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Measuring Science, Technology and Innovation: Definitions from a statistical perspective

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Title: Measuring Research and Experimental Development Author: Ernesto Fernandez Polcuch Last modified by: pathirar Created Date: 6/12/2008 3:13:00 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Measuring Science, Technology and Innovation: Definitions from a statistical perspective


1
Measuring Science, Technology and Innovation
Definitions from a statistical perspective
SUB-REGIONAL HANDS-ON TRAINING ON SCIENCE,
TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS Damascus,
Syria18-20 September 2010
2
A multitude of concepts
  • Some examples
  • Knowledge-based economy
  • National innovation system
  • Science, technology, Research and development,
    and innovation
  • High-tech low tech
  • Brain drain

3
  • FRAMEWORKS

4
ST a linear model?
The model
Indicators
5
A systems approach
  • Innovation is dynamic and complex
  • Many actors, many linkages
  • Feedback and feed-forward loops
  • ? innovation is non-linear

6
Standardisation of indicators
Consensus
Standards
7
UNESCO methodologies and frameworks
  • Recommendation concerning the International
    Standardization of Statistics on Science and
    Technology, 1978
  • UNESCO Manual for Statistics on Scientific and
    Technological Activities ST-84/WS/12, Paris, 1984
  • International Standard Classification of
    Education - ISCED 1997 (under revision)

8
Frascati family of OECD Manuals
  • Frascati Manual
  • Oslo Manual
  • Canberra Manual
  • Patent Manual

9
Other relevant OECD frameworks
  • Handbook of Economic Globalisation Indicators
  • Guide to Measuring the Information Society
  • Framework for Biotechnology Statistics
  • Productivity manual

10
  • DEFINITIONS

11
STA Definition
  • Scientific and Technological Activities (STA)are
    about the
  • generation, advancement, dissemination, and
    application of scientific and technical knowledge
  • and applies to
  • all fields of science and technology ie. NS and
    SSH.

12
STA coverage
  • Scientific and technological activities comprise
  • Research and experimental development (RD)
  • Scientific and technical education and training
    (STET)
  • Scientific and technological services (STS)

13
An indicators framework
14
Research and Development
  • First edition published in 1963!
  • Sixth edition published in 2002
  • De facto world standard

15
Frascati is a village near Rome
16
Where the experts met at the Villa Falconieri
17
RD Definition
  • Research and experimental development (RD)
  • comprise
  • creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in
    order to increase the stock of knowledge,
    including knowledge of man, culture and society,
    and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise
    new applications.
  • Basic criterion an appreciable element of
    novelty and the resolution of scientific and/or
    technological uncertainty.

18
RD covers 3 activities
  • Basic research (no particular application or use
    in view)
  • Applied research(directed primarily towards a
    specific practical aim or objective)
  • Experimental development(directed to producing
    new materials, products or devices)

19
Exclusions
  • Excluded from RD
  • Education and training
  • Scientific and technological services / Other
    science and technology activities
  • Other industrial activities
  • Administration and other supporting activities
  • ? these will come back

20
An indicators framework
21
STET Definition
  • Scientific and technological education and
    training at broadly the third level (STET)
  • Specialized non-university higher education
  • All university education
  • Organized lifelong training for scientists and
    engineers

22
Limits between RD and teaching and training
  • Research and teaching very closely linked in
    higher education
  • Difficult to define where education and training
    of staff and students end and RD activities
    begin, and vice versa
  • Elements of novelty distinguish RD from routine
    teaching and other work-related activities

23
Borderline between RD and education and training
at ISCED level 6
Education and training at level 6 RD Other activities
Teachers 1. Teaching students at level 6. 3. Supervision of RD projects required for student qualification at level 6 5. Teaching at levels lower than level 6
2. Training students at level 6 in RD methodology, laboratory work, etc. 4. Supervision of other RD projects and performance of own RD projects 6. Other activities
Post-graduate students 1. Course work for formal qualification. 2. Performing and writing up independent studies (RD projects) required for formal qualification 4. Teaching at levels lower than level 6
3. Any other RD activities 5. Other activities
24
STS Definition
  • Scientific and technological services (STS)
  • Concerned with scientific research and
    experimental development
  • Contributing to the generation, dissemination and
    application of scientific and technical knowledge

25
Other related scientific and technological
activities
  • Scientific and technical information services
  • General purpose data collection
  • Testing and standardisation
  • Feasibility studies
  • Specialised health care
  • Patent and licence work
  • Policy-related studies
  • Routine software development

26
An indicators framework
27
Innovation the Oslo Manual
  • Jointly with the EC
  • Part of the Frascati family
  • Used for CIS and national innovation surveys
  • 1st edition 1992
  • 2nd edition 1997 ? coverage expanded to services
  • 3rd edition 2005 ? including non-technological
    innovation

28
Innovation definition (Oslo Manual 2005)
  • The implementation of
  • Technological innovation
  • New or significantly improved product (good or
    service) or
  • New process or
  • Non-technological innovation
  • New marketing method or
  • New organisational method.

29
Innovation activities
  • Innovation activities
  • all steps which actually, or are intended to,
    lead to the implementation of innovations

30
Examples product and process innovation
  • Food products with new functional characteristics
    (margarine that reduces blood cholesterol levels,
    yoghurts produced using new types of cultures,
    etc.)
  • Products with significantly reduced energy
    consumption (energy efficient refrigerators,
    etc.)
  • The introduction of smart cards and multipurpose
    plastic cards
  • A new, self-service bank office

31
Examples marketing and organisational innovation
  • Implementation of a fundamentally new design of
    bottles for a body lotion intended to give the
    product a distinctively exclusive look
  • Implementation of a personalised information
    system, e.g. obtained from loyalty cards, to
    tailor the presentation of products to the
    specific needs of individual customers
  • First-time introduction of an integrated
    monitoring system for firm activities
    (production, finance, strategy, marketing)
  • First-time introduction of quality control
    standards for suppliers and subcontractors

32
  • BOUNDARIES AND
  • BORDERLINE CASES

33
Borderline between RD and other industrial
activities
  • Excluded
  • After-sales service troubleshooting
  • Patent and licence work
  • Routine tests
  • Data collection
  • Public inspection control, enforcement of
    standards, regulations
  • Divided
  • Industrial design and drawing
  • Industrial engineering and tooling up
  • Trial production
  • Included
  • Prototypes
  • Pilot plant

34
Borderline between experimental and
pre-production development
  • Included
  • To make further technical improvements on the
    product or process
  • Excluded
  • To develop markets, to do pre-production planning
    or to get a production or control system working
    smoothly

35
Problems at the borderline between RD
administration and indirect supporting activities
  • Administration
  • Personnel data cover only RD proper
  • Management, administration and clerical
    activities included only when these contribute
    directly to RD projects and are undertaken
    exclusively for RD
  • Expenditure data cover the full cost of RD,
    including the indirect supporting activities
    which are treated as overheads
  • Service or indirect support activities (e.g.
    transportation, storage, cleaning, repair,
    maintenance and security)
  • Excluded from personnel data but included in
    expenditure data as overhead

36
Clinical trials
  • Clinical trial phases 1, 2 and 3 included in RD
  • Phase 4 clinical trials excluded from RD, except
    if they bring about a further scientific or
    technological advance

37
  • EXAMPLES FOR SPECIFIC CASES

38
Examples specific cases
  • In the field of medicine, routine autopsy on the
    causes of death is the practice of medical care
    and is not RD special investigation of a
    particular mortality to establish the side
    effects of certain cancer treatments is RD.
    Similarly, routine tests such as blood and
    bacteriological tests carried out for doctors are
    not RD, whereas a special programme of blood
    tests in connection with the introduction of a
    new drug is RD.
  • The keeping of daily records of temperatures or
    of atmospheric pressure is not RD but the
    operation of a weather forecasting service or
    general data collection. The investigation of new
    methods of measuring temperature is RD, as are
    the study and development of new systems and
    techniques for interpreting the data.

39
Examples specific cases (cont.)
  • RD activities in the mechanical engineering
    industry often have a close connection with
    design and drawing work. In small and medium-size
    enterprises (SMEs) in this industry, there is
    usually no special RD department, and RD
    problems are mostly dealt with under the general
    heading design and drawing. If calculations,
    designs, working drawings and operating
    instructions are made for the setting up and
    operating of pilot plants and prototypes, they
    should be included in RD. If they are carried
    out for the preparation, execution and
    maintenance of production standardisation
    (e.g. jigs, machine tools) or to promote the sale
    of products (e.g. offers, leaflets, catalogues of
    spare parts), they should be excluded from RD.

40
Identifying RD in software development
  • Completion must be dependent on a scientific
    and/or technological advance
  • Aim of the project must be the systematic
    resolution of a scientific and/or technological
    uncertainty
  • In addition to the software that is part of an
    overall RD project, the RD associated with
    software as an end product should also be
    classified as RD

41
RD in software
  • This is not to be counted as RD
  • Business application software and information
    system development using known methods and
    existing software tools
  • Support for existing systems
  • Converting and/or translating computer languages
  • Adding user functionality to application
    programmes
  • Debugging of systems
  • Adaptation of existing software
  • Preparation of user documentation

42
Examples of RD in software
  • RD producing new theorems and algorithms in the
    field of theoretical computer science
  • Development of information technology at the
    level of operating systems, programming
    languages, data management, communications
    software and software development tools
  • Development of Internet technology
  • Research into methods of designing, developing,
    deploying or maintaining software
  • Software development that produces advances in
    generic approaches for capturing, transmitting,
    storing, retrieving, manipulating or displaying
    information
  • Experimental development aimed at filling
    technology knowledge gaps as necessary to develop
    a software programme or system
  • RD on software tools or technologies in
    specialised areas of computing (image processing,
    geographic data presentation, character
    recognition, artificial intelligence and other
    areas)

43
Criteria for identifying RD in services
  • Links with public research laboratories
  • The involvement of staff with PhDs, or PhD
    students
  • The publication of research findings
  • The construction of prototypes or pilot plants

44
Examples of RD in banking and insurance
  • Mathematical research relating to financial risk
    analysis
  • Development of risk models for credit policy
  • Experimental development of new software for home
    banking
  • Development of techniques for investigating
    consumer behaviour for the purpose of creating
    new types of accounts and banking services
  • Research to identify new risks or new
    characteristics of risk that need to be taken
    into consideration in insurance contracts
  • Research on social phenomena with an impact on
    new types of insurance (health, retirement,
    etc.), such as on insurance cover for non-smoker
  • RD related to electronic banking and insurance,
    Internet-related services and e-commerce
    applications
  • RD related to new or significantly improved
    financial services (new concepts for accounts,
    loans, insurance and saving instruments)

45
Examples of RD in other service activities
  • Analysis of the effects of economic and social
    change on consumption and leisure activities
  • Development of new methods for measuring consumer
    expectations and preferences
  • Development of new survey methods and instruments
  • Development of tracking and tracing procedures
    (logistics)
  • Research into new travel and holiday concepts
  • Launch of prototype and pilot stores

46
  • REFERENCES
  • Can be found in the supporting document

47
Abbreviations
  • Some abbreviations
  • STI Science, technology and innovation
  • ST Science and technology
  • STA Science and technology activities
  • STS Science and technology services
  • STET Scientific and technological education and
    training at broadly the third level
  • RD Research and (experimental) development
  • HRST Human resources for science and technology
  • ICT Information and communication technology

48
Manuals (1)
  • Frascati Manual http//213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/b
    rowseit/9202081E.PDF (E)
  • http//213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/browseit/9202082E.
    PDF (F)
  • Oslo Manual http//213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/brows
    eit/9205111E.PDF (E)
  • http//213.253.134.43/oecd/pdfs/browseit/9205112E.
    PDF (F)
  • Canberra Manual http//www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/0
    /2096025.pdf (E)
  • Patent Statistics Manual http//browse.oecdbooksh
    op.org/oecd/pdfs/browseit/9209021E.PDF (E)
  • http//browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/browseit/
    9209022E.PDF (F)

49
Manuals (2)
  • OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society
  • http//www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/52/43281062.pdf
    (E)
  • Biotechnology framework http//www.oecd.org/datao
    ecd/5/48/34935605.pdf (E)
  • http//www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/6/35878269.pdf
    (F)
  • Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators
    http//browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/browseit/
    9205061E.PDF (E)
  • http//browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/browseit/
    9205062E.PDF (F)
  • Measuring Productivity
  • http//www.oecd.org/dataoecd/59/29/2352458.pdf (E)

50
Thank you!
  • http//www.uis.unesco.org
  • r.pathirage_at_uis.unesco.org
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