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Setting the Stage


Setting the Stage The World in the 19th Century Francis Joseph. Austro-Hungarian Emperor ascended to the throne in 1848 after the defeats of the revolutions and his ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Setting the Stage

Setting the Stage
  • The World in the 19th Century

The lasting effects of the Enlightenment
1700s Tell me what you know about it!
  • breaking away from church teachings and divine
  • reason, logic, and mans ability to contemplate
    the physical world around him.
  • physical and metaphysical world Scientific
    advancement and the individual growth of mans
  • Rousseau, Locke, Montesquieu, Descartes

What did Enlightenment Thinkers think?
  • German Idealism reality only exists within our
    own experiences and through senses and reason
    leads to transcendentalism.
  • Transcendentalism the notion that we rise above
    our physical environment and limitations. We can
    rise above oppression to live within the
    boundaries of natural law. Laws of man are
  • Romanticism the embrace of human emotion in
    spite of logic. The ability to feel and express
    thoughts that cannot be proven through science or
    logic. The acceptance of concepts such as love,
    hope, faith, air, hate, etc. Man becomes center
    of thought and focuses on human expression.
  • (side note) Realism a movement that develops
    in the mid 19th century and the 20th century as a
    direct backlash and challenge to the philosophies
    of the 18th century. A focus on empirical
    evidence, facts, science

New Science
  • The 1800s saw a greater emphasis on scientific
    developments in natural science based on the
    empirical method and scientific theory. In fact,
    the 19th century sees science develop as a
  • Andre Ampere Study of electricity
  • James Maxwell Study of gases and decomposition
    of elements leading to electromagnetism.
  • Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution all
    physical matter evolves from previous matter.
  • Emile Durkheim Father of Sociology applied
    empirical observation to study human nature and
    determined that we have dualist personas one to
    the nation and one to the individual. It is this
    dualistic nature that leads to social conflict.
  • Wilhelm Wundt Developed the first psycholab
    where the human mind was analyzed through
    emperical evaluation ? Led to psychology and
  • Frans Boas Developed cultural anthropology,
    studying man in his environmental element.

Industrialization in the West
  • Industrialization flourishes
  • Led by Britain
  • Common man changes
  • - Products and services are easily available
  • - Urban areas develop.
  • They live in terrible conditions
  • People unite together to demand better
  • (Communist Revolution Karl Marx)

Long term effects of new science a return to
  • Even though empirical studies and scientific
    investigation was a fledgling profession, it
    reflects the new direction of mans critique of
  • Men were questioning the world around them and
    exploring how the world functioned on a new
    logical empirical level.
  • There is a de-emphasis on faith, intuition, and
    feeling and a new focus on logic and sensory

New World Order
  • The questioning nature of new science, combined
    with the new awareness of the common man, lead to
    new social and political movements throughout
  • Conservativism focus on monarchy, customs and
  • VS
  • Liberalism focus on liberty and individualism
  • Pragmatism (knowledge is power) evolution of
  • VS
  • Positivism (scientific ideology) similar to
  • progress for the sake of progress and
  • (Do we do genetic research even though it may
    lead to ethical violations? Positivist says

Modern Conflict
  • Socialism focus on collectivism and equality
  • Utilitarianism morality of an action is defined
    by the overall contribution to happiness or
    pleasure to overall society.
  • .
  • VS
  • Democracy power of the people to protect
    individual rights
  • Capitalism free market, laissez faire
    economy that fosters private enterprise

The New Thinkers
  • Marx and Engels
  • Communist Manifesto called for global
    Revolution of the proletariat
  • Das Kapital Defined the Labor Theory of Value
    and wage-slavery
  • Created the foundation for socialist movements
    and the rise of communism.
  • John Stuart Mill
  • Minus One Theory the idea that one dissenting
    voice is as important as total consensus of
    thought. That dissenting voice leads to change.
  • On Liberty argued that we have the freedom to
    make moral decisions for ourselves without the
    limitations of government
  • The Subjugation of Women written with his wife
    Harriet Stuart Mills, argued for the equality of
    the sexes based on merit rather than traditional
    gender roles.

  • Sir Robert Peel Whig Party
  • passed labor reforms that protected child and
    womens labor.
  • Set standards for safety in the factory.
  • Repealed corn laws helping farmers establish fair
    market value for crops.
  • Reformed the police system in England ridding
    English politics from corrupt regional governors.
  • Friedrich Nietzsche God is Dead
  • Determined that religion was no longer a
    necessary faction in our society. Instead all
    philosophies and beliefs needed to be founded in
    scientific knowledge.
  • Argued that man creates and defines his own
    society based on the social Darwinist theory
    survival of the fittest
  • Argued that moral values are subjective and
    therefore unnecessary.
  • Advocated for the super man and argued that all
    men are either masters or slaves (dog pack

In the meantime is God dead?
  • Despite the new wave of philosophies and
    de-emphasis on religion, a large majority of the
    European population still believed in a form of
  • Roman Catholic Church (Roman Empire)
  • Protestantism (Western Europe, Balkan States)
  • Eastern Orthodoxy (Russia, Eastern Europe)
  • Islam (Balkan states, Turkish Empire)
  • Judaism (Central and Eastern Europe)
  • Deism (natural philosophy, spreading throughout
  • Atheism (spreading throughout Europe)

Religion and class
  • Religion was most dominant in the middle class.
  • The aristocrats rejected religion with the fall
    of the monarchies.
  • The lower masses felt they were not benefiting
    from religion in the new governments.
  • The ideological differences of the various
    religions often led to political conflict, social
    clashes, and religious wars.
  • The arts and society
  • more secular with a new emphasis on Classical art
    (compared to ecclesiastical music and art).
  • Museums, libraries, schools, and public monuments
    were built rather than churches and religious

Create an ID with 5 Ws
  • Darwinism
  • Liberalism
  • Pragmatism
  • Socialism
  • Theory of Evolution
  • Minus One Theory
  • New Science

The Road to WWI
  • Students will understand how European nationalism
    in the late 1800s and early 1900s led to WWI

Talkin bout a revolution!
  • The philosophies of the Enlightenment led the
    common man to recognize his own value and embrace
    their natural rights.
  • This new movement would lead directly to major
    revolutions throughout the world.
  • American Revolution War for Independence
  • French Revolution
  • Haitian Revolution
  • Latin American Revolutions
  • Social revolutions

French Revolution most important revolution in
  • Most argue that the French Revolution is possibly
    the most significant Revolution, not because it
    was successful, but in fact, because it failed.
  • Why?

Change from Failure
  • The failure of the French Revolution created a
    radical chain reaction of paranoia and
    overreaction throughout Europe.
  • The beheading of a monarch (Louis XVI and Marie
    Antoinette) sent a ripple of fear through the
    royalist leaders in Europe and empowered the
    budding Republics.
  • Many European Royalists feared the power of the
    masses and created oppressive laws and alliances
    that protected the power of the crown against the
    advancement of the common man.
  • This over-reactive behavior by the ruling elite
    backlashes generating a new wave of
    philosophical, political, and social movements in
    the 19th century.

Specific conflict from the Congress of Vienna
  • The Congress of Vienna first attempt at
    collective security
  • Spheres of influence were established
  • The Napoleonic Empire was dismantled and
    hereditary monarchies were reestablished.
  • The Holy Roman Empire was permanently dissolved.
  • The practice of slavery was officially denounced.
  • However, these new geopolitical boundaries did
    not consider nationalistic and liberal impulses.

Nationalism Write a brief response regarding
your reaction.
  • Imagine, you live in Stockton (really use your
    imagination here)
  • A kerfuffle (fight) develops in the San Joaquin
    Valley. When the kerfuffle is over, a group of
    people from the Bay Area get together and decide
    that Stockton is going to now be divided up
    between Lodi, Manteca, and Linden instead of its
    own city. In fact, East Stockton is going to be
    under direct control of the Linden mayor and we
    will only receive secondary resources.
  • The rationale is that Stockton is potentially too
    powerful and could cause problems. This way,
    Stockton is no longer an issue and the three
    other cities are all equally in control. As a
    citizen of Stockton, what do you do?

People Unite!!!
  • During the 18th century, many modern nations
    emerged for the first time through social
    insurgence, political manipulation, and national
  • Italian Unification Ruled by foreign (non
    Italian) rulers after the Congress of Vienna.
    1848 Italian revolutionaries led movement to
    unify Italian territory under Italian leadership.
  • German Unification 1866 many German speaking
    countries were under the authority of Austria.
    Prussia, under Bismarck, attacked Austria and
    begins unification under a united German
    government Power shifted to Germany in Central
    Europe. Scares the hell out of France

To what extent is Disraeli correct? 2. Discuss
this quote in relation to historiography.
  • This war War of 1870 represents the German
    revolution, a greater political event than the
    French Revolution of the last century You have a
    new world, new influences at work, new and
    unknown objects and dangers with which to cope
    The balance of power has been entirely destroyed.
  • -- Disraeli
  • Prime Minister of Britain

Oh Germany what do you do?
  • Prussia unites
  • Realpolitiks Otto von Bismarck and his web of
  • France declares war 1870
  • France loses, signs the Treaty of Frankfurt
  • The signing of the treaty makes Germany an
    official country because they are acknowledged as
    an equal country to France
  • France was forced to concede the Alsace and
    Lorrain region to France.
  • Tensions between Germany and France will last a
    very long time

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The Balkans The Eastern Crisis of 1875-1878
  • In the late 1800s, the Balkan region of
    Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece and Serbia
    experienced insurgent activity leading to four
    declarations of their independence from the
    Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
  • Russia supported Balkan independence in Bulgaria
    and Serbia because they wanted to create an
    alliance to gain access to the Mediterranean Sea.
    However, Russia did not support Montenegro or
    Greece in their quest for independence.
  • Consequently, Britain did not support this move
    because they wanted to dominate trade routes and
    keep Russia out of the action.
  • Austria-Hungary supported a stable Ottoman Empire
    and did not support Balkan independence or
    Serbian nationalism that threatened Austrian
  • Germany had an alliance with the Ottoman Empire
    (remember Bismarck) so they refused to get

Disorganized war
  • The four fledgling nations conducted alliances in
    secret, all agreeing to wage war against Turkey
    (Ottoman Empire). This agreement comprised the
    Balkan League.
  • No formal plan existed for the four nations to
    fight together. In fact, each nation attacked
    Turkey at the same time in four different wars.
  • After a surprisingly successful war against
    Turkey, the Treaty of London was agreed upon
    however, the Treaty failed to negotiate
    national/political boundaries.
  • The alliances stopped there because of
    irreconcilable differences between the four

Rumble in the Balkans
  • The national and religious conflicts between the
    Balkan nations led to heightened tensions and
    hostilities amongst neighbors.
  • Combined with ambitious governments and
    expansionist desires, the Balkan tensions erupted
    in a second Balkan war.
  • This new kerfuffle would cause the European
    powers to take notice and attempt to intervene in
    the Balkan region.
  • Eventually, Bismarck would broker an agreement at
    the Congress of Berlin but it wouldnt last very
  • They were unsuccessful. There will be three to
    four more crises before the start of WWI.
  • Tensions still exist today in the Balkan region.

The Alliance of the Three Emperors
  • The Three Emperors League was undermined by the
    decisions made in Berlin
  • Russia resented Germanys support of Austria and
    felt it was unfair.
  • In 1879, the German government reacted to Russian
    hostility by imposing a grain tariff against
    Russian imports
  • In October 1879, Germany signed a Dual Alliance
    that excluded Russia Bismarck used the Alliance
    to control the Central Powers and avoid an
    unnecessary war with Russia
  • The Dual Alliance forced Russia to renegotiate
    the Alliance in 1882 and signed the Reinsurance
    Treaty a defensive alliance

And in the other corner Egypt! France vs.
Britain Cage Match 1st Place Prize Suez Canal
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The Anglo-French Quarrel
  • As early as 1798 (when Napoleon invaded) the
    French considered Egypt an unofficial colony.
  • The French built the Suez canal from 1861-1869
    and revolutionized trade, travel, and
    international relations.
  • In 1875, the British financially aided the
    Egyptian government by purchasing 40 of the
    shares of the Canal. Egypt still went bankrupt
    and an Egyptian revolution erupted in 1882.
  • The British and the French both moved to
    intervene at the last minute the French
    Parliament vetoed the intervention and Britain
    was forced to restore order alone.
  • The British seized control of the canal until
  • The French felt betrayed and humiliated by the
    British and established tension between the two

Russia takes advantage of the Distractions
Bulgarian Crisis of 1887
  • Russia dominates the Balkan region.
  • Kidnaps the Bulgarian king (Alexander the
    Tsars nephew) and forces him to abdicate the
  • Balkan countries get mad and start fighting all
    over again.
  • Britain and France get nervous about Russian
  • Everyone signs the Mediterranean agreement
    agreeing to chill out

Reinsurance Treaty of 1887
  • Balkan countries still mad. Keep fighting.
  • None of the super powers trust each other.
  • Germany and Russia sign the Reinsurance Treaty as
    a defensive agreement that promised to intervene
    if France attacked Germany or Austria attacked
  • Bismarck has two contradictory agreements
  • Reinsurance Treaty promises alliances with Russia
    in the Balkan region
  • Mediterranean Agreement supported Austrian
    presence in Balkan region
  • Russia and Austria are both still ready to fight
    each other for control of Bulgaria and Serbia.

The Death of a King RIP Kaiser
Frederick--Reign 1848-1890
  • William ascends to the throne in Germany and
    fires Bismarck.
  • Why would the new king fire his fathers advisor?
  • Why is losing Bismarck a big deal?
  • William has big shoes to fill! Tries to impress
    his grandmother What?

German Foreign Policy after Bismarck
  • Remember Bismarck is dismissed in 1890 and
    replaced by
  • General Leo von Caprisi
  • Caprisi advises Kaiser to not resign the
    Reinsurance Treaty with Russia
  • (Nicky, Willy).
  • (violates the Dual Alliance of 1879 and the
    Mediterranean Agreements
  • However, maintains an alliance with Austria and
  • Instead, Germany will focus on an alliance with
  • Belief An alliance with Britain, Austria, and
    Italy will keep France and Russia in check.

Problem with Plan
  • Britain wont play.
  • Britain feels Germany is too unreliable and an
    alliance will lead to war.
  • Germany wont take no for an answer. Nags
    Britain and begins to support campaigns against
    Britain hoping to bully Britain into an
  • Meanwhile, Austria is pressuring Germany for a
    stronger alliance and Germany must cooperate
    because other alliances are weak.
  • Whole plan backfires when Russia and France sign
    the Franco-Russian Dual Alliance of 1894 against
    Germany and Austria.
  • Britain is isolated, turns attention to colonies,
    hoping Russia is too distracted to support
    France. (they are correct in the end).

The Road to WWI
  • Students will understand how African Colonization
    in the late 1800s and early 1900s led to WWI

Egypt and the Fashoda Crisis
  • After the fiasco over the Suez canal,
  • France and England scramble for domination of the
    Upper Nile in 1898.
  • Britain takes the Sudan region and confronts
    France in the Upper Nile. France realizes they
    are outmatched and concedes the land.
  • France is bitter, but turns their attention to
    Morocco and Spain.
  • Germany is paying attention.

French Domination
Transvaal (Boer) region
  • Britain moved south of Sudan down the center of
    Africa towards South Africa
  • Germany scrambles for colonies in the Cameroons
    (East Africa, and in South West Africa in an
    attempt to stop British expansion.
  • Germany supported Boer region through financial
    banking and 20 of foreign investments in the
  • Gold was discovered in Transvaal, under Boer
  • Britain encouraged British explorers and
    prospectors to expand into Transvaal in direct
    conflict with German investment.

South Africa
Jameson Raid- 1895
  • Unathorized raid and attempt to seize Transvaal.
  • Failed to overthrow Boer government.
  • Britain denied any involvement in raid, punished
    raiders with trials in London.
  • (Ask me about this)
  • Kaiser was angry at British government, felt they
    secretly supported the raid.
  • Remember they have unofficial dominance here
    because of investments and banking.
  • Sent a telegram congratulating and supporting
    Kruger and Boer Government.
  • Later Germany sent arms and financial support to
    Boer government.
  • German support upsets British. Confirm refusal
    to align with Germany. Develop anti-German

Boer War
  • In 1899, Boer government attacks British colonies
    hoping to remove British influence in area and
    expand into Cape region.
  • Boer government thought they would have support
    from Continental League
  • (France, Russia, Germany against Britain)
  • France and Russia will not support Germany.
  • My enemys enemy is my friend?
  • Continental League could not cooperate with each
  • British defeat Boer government take Transvaal.

(No Transcript)
Warm up Create an I.D. Outline
  • Jameson Raid crisis?
  • You have 10 minutes
  • Have your outlines out so they can be stamped for

1900s The Road to WWI
  • Students will understand how Chinese Colonization
    in the late 1800s and early 1900s led to WWI

(No Transcript)
Opium Wars and Britains control of China
  • Treaty of Nanking gave 5 open ports to the
    British including a colony in Hong Kong and
  • The Opium Wars marks the beginning of British
    imperial intentions in China.
  • Other empires including the United States and
    Japan (who developed a trade agreement as early
    as 1854) dominated Chinese trade and resources
  • Japan emerged as a modern state in 1868 after
    the Meiji Restoration.
  • Eventually the Chinese would fight against
    European dominance during the Boxer Rebellion in
    1900. They would fail but their actions sparked
    a national revolution in 1911 More on this later.

1891 Russia gets it going
  • Russia begins construction of the Trans-Siberian
  • Goal Annex Manchuria, gain control of Korea (an
    ice free port)

  • Japan was in direct conflict with Russia over
    control of Korea.
  • Japan wanted Korea for resources, and politics.
  • Britain does not want to compete with Russia in

Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1902
  • Defensive alliance
  • Each country will remain neutral if the other
    country goes to war.
  • Only intervene if a 3rd power becomes involved in
    a conflict.
  • Why was the alliance signed?
  • Who is this alliance aimed at specifically?

Russo-Japanese War of 1905
  • British support allowed Japan to launch a
    surprise attack against Russia at Port Arthur.
  • Russia was unprepared for attack
  • Requested assistance from Germany and France
  • Unstable at home (Bloody Sunday)
  • Revolution of 1905 Well come back.
  • Refused to become involved (Continental Alliance
    failure, did not want to tangle with Britain,
    Triple Entente, feared being vulnerable)
  • Treaty of Portsmouth (August 1905)
  • Russia withdrew from Korea and Manchuria.
  • Negotiated by United States becoming recognized
    as a world equal. Had contact with Japan already.

Anglo-Russian Agreements of 1907
  • Russia knows now that they cannot compete against
    Britain in Imperial affairs.
  • Domestically, Russia is unstable and needs to
    focus on building revolution. (Baby is sick
  • Russia also concerned about an aggressive Germany
    or Japan.
  • Seeks cooperative agreement with Britain.
  • Russia gave up interests in Afghanistan.
  • Britain retains interest in Tibet under Chinese
  • Persia (Iran) is divided into two zones and
    shared between two empires.

Were not done with Africa yet!
  • Students will understand how African Colonization
    in the late 1800s and early 1900s led to WWI

Wait Russia and Britain are aligned? Whoa!
  • The Entente between Russia and Britain makes
    France nervous, especially since Russia and
    France have an Entente.
  • France seeks to strengthen relationship with
    Britain since Germany is untrustworthy and
    already way too powerful.
  • Anglo-French Colonial Entente Cordiale is signed
    to settle issues in Imperial regions.
  • This is an Agreement, Not an Alliance.
  • Alliances require a war agreement, but none
    exists between France and Britain.

  • France accepts British domination in Egypt
  • France gets Morocco without British interference
    and promises not to interfere in Gibraltar.
  • France gives up Newfoundland interests for an
    exchange in West Africa.
  • Siam (Thailand) is divided into two zones.
  • New Hebrides is shared jointly (Condominium)

Where are the Hebrides?
So Anyway! Were back.
  • Germany FREAKS out over the agreements between
    France and Britain regarding Morocco.
  • Why?

Kaiser Wilhelm goes to Tangiers, Morocco (he was
on a cruise) solely to disrupt French-Moroccan
agreements. He declares that the Sultan is the
ruler of Morocco and as an Emperor, he will only
deal with the Sultan.
Two Moroccan Crises
  • Moroccan Crisis of 1905-1906
  • Kaiser incites Nationalistic riots and forces
    France to concede agreements.
  • Algeciras Agreements
  • France has controlling interest in Moroccan
  • Free trade economy
  • Moroccan Crisis of 1911
  • Germany challenges French domination in Morocco
    again and incites another nationalistic
  • Britain intervenes this time and scares Germany.
  • France secretly negotiates for full control of
    Morocco in exchange for some territory in the
    French Congo.

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Triple Entente and German aggression
  • British support of France, the Anglo-Russian
    Entente and the French-Russian Entente eventually
    became an official, but INFORMAL, agreement of
    support between these three countries.
  • All three countries were quick to clarify that
    the agreement meant they would cooperate in
    domestic and international affairs and would
    defend against German aggression.
  • Germany works quickly to build itself up
    militarily and economically in response to the

The Powder Keg of Europe and the beginning of WWI
  • Bosnian Crisis 1908
  • Turkey tried to seize the Balkan region.
  • Austria and Russia worked together
  • Russia moved military ships to protect the
  • Austria officially annexed Bosnia in response to
    their cooperation with Russia.
  • The agreement was never written down so when the
    international community protested both countries
    turned on the other country out of fear of

Consequences of the Bosnian Crisis
  • The annexation of Bosnia upset Serbia and other
    Balkan countries and caused concern in the super
  • Austria wanted to go to war with Serbia over
  • Germany was prepared to support Serbia.
  • Russia was prepared to go to war with Austria to
    protect Serbia.
  • France was not prepared to support Russia because
    they were still negotiating the Moroccan crisis
    and were trying to calm the British.

First Balkan War
  • In 1912, Italy invaded Libya because they wanted
    to start their own colonies (N. Africa- part of
    Turkey empire)
  • Italian success inspired other Balkan countries
    to revolt for the last time.
  • Serbia gained more strength and challenged
    Austrian authority- Austria was willing to defend
    their authority.
  • All super powers (including Britain) announced
    their support for their allies.

Second Balkan War
  • Bulgaria decided to attack Serbia in 1913 for
    territory and resources.
  • Serbian allies helped suppress the attack and
    Bulgaria was defeated and Serbia became even
    stronger and turned their momentum against
  • Austria wanted to attack first, but was being
    held back by the fear of activating the alliance
    system. There was no immediate justification for


28 June 1914
Will the real Emperor please stand up?
  • Personal tragedies.
  • Eldest son of brother becomes heir
  • Disagreements between Joseph and Ferdinand over
    Ferdinands common wife.
  • When Ferdinand was assassinated, his death
    triggered a major war, but Joseph never attended
    his funeral (or his wedding).
  • What does this suggest for a Historian studying
    the origins of WWI?
  • Joseph died in 1916 in the midst of war. His
    grand-nephew ascended the throne for two years
    until the end of WWI.
  • Joseph is the last significant monarch in central

The shot that changed the world!
  • Austria issues an ultimatum demanding that Serbia
    allow Austria to hunt the terrorists (send an
    Austrian military to Serbia)
  • Serbia rejects the ultimatum.
  • Austria declared war on Serbia.
  • Germany offers Austria unconditional support
  • Russia is torn.... WHY?

Chain Reaction!
  • Austria declared war on Serbia
  • Russia was hesitant but mobilized troops to send
    to the border to support Serbia.
  • Germany mobilized troops and issued an ultimatum
    to Russia to stand down.
  • When Russia didnt respond to Germany, Germany
    declared war against Russia
  • France began mobilization against Germany to
    support Russia and now Germany faced a two front

Did the French Revolution lead to the Path to
Total War
  • New enlightened philosophies? two major
    revolutions ? Congress of Vienna ? carving of
    Europe ? Industrialization ? series of
    revolutionary activity ? paranoid authoritarian
    governments ? Armament race ? stronger armies,
    stronger navies, ? Imperialism ? domination of
    global resources ? economic expansion? global
    tensions between international powers ? tensions
    between people and governments ? new science and
    philosophies ? unstable alliances ? creates
    unbearable tensions that snap with the
    assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria?

What are the causes of WWI?
  • MAIN
  • Tomorrow we will discuss!

Choose one of the questions below
  • In 1914, a mismanaged Balkan crisis caused the
    powers to stumble into a general European war
    which had been avoided in 1908 and 1912. To what
    extent do you agree with this view?
  • No one power alone bears the chief responsibility
    for the causes of the First World War. To what
    extent do you support this statement?
  • Troubles in the Balkans from c1890 were the most
    important factor in causing the outbreak of the
    First World War. How far do you agree?
  • To what extent do you agree that the Alliance
    System created the First World War?
  • Who or what is to blame for the First World War?