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Cell Structure

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Title: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, Second Edition Created Date: 11/29/2004 2:15:52 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cell Structure


1
(No Transcript)
2
Chapter 3
  • Cell Structure

3
Introduction
  • The cell is the basic unit of biological
    organization
  • Basic composition
  • Protoplasm
  • Cell membrane
  • Organelles
  • Eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic

4
History of the Cell Theory
5
History of the Cell Theory
  • Proposed in 1830s by Schleiden and Schwann
  • Modern cell theory
  • Cells are smallest complete living things
  • All organisms are composed of one or more cells
  • Cells arise only from other cells
  • All existing cells are descendants of the first
    cells

6
Anatomy of a Typical Eucaryotic Cell
7
Introduction
8
The Cell Membrane
  • Double phospholipid layer with embedded proteins
  • Membrane transport selectively permeable
    membrane
  • Osmosis
  • Protein channels
  • Active transport
  • Fluid mosaic model

9
Cytoplasm of the Cell
  • Mostly water with chemical compounds in solution
    or colloid
  • Solution vs. colloid
  • Individual vs. clumped atoms or ions distributed
    in medium
  • Polar compounds go into solution
  • Nonpolar compounds go into colloidal suspension

10
The Nucleus
  • Control center of the cell
  • Nuclear membrane has pores to allow substances
    passage
  • Chromatin genetic material inside nucleoplasm
  • Nucleolus site of ribosome formation

11
The Mitochondria
  • Powerhouses of the cell
  • Cristae inner folds where cellular respiration
    occurs
  • Energy requirements of cell determine cristae
    number

12
Lysosomes
  • Digestive enzyme packages
  • Function
  • Digest stored food
  • Maintenance and repair of organelles
  • Suicide agents for old or weak cells

13
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • System of membranes that makes up channels
  • Connects with outer nuclear and cell membranes
  • Cisternae sac-like or channel-like cavities

14
Endoplasmic Reticulum (contd.)
  • Rough ER
  • For protein synthesis
  • Attached ribosomes
  • Smooth ER
  • Fat transport
  • Sex hormone synthesis

15
Endoplasmic Reticulum (contd.)
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Collection of flat saclike cisternae
  • Concentration and collection of cellular
    compounds
  • Storage warehouses of the cell
  • Carbohydrate synthesis site

16
Ribosomes
  • Distributed throughout cytoplasm
  • Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • No membrane covering
  • Site of protein synthesis

17
Ribosomes (contd.)
  • Protein functions
  • Structure, enzymes or catalysts, immune response
  • DNA contains the code for a particular protein
  • DNA found in nucleus

18
Ribosomes (contd.)
  • Transcription
  • Messenger RNA copies DNA code and leaves nucleus
  • Translation
  • Transfer RNA picks up amino acids
  • Ribosomes link amino acids together

19
Ribosomes (contd.)
20
Centrioles
  • Centrosome two centrioles at right angles to
    each other
  • Composed of nine sets of triplet fibers
  • Form spindle fibers during cell division
  • Guide duplicated chromosomes to daughter cells

21
Cilia and Flagella
  • Hairlike protrusions from cell membrane
  • Nine double fibrils around two single central
    fibrils
  • Cilia move materials across cell surface
  • Flagellum propels cell through a medium

22
Animation Anatomy of a Typical Cell
  • Insert typical cell.swf

23
Plastids of Plant Cells
  • Chloroplasts
  • Most common plastid
  • Photosynthesis conversion of light into chemical
    energy
  • Granum
  • Made of thylakoids
  • Connected by lamella
  • Chromoplasts carotenoid pigments
  • Leukoplasts store food

24
Plastids of Plant Cells (contd.)
  • Cell membrane surrounded by cell wall
  • Cell wall composed of cellulose
  • Cellulose
  • Dietary fiber
  • Synthesized by Golgi bodies
  • Animal cells do not have cell walls

25
Summary
  • Discussed the modern cell theory and its origins
  • Discussed the different parts of eukaryotic cells
    including the cell membrane, cytoplasm and
    organelles
  • Discussed protein synthesis
  • Described some of the differences between plant
    and animal cells
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