
Whats Broken?
  • High ExpectationsMore Rigor
  • Students with moderate to severe educational or
    behavioral needs with large prerequisite SKILL
    deficits
  • Students with long history of failure and/or non
    response to the system
  • Teachers with limited support skills,
    instructional pedagogy and poorly designed
    instructional materials and support
  • Driving force is state testing and graduation
    requirements

Adapted from Mark Shinn presentation on secondary
RTI
12
Indicators of Broken System
  • Belief that help and special education are the
    same
  • Never ending referral system for special
    education for those that are hard to teach
  • If not Special Education, then Section 504
  • Teachers at SST meetings are not participatory,
    but just there.
  • Belief that SST meetings are there to get rid of
    the kid
  • Psychologists who spend most of their time on
    testing

Adapted from Mark Shinn presentation on secondary
RTI
13
Outcome Driven System New Thoughts
  • Old Ways
  • New Ways
  • Problems in learning means the student has a
    learning problem
  • Test to get help
  • Test to find a disease so we can label
  • Problems in learning are a sign that there is a
    problem in our instructional process
  • Get help before any formal testing- what does
    the test tell us and why wait to help
  • Ant testing should be to identify which
    interventions are needed to make instruction
    successful

Shinn and Alan Coulter
14
Is There Hope?
  • Secondary staff care for students
  • Secondary personnel KNOW the system is broken
  • Secondary staff realize that the preservice
    institutions did not prepare them for todays
    studentseither the diversity or the needs
  • Secondary staff are willing to learn if supported
  • There is a better process
  • We can match student programs and student needs
    much more effectively
  • We have better tools and skills

15
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16
What Do We Need
  • Realization that the foundation and process for
    middle and High requires the same beliefs,
    processes and tools as does elementary.
  • Better Tools
  • Better Training
  • Better and More Support

17
Awareness-The Self Study
  • Do I have an existing support system for
    intensive remedial basic skills problems and
    supporting system for content learning
  • Are our intervention programs aligned with
    student needs?
  • Is our curriculum and instruction scientifically
    based?
  • Do we have universal screening? Scientifically
    based?
  • Are our teams functional and effective to meet
    student needs?
  • Do we have progress monitoring instruments?
    Scientifically based?
  • Have we identified what doesnt work?
  • Have we identified ideas, beliefs, tools forms,
    programs and roles that can be abandoned?
  • Do we have the commitment to make the change?
  • Do we have the commitment to sustain the change?
  • Do we have the commitment to keep from altering
    scientifically based processes?

18
Where Do I Start?
  • Universal Screening
  • Team Process
  • What
  • Scientifically based
  • When
  • Training
  • Use of Data
  • Common vocabulary
  • Belief system
  • Training
  • Right persons on the bus
  • Use of data

19
Year One
  • Address Tier I before you start on Tier II and
    above
  • Develop data teams to ascertain whether we have a
    curriculum, instruction or student issue
  • Train data teams
  • Common vocabulary
  • Develop the leadership and staff development plan
    to meet needs

20
Carrot
  • Scores increase
  • Children provided interventions much earlier
  • Ineffectiveness of special education
  • Caseload
  • Expectations
  • Delay
  • Human resource effective
  • 30 minutes of intervention in K takes 2 hours per
    day in fourth grade (National Institutes of
    Health study, 1999)

21
Stick Approach
  • IDEA 04 language
  • NCLB
  • Pay me now or pay me later
  • Scores down
  • NAEP standards
  • Global economy
  • Restructuring

22
Awareness Commitment Consensus
  • In order to make a systems change you must first
    let go of old to accept the new.
  • It can not be just an add on approach

23
Consensus
  • Belief system changes and is shared by all
  • The end result is shared by all-the vision
  • What it is going to take to travel the road and
    what the vision requires of the infrastructure to
    get there. (what does it take to build the plane
    before we fly the plane.)

24
Consensus
  • Decisions are data basedno more I think, I
    feel
  • We are responsible for teaching ALL children and
    cant accept sending the problem away
  • There are NO excuses
  • We can only address what we control (instruction,
    curriculum and the school environment/climate)
  • Student performance is determined by the quality
    of our instruction/curriculum WE deliver

25
Road to Consensus
  • General education responsibility NOT a path to
    Special Education!
  • Tier I is the most important tier and must be
    documented with data as to its effectiveness and
    fidelity
  • Instruction is best led by formative data and the
    childs response to intervention, not summative
    data
  • Walk the walk versus talk the talk( policies
    consistent with beliefs and actions are
    consistent with policies
  • Beliefs are based on research and are evidence
    based

26
Road to Consensus
  • All students are every teachers responsibility
  • Behavior and academics are not separate but are
    inter mingled
  • Commitment to problem solving process

27
Road to Consensus- Professional Development
  • General education classroom must be based on
    evidence based programs and instruction
  • Use of data and data teams (training)
  • Support processes

28
Commitment by ALL
  • Realization that this is NOT a special education
    issue
  • RTI is for ALL
  • Lead or be led
  • Two data paragraphs IDEA requires before or as
    part of referral
  • Responsibility of special education teams (case
    study, ARC, ARDs etc) to send back referral if no
    data
  • Move to SHOW ME, dont Tell Me
  • Common vocabulary

29
Commitment by ALL
  • Agreement on readiness
  • Staff agree to implement the model
  • Commitment built through
  • Understanding Need
  • Understanding Model
  • Mutual Outcomes
  • Development of Expertise

30
National Literacy Crisis
8th Grade Students (2005)
Reading
Math
29
29
32
29
39
42
(Source National Center for Education
Statistics)
31
Sample Question
10(53) ?
32
As a Word Problem
Guinevere went into Sauls Bakery and spent five
dollars to buy 3 packages of dinner rolls. She
then went next door to the SuperShop Store and
bought a container of milk for three dollars. How
much money will she have left if she started with
10?
Actual State Test Example
33
Reading and Math Whole Brain Learning
34
Unique Approach Automaticity
  • Example Read the following paragraph once to
    yourself, counting the number of fs you see
  • A large number of books I have read forged an
    impression upon me that has remained to this day.
    I will never forget how one book mixed fact and
    fiction in recounting stories of the days when
    dinosaurs roamed the earth. It was a colorful
    history of where dinosaurs came from and how they
    evolved. I will never forget some of the lessons
    from this book.

35
Reading Fluency
  • 12
  • A large number of books I have read forged an
    impression upon me that has remained to this day.
    I will never forget how one book mixed fact and
    fiction in recounting stories of the days when
    dinosaurs roamed the earth. It was a colorful
    history of where dinosaurs came from and how they
    evolved. I will never forget some of the lessons
    from this book.

36
Neuroscience Cognitive Processing
Moderate Heavy Peak
Real-time fMRI scans of the same subject (left)
heavy processing load during early skill
acquisition (right) light load when skill is
automatized

Source San Diego State University
37
Implementing RTI
  1. Collect local norms using Curriculum-Based
    Measurement (CBM) probes
  2. Identify at-risk students
  3. Provide academic intervention(s)
  4. Monitor student progress
  5. Evaluate the response to the intervention(s)

38
Capacity or Building Infrastructure
  • Common understanding of issues
  • Agree to redefine support team process
  • Belief system
  • Structure
  • Purpose
  • Leadership
  • Determine where you want to be in
  • 6 months
  • 1 year
  • 3 years
  • 5 years

39
Do I Really Have To?
  • Federal Language
  • Data that demonstrates that prior to, or as a
    part of, the referral process, the child was
    provided appropriate instruction in regular
    classroom settings, delivered by qualified
    personnel and
  • Data-based documentation of repeated assessments
    of achievement at reasonable intervals which
    were provided to the childs parents.
  • 34 C.F.R. 300.309

40
Do I Really Have To?
  • Section 300.307(a)(2)-(3) requires that a states
    criteria for identification of SLD
  • Must permit the use of a process based upon a
    childs response to scientific, research-based
    intervention and
  • May permit the use of other alternative research
    based procedures. FAQ OSEP Question E-1

41
Capacity or Building Infrastructure
  • What do we have NOW?
  • What do we need to get there in (time periods)?
  • What do we need to do to build the road prior to
    traveling the road?

42
Capacity or Building Infrastructure
  • Resource Needs
  • Staff
  • Materials
  • Time
  • Support
  • Training
  • What are we willing to do when resistance occurs
    or, how committed are we?

43
Steps to Capacity
  • Support team process
  • Universal screening
  • Data drive decisions- move from tell me what
    youve done system to SHOW ME
  • Getting the data
  • Using the data with all staff and all staff using
    the data for decision making

44
Steps to Capacity
  • The data define the problems
  • What are we going to do about it?
  • Determine model protocol, problem-solving or
    combination
  • Start redefining roles
  • Job security issues
  • New rules-new roles
  • Where does I fit in?

45
Steps to Capacity State- and District-Level
Implementation IssuesThat Must Be Addressed
  • Number of tiers of intervention
  • Duration of interventions at each tier
  • Criteria for entering/exiting tiers (rubric)
  • Criteria for sufficient/insufficient progress
    (defined by state or team)
  • Method of universal screening and progress
    monitoring
  • Paperwork required for documentation
  • Eligibility criteria for LD

46
Building-Level Implementation Issues to Be Decided
  • Scheduling of Intervention Time
  • What do I come out of to receive the
    intervention?
  • Scheduling Meeting Times
  • Regularly scheduled meetings or at need?
  • Scheduling Progress Monitoring

47
Building-Level Implementation Issues to Be Decided
  • Personnel to Conduct Interventions
  • Who is going to do the interventions?
  • Communication with Parents
  • When, what, how
  • Dealing with Resistance
  • Prepare for the enemy, he is within!

48
Support Team Process
  • Paradigm shift
  • Why do we have the support team process?
  • What is its purpose?
  • What is its effectiveness?
  • Who is a member of the support team?
  • Who leads the support team?
  • How often does the support team meet?

49
Support Teams Under Discrepancy
  • What was the purpose of support team?
  • Altruistic answer was to help kids succeed.
  • Real-life answer was Thats how you get a kid to
    special education.

50
Parent refers Support Team
Teacher refersReferral to Special Education
How did support team receive child?
51
Support Team Under RTI
  • Purpose is to keep child in general education
    classroom
  • To provide interventions and measure progress in
    general education
  • To gain buy-in from general education teacher

52
How Does Childs Situation Get to Support Team
Under RTI?
Data Bring Childs Needs to Attention of Support
Team Through Benchmarks
Vast Majority is this way.
Support Team Process
Some come from parents.
Few come from teachers.
Parent Referral
Teacher Referral
53
Why the Change in Referrals?
  • Universal screening data (benchmarks) identify
    children in need of intervention
  • Teacher supports process through classroom data
  • If parent referral, then parent provides
    information through parent referral form

54
Universal Screening
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is the
    recommended tool to identify students who are
    at-risk (have low academic skills) and require
    interventions.
  • CBM is a technically sound and thoroughly
    researched progress monitoring system.

55
Universal Screening
  • CBM
  • Is a standardized test
  • Is given to everyone
  • Measures critical skills
  • Is brief
  • Can be repeated frequently
  • Is inexpensive and easy to administer and score
  • Provides data to assist with decision making at
    the individual student, class, school or district
    level
  • Tells us which students are at-risk and need
    supplemental instruction/intervention

56
Universal Screening
  • Development of benchmark data norms
  • Classroom
  • Grade level
  • School
  • District
  • Benchmark data taken three times per year
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Spring

57
Universal Screening
  • Data from benchmarks must be available to
    teachers, principals, and district staff and
    shared with parents
  • Data must be user friendly in format

58
Example of Benchmark Data
59
Not Good! Look at the drop In the spring!!!
60
One of our studentsLook at his progress!!!
61

62
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63
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64
RtI Universal Screening Behavior
  • Incorporate systematic screening tools to monitor
    the level of risk at a given school to identify
    students whose behavior patterns suggest non
    responsiveness
  • Available tools
  • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders
    (SSBD Walker Severson, 1992)
  • Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS Drummond,
    1994)
  • Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ
    Goodman, 1997)
  • Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS
    Epstein Sharma, 1998)

65
Where are the Data?
  • Look at what you have
  • User friendly?
  • Quick?
  • Ability to track over long haul?
  • Ability to drill down to student and up to
    district or national?
  • If yes, then you have tools.
  • If no, then you need tools.

66
Typically CBM Data Probes
  • When using CBM, the examiner gives the student
    brief, timed samples, or "probes," made up of
    academic material taken from the expected skills
    for the particular grade level.

67
What do probes look like?
Reading R-CBM
This student read 72 WRC/8 Errors
68
Reading Comprehension Maze
15 correct with 1 error
69
Math Computation
70
Math Concepts and Applications
71
Math Concepts and Applications
72
What About Behavior?
  • Incorporate systematic screening tools to monitor
    the level of risk at a given school to identify
    students whose behavior patterns suggest
    nonresponsiveness
  • Available tools
  • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders
    (SSBD Walker Severson, 1992)
  • Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS Drummond,
    1994)
  • Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ
    Goodman, 1997)
  • Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS
    Epstein Sharma, 1998)

73
Summative vs. Formative Assessment
  • Summative assessment occurs after instruction
  • Example High Stakes testing
  • Conducted infrequently
  • Does not provide teachers with ongoing assessment
    data
  • Answers the question, Did the students learn?

74
Summative vs. Formative Assessment
  • Formative assessment occurs during instruction
  • Example CBM probes
  • Conducted frequently
  • Provides teachers with immediate feedback on
    student performance
  • Answers the question, Are the students learning?

75
CBM Formative Assessment
  • Dynamicmeasures are designed to be sensitive to
    short-term effects of instructional interventions
  • Measures fluency, which is more sensitive to
    change than accuracy
  • As a result, CBM probes are useful for progress
    monitoring.

76
The High school Problem
Special education instruction does not close gap
Weak Tier III interventions-usually content area
tutoring, help with homework, etc.
No Tier II options except federal programs at best
Little focus to Tier I instruction or teacher
effectiveness
77
The Middle School Problem
Special education instruction does not close gap
1-5
Weak Tier III interventions-usually content area
tutoring, help with homework, etc.
5
No Tier II options except federal programs at best
15
Little focus to Tier I instruction or teacher
effectiveness
80
78
The Browning of America
  • Diversity is the future of our educational system
  • Prepare to teach students who depend almost
    entirely on the schools for their educational
    success

79
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80
The Numbers
  • Legal Immigrants
  • 1920-61 206,000 annually
  • 1961-92 561,000 annually
  • 1993-98 800,654 annually
  • Refugees, Parolees, Asylees
  • 1961-93 2.1 million (65,000 annually)
  • 1994-98 428,361 (85,672 annually)
  • Illegal Immigrants
  • 300,000 to 400,000 annually over the past two
    decades
  • Three million granted amnesty in 1986
  • 2.7 million illegal immigrants remained in U.S.
    after 1986 reforms
  • October 1996 INS estimated that there were 5
    million illegal immigrants in the U.S.
  • April 2001 Illegal population range from 7.1 to
    9 million.

81
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82
States Experiencing Rapid Hispanic Population
Growth, 1990-1994
Percent Change
lt 28 (43)gt 28 (8)
Source Administrative Records and Methodology
Research Branch, US Bureau of Census, July 1,
1994 (population estimates).
83
The New Students
  • Poor academic achievement
  • Low motivation
  • Anxiety
  • Lack of self-efficacy
  • Emotional problems and psychological from reading
    issues

84
Programs to Address Needs of Our Population
  • Programs designed to
  • Take into account a lack of background knowledge
  • Delayed language development
  • Limited successful reading experiences
  • Design programs to
  • Intensive intervention for those furthest behind
  • Educational ICU
  • Educational triage

85
Four Types of Learners
  • Advanced
  • At or above grade level standards
  • Bored?
  • Advanced classes
  • Enrichment
  • Tier IV opportunities in Georgia

86
Four Types of Learners
  • Benchmark
  • Generally can meet standards in Tier I
  • Adapts to teaching style
  • Preventative checks every 6 weeks or so through
    report cards
  • Have vocabulary and comprehension skills
  • Require occassional in class modifications

87
Four Types of Learners
  • Strategic Learners
  • Somewhere between the 30th and 49th percentile
  • Gaps in skills
  • Gap in knowledge
  • 1-2 years behind
  • Basic reading skills but with limited depth,
    inference and knowledge
  • Appears unmotivated
  • Content knowledge is challenging and at times
    problematic
  • Targeted interventions-Tier II
  • Progress monitoring more frequently
  • Intervention periods or times

88
Four Types of Learners
  • Intensive Need Learners
  • Below 30th percentile
  • Very low performance on state and formative
    assessments
  • Reading skills very limited
  • High level of frustration and low level of
    motivation
  • Behavior problems
  • Attendance issues
  • Lack of success in content areas
  • No homework
  • Tier III frequent weekly progress monitoring
  • Intervention classes during day

89
Present Program
  • Designed to meet the need of benchmark students

90
New Programs
  • Rethink organizational structure
  • Rethink schedules
  • Address teacher skills
  • Address teacher knowledge
  • Rethink curriculum, materials and programs

91
Six Reasons Programs fail
  • Not all teachers receive sufficient in-service
    training to understand, teach and implement the
    new program
  • No follow-up coaching during year
  • Grouping and scheduling requirements were not
    followed
  • Programs intensity not sufficient to see gain
    quickly
  • Insufficient progress monitoring
  • Too many initiatives going on at one time-lack of
    focus

92
Summative vs. Formative Assessment
  • Summative assessment occurs after instruction
  • Example High Stakes testing
  • Conducted infrequently
  • Does not provide teachers with ongoing assessment
    data
  • Answers the question, Did the students learn?

93
Summative vs. Formative Assessment
  • Formative assessment occurs during instruction
  • Example CBM probes
  • Conducted frequently
  • Provides teachers with immediate feedback on
    student performance
  • Answers the question, Are the students learning?

94
CBM Formative Assessment
  • Dynamicmeasures are designed to be sensitive to
    short-term effects of instructional interventions
  • Measures fluency, which is more sensitive to
    change than accuracy
  • As a result, CBM probes are useful for progress
    monitoring.

95
Interpreting CBM
  • What is an appropriate achievement level?
  • At-risk range may be defined differently in
    different districts
  • What is appropriate growth?
  • Adequate improvement may be defined differently
    in different districts.

96
Responses to an Intervention?
  • Good Response
  • Gap is closing
  • Can extrapolate a point at which target student
    will catch-up to peerseven if this is a
    long-range target
  • Questionable Response
  • Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably,
    but gap is still widening
  • Gap stops widening, but closure does not occur
  • Poor Response
  • Gap continues to widen with no change in rate

97
Implementing RTI
  1. Collect local norms using Curriculum-Based
    Measurement (CBM) probes
  2. Identify at-risk students
  3. Provide academic intervention(s)
  4. Monitor student progress
  5. Evaluate the response to the intervention(s)

98
Identified Students For Intervention
  • The previous graph clearly shows that we have a
    small group of students who are not performing
    relative to the class
  • Development of cut scores

99
Implementing RTI
  1. Collect local norms using Curriculum-Based
    Measurement (CBM) probes
  2. Identify at-risk students
  3. Provide academic intervention(s)
  4. Monitor student progress
  5. Evaluate the response to the intervention(s)

100
What Are Interventions?
  • Targeted assistance based on progress monitoring
  • Administered by classroom teacher, specialized
    teacher, or external interventionist
  • Provide additional instruction
  • Individual,
  • Small group,
  • And/or technology assisted

101
What Are Interventions?
  • Match curricular materials and instructional
    level
  • Modify modes of task presentation
  • Cue work habits / organizational skills
  • Modify direct instruction time
  • Modify guided and independent practice
  • Ensure optimal pacing
  • May use partner reading

102
What Are Interventions?
  • Increase task structure ( e.g., directions,
    rationale, checks for understanding, feedback)
  • Increase task relevant practice
  • Increase opportunities to engage in active
    academic responding (e.g., writing, reading
    aloud, answering questions in class)
  • Increase mini-lessons on skill deficits
  • Decrease group size
  • Increase the amount and type of cues and prompts

103
What Are Interventions?
  • Teach additional learning strategies
    Organizational / Metacognitive / Work habits
  • Change Curriculum
  • Add intensive one to one or small group
    instruction
  • Change scope and sequence of tasks
  • Increase guided and independent practice
  • Change types and method of corrective feedback

104
Interventions are NOT
  • Preferential seating
  • Shortened assignments
  • Parent contacts
  • Classroom observations
  • Suspension
  • Doing MORE of the same / general classroom
    assignments
  • Retention
  • Peer-tutoring

105
Written Intervention Plans
  • A description of the specific intervention
  • Duration of the intervention
  • Schedule and setting of the intervention
  • Persons responsible for implementing the
    intervention
  • Measurable outcomes which can be used to make
    data-based adjustments as needed during the
    intervention process
  • Description of measurement and recording
    techniques
  • Progress monitoring schedule

106
Tier I Intervention
Focus For all students
Program Scientifically Based Curricula
Grouping Multiple grouping formats to meet student needs
Time 90 minutes per day or more
Assessment Benchmark assessment at beginning, middle, and end of the academic year
Interventionist General education teacher
Setting General education classroom
107
Tier 1 Non-negotiables
  • Tier 1
  • STANDARDS-BASED CLASSROOM LEARNING
  • All students participate in general education
    learning that includes
  • Universal screenings to target groups in need of
    specific instructional support.
  • Implementation of the Georgia Performance
    Standards (GPS) through a standards based
    classroom structure.
  • Differentiation of instruction including fluid,
    flexible grouping, multiple means of learning,
    and demonstration of learning.
  • Progress monitoring of learning through multiple
    formative assessments.

Georgia DOE RTI presentation Nov 2008
108
Features of the TIER II Process
  • Purpose To support individual students in
    the general education classroom who have
    not met benchmarks through the whole class
    model of Tier I.
  • Targeted Population Students who have
    significantly lower levels of
    performance than their peers. Students
    who exhibit significant deviation from
    their grade level peers in academic or
    behavioral issues. Students who are
    learning at a much slower rate than their
    grade level peers and falling farther behind
    their classmates.

109
Features of the TIER II Process
  • Services Creative/flexible scheduling to
    allocate sufficient time for small group
    instruction. Creative uses of personnel
    resources, i.e., teaching styles,
    several people teaching reading groups.
    Thirty minutes of additional instruction
    at least 3 times per week. Lasting from six
    to twelve weeks. Progress monitoring
    biweekly.

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Tier II Intervention Characteristics
  • Intervention (additional instruction) and
    frequent progress monitoring (weekly and
    preferably 2x per week) that struggling students
    receive.
  • Struggling students receive additional
    instruction.
  • Instruction is provided to same-ability small
    groups of no more than three to five students.

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Tier II Supplemental Instruction
Focus For students identified with marked difficulties, and who have not responded to Tier I efforts
Program Programs, strategies, and procedures designed and employed to supplement, enhance, and support Tier I
Grouping Homogeneous small group instruction (13, 14, or 15)
Time Minimum of 30 minutes per day minimum 3 x per week in small group in addition to 90 minutes of core instruction
Assessment Progress monitoring weekly on target skill to ensure adequate progress and learning (preferably 2x weekly)
Interventionist Personnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher, a specialized teacher, an external interventionist)
Setting Appropriate setting designated by the school may be within or outside of the classroom
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Tier 2 Non-negotiables
  • NEEDS-BASED LEARNING
  • In addition to Tier 1, targeted students
    participate in learning that is different by
    including
  • Standard intervention protocol process for
    identifying and providing research based
    interventions based on need and resources.
  • On-going progress monitoring to measure student
    response to intervention and guide
    decision-making.

Georgia DOE RTI presentation Nov 2008
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Tier III
Focus For students identified with marked difficulties, and who have not responded to Tier I or Tier II efforts
Program Sustained, intensive scientifically based interventions
Grouping Homogeneous small group instruction (11, 12, or 13)
Time Minimum of three 30 minutes per day in small group or individually in addition to core instruction
Assessment Progress monitoring twice a week or at a minimum weekly on target skill to ensure adequate progress and learning
Interventionist Personnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher, a specialized teacher, an external interventionist)
Setting Appropriate setting designated by the school may be within or outside of the classroom
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Tier 3 Non-negotiables
  • SST-DRIVEN LEARNING
  • In addition to Tier 1 and Tier 2, targeted
    students participate in learning that is
    different by including
  • Intensive, formalized problem solving to identify
    individual student needs.
  • Targeted research based interventions tailored to
    individual needs.
  • Frequent progress monitoring and analysis of
    student response to intervention(s).

Georgia DOE RTI presentation Nov 2008
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Tier 4 Non-negotiables
  • SPECIALLY-DESIGNED LEARNING
  • In addition to Tiers 1 through 3, targeted
    students participate in
  • Specialized programs, methodologies, or
    instructional deliveries.
  • Greater frequency of progress monitoring of
    student response to intervention(s).  

Georgia DOE RTI presentation Nov 2008
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Implementing RTI
  1. Collect local norms using Curriculum-Based
    Measurement (CBM) probes
  2. Identify at-risk students
  3. Provide academic intervention(s)
  4. Monitor student progress
  5. Evaluate the response to the intervention(s)

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Progress Monitoring
  • Is formative
  • Uses a variety of data collection methods
  • Examines student performance frequently over
    time, to evaluate response to intervention in
    making data-based decisions
  • Is on-going, systematic process for gathering
    data
  • Academic
  • Social
  • Behavioral

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Progress Monitoring
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is the
    recommended tool for measuring student response
    to the intervention.

119
Progress Monitoring
  • The purpose of progress monitoring is to take
    frequent measures, usually weekly, of a students
    performance to determine whether he or she is
    making progress in response to the intervention.
  • Most models that have been researched have used
    CBM for weekly progress monitoring.

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Why Not Pre and Post Test?
  • Pre-Test (10 Weeks) Post-Test

?
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Positive Response to Intervention
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Not Responding to First Intervention
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Better Response to Intervention
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Interpreting Progress
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Dr. George M. Batsche Co-Director, Institute for
School Reform Florida Problem-Solving/RtI
Statewide Project University of South
Florida Tampa, Florida
Poor RTI
Aimline 1.50 words/week
Trendline 0.55 words/week
Georgia DOE Presentation Nov 2008
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Dr. George M. Batsche Co-Director, Institute for
School Reform Florida Problem-Solving/RtI
Statewide Project University of South
Florida Tampa, Florida
Positive RTI
Aimline 1.50 words/week
Trendline 0.2.32 words/week
Georgia DOE Presentation Nov 2008
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Implementing RTI
  1. Collect local norms using Curriculum-Based
    Measurement (CBM) probes
  2. Identify at-risk students
  3. Provide academic intervention(s)
  4. Monitor student progress
  5. Evaluate the response to the intervention(s)

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Comparison of Pre Intervention Data to Post
Intervention Data
  • Did it work?
  • Decision making rubric applied

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Tier I is Critical!!!
  • Scientifically based curriculum delivered with
    FIDELITY
  • Continues during Tier II
  • Continues during Tier III
  • The better Tier I is the fewer children will
    become Tier II or Tier III!

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Tier II
  • Elementary
  • Minimum of 30 minutes of SUPPLEMENTAL
    scientifically based research intervention per
    day at least three days per week
  • Tier I continues
  • Middle/High
  • Minimum of a period of scientifically based
    intervention per day
  • Middle
  • Usually occurs during elective-exploratory
    periods
  • High
  • Usually a scheduled class period richly staffed

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Tier II Implementation
  • Tier I Classroom
  • Tier II Intervention
  • Teacher provides scientifically based research
    curriculum
  • Teacher provides additional help to struggling
    students
  • Teacher takes data through classroom activities
    and progress monitoring for at-risk students
    prior to going to Tier IIafter going to Tier II,
    PM done at Tier II
  • Scientifically researched intervention provided
    in ADDITION to classroom
  • Progress monitoring occurs at least weekly and
    preferably twice per week

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Tier III Implementation
  • Tier I Classroom
  • Tier III
  • Teacher provides scientifically based research
    curriculum
  • Teacher provides additional help to struggling
    students
  • Teacher takes data through classroom activities
    and progress monitoring for at-risk students
    prior to going to Tier IIafter going to Tier
    III, PM done at Tier III
  • Tier II is deleted
  • At least two 30 minute interventions for a
    targeted student per day for at least 45 days
    within 60 school days. In Middle/High staffing is
    increased
  • Progress monitoring is twice per week

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Decision Point
  • Student at or below 10th Percentile
  • Begin the appropriate forms to take student to
    the S-Team
  • Student above 10th Percentile
  • Continue working with student in the classroom
  • OR
  • Go to the S-Team for input and further assistance

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Students who are less than two years behind
  • Find a thirty to forty-five time period during
    the day to provide small group interventions
  • Reduce home group by 5-7 minutes
  • Reduce between class time by 1-2 minutes
  • Reduce each period by 3-5 minutes
  • Yields the 30-45 minute period during the day for
    enhancement, intervention or other student
    meetings

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Decision Point for Tier 2
  • 1) Student is at or below 10th Percentile
  • And
  • 2) Growth rate is less than average
  • Proceed to Tier 3
  • 3) Student achieves 25th percentile or above
  • Exit Tier 2
  • 4) Some progress but above 10th percentile
  • Continue Tier 2

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Decision Point for Tier 3
  • Student at or below 10th percentile
  • AND
  • Growth rate less than average
  • Proceed to Tier 4 (Special Ed. Consideration)
  • Student making progress but above 10th percentile
  • Continue Tier 3 or Return to Tier 2
  • Student achieves 25th percentile
  • Exit Tiers

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Summary of Recommendations regarding the
implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    districts and schools maintain a deep focus on
    the development of standards-based learning
    environments in all classrooms.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    districts and schools monitor the transfer of
    learning from all interventions to the Tier 1
    general classroom.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    districts create a system to monitor the fidelity
    of implementation of instruction (including
    interventions) at all Tiers of the Student
    Achievement Pyramid of Interventions.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    the formation of a data team at each school.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    the problem solving process checklist be used as
    a guide for implementation of the problem solving
    process.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    the use of a blended approach (problem solving
    process and standard protocol) to solving student
    learning concerns.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    the use of a universal screening process three
    times per year.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    districts and schools use an established
    data-management system to allow ready access to
    students progress monitoring data.
  • The Georgia Department of Education encourages
    districts to use evidence-based protocols to
    provide a common framework for choosing
    evidence-based interventions.
  • The Georgia Department of Education recommends
    districts evaluate the distribution of existing
    funds for supporting interventions in schools.

Georgia DOE Presentation Webinar Nov 2008
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Thank You for Your TimeJohn E. McCook,
Ed.D.jmccook125_at_aol.comMcCook and
Associates865-693-5884
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