TEST Review: Ancient Greece - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – TEST Review: Ancient Greece PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 53bf78-NzFmZ


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

TEST Review: Ancient Greece


Title: Review: Mesopotamia and Egypt Author: Kenneth Mengani Last modified by: Kenneth Mengani Created Date: 9/13/2009 6:26:59 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:101
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: KennethM158
Learn more at: http://www.mengani.com


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: TEST Review: Ancient Greece

TEST Review Ancient Greece

Shrine fresco strait Polis acropolis
monarchy aristocracy oligarchy phalanx helot
democracy tyrant Legislature Alliance direct democracy
stipend jury Ostracism Logic rhetoric
tragedy comedy Assassination assimilate heliocentric
Minoan Civilization
  • Height of Civilization 1750 to 1500 BCE
  • Trade society set up outposts throughout Aegean
  • Palace at Knossos offers glimpse of life
  • Religious shrines
  • Frescoes (sea themed worshiped bull and mother
    goddess more equal role for women?)
  • Civilization vanishes in 1400 BCE
  • Volcanic eruption?
  • Invasions by Mycenaeans?
  • Inspiration of Atlantis Myth?

Rulers of Mycenae
  • Indo-European people who conquered mainland
    Greece and Crete
  • Dominated Aegean from 1400 BCE to 1200 BCE
  • Sea trading society contact with influence
    from Egyptian Mesopotamians
  • Established walled city states ruled by warrior
  • Trojan War (1250 BCE?)
  • Economic war between Mycenae and Troy
  • Inspiration for epic poem Iliad mythical cause ?
    kidnap of Helen

Age of Homer
  • Mycenae fell to sea raiders and Dorian Invasion
    (1100 BCE to 800 BCE)
  • 2 sources Iliad and Odyssey (750 BCE?)
  • Epic poems (history/entertainment/moral
  • Iliad story of the Trojan war Achilles will not
    fight for the Greeks until his friend dies
  • Odyssey story of the adventures of Odysseus
    making his way home from the Trojan War
  • After Dorian invasions Greeks lived in small
    isolated villages

Geography of Greece
  • Part of Balkan Peninsula
  • Mountains and valleys
  • Greek city states were cut off and independent
    from one another
  • Coastline provides safe harbors for ships
  • became skilled sailors and traders
  • 750 BCE increasing population resulted in Greeks
    establishing colonies all over the Mediterranean
  • Carried their ideas and culture

Early Greek Government (750 to 500BCE)
  • Polis Greek version of a city state Acropolis
    hill/high ground for temples surrounded by
    flatter ground with other buildings.
  • At first, the ruler was a king (monarchy)
  • Slowly, power shifted to a class of noble
    landowners (aristocracy)
  • As trade expanded, a new class of wealthy
    merchants, farmers, and artisans came to dominate
    some city-states (oligarchy)

Athens vs. Sparta
  • Society grew into a limited democracy, or
    government by the people.
  • Male citizens over age 30 were members of the
  • Rulers encouraged trade with other city-states.
  • Women were considered inferior.
  • Boys received education in many areas, not just
    military training.
  • Rulers were two kings and a council of elders.
  • Rulers formed a military society.
  • Conquered people were turned into slaves, called
  • Rulers forbade trade and travel.
  • Male, native-born Spartans over age 30 were
  • All boys received military training.
  • Girls were raised to produce healthy sons for
    the army.
  • Women had the right to inherit property.

Forces for Unity
  • Common Culture!
  • They honored the same ancient heroes.
  • They participated in common festivals.
  • They prayed to the same gods.
  • They shared the Greek language.
  • They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom they
    called barbaroi, people who did not speak

The Persian Wars Part 1
  • Athens helped Greek city states in Asia minor
    when they rose up against Persia Persia puts
    down the rebellion
  • Persians sent a huge force to punish Athens
    defeated at Marathon (by Themistocles)
  • Darius son Xerxes sends an even larger force to
    attack Greece

The Persian Wars Part 2
  • Athenians convince Sparta and other city states
    to stand against Persia battle at Thermopylae
    gives people time to evacuate Athens Athens
  • Greek fleet eventually destroys Persian fleet and
    army Persian threat ended
  • Delian League Greeks formed an alliance to
    protect against future Persian threats Athens
    uses league to create an Athenian empire

Athens in the Age of Pericles
  • Golden age for Athens after Persian wars
  • Direct democracy assembly voted on everyday
    matters officials paid a stipend
  • Served on juries (over 30, one year service,
  • Citizens could be ostracized
  • Pericles Funeral Oration expression of
    Democratic ideals
  • Athens acropolis rebuilt thinkers writers and
    artists recruited

The Peloponnesian War
  • Other Greeks resented Athens power and wealth
  • Peloponnesian League formed to counter Delian
    League (Sparta key member)
  • 30 years of war between Greeks (mainly Athens and
  • With Persian help Spartans defeat Athens
  • Greeks continued fighting, making them vulnerable
    to Macedonia

Greek Philosophers (Part 1)
  • Some Greek thinkers used observation and reason
    to find causes for what happened.
  • The Greeks called these thinkers philosophers,
    meaning lovers of wisdom.
  • Socrates
  • used questions to challenge students and learn
    from their own answers
  • help others seek truth and self-knowledge
  • put on trial, sentenced to death

Greek Philosophers (Part 2)
  • Plato
  • through reason, people could discover unchanging
    ethical values
  • recognize perfect beauty, and organize society
  • Rejected democracy ideal government
    philosopher kings
  • Aristotle
  • believed in rule by strong and virtuous leader
  • good conduct was moderation between extremes
  • teacher of Alexander of Macedon (the great)

Architecture Art
  • Balance, order and beauty
  • Architects tried to convey a sense of perfect
    balance to reflect the harmony of the universe
  • Parthenon
  • Sculpture and Painting
  • Early sculptors imitated rigid Egyptian poses.
  • Later sculptors emphasized natural poses that
  • lifelike but also idealistic.
  • Paintings offer views of Greek life.

  • The Greeks applied reason, observation, and logic
    to the study of history.
  • Herodotus is called the Father of History
    stressed the importance of research
  • Thucydides showed the need to avoid bias.
  • Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future

Alexander the Great (Part 1)
  • Philip of Macedon dreamed of conquering Greek
    city-states to the south and eventually the
    Persian Empire
  • 338 BCE Greece brought under Macedonian control
    Philip assassinated soon thereafter
  • Alexander becomes king at 20 and moved against

Alexander the Great (Part 2)
  • He wing his first victory against the Persians at
    the Granicus River (Turkey) he then conquered
    Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon (330s
  • Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into northern
    India (326 BCE) there his troops faced soldiers
    mounted on war elephants (forced to retreat).
  • Soldiers refused to go onward!
  • Alexander died of a sudden fever three generals
    divided up the empire (East, West Egypt).

The Legacy of Alexander
  • Alexander unleashed changes that would ripple
    across the Mediterranean world and the Middle
    East for centuries!
  • Most lasting achievement ? spread of Greek
  • Founded many new Greek-style cities, leaving
    soldiers and artisans behind
  • Across the empire, local people assimilated, or
    absorbed, Greek ideas. In turn, Greek settlers
    adopted local customs (CULTURAL DIFFUSION!).

Hellenistic Culture
  • Gradually, a blending of eastern and western
    cultures occurred!
  • Hellenistic culture ? blend of Greek, Persian,
    Egyptian and Indian culture
  • Alexander had encouraged this blending by
    marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian
  • Alexandria, Egypt becomes center of learning and
    arts (Pharos, zoo and library)

Great Hellenistic Minds!
  • Zeno founded Stoicism (urged people to accept
    calmly whatever life brought)
  • Pythagoras derived formula to calculate the
    relationship between the sides of a triangle.
  • Euclid wrote The Elements, a textbook that
    became the basis for modern geometry.
  • Aristarchus theorized about a heliocentric, or
    sun-centered, solar system.
  • Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was round and
    accurately calculated its circumference.
  • Archimedes used principles of physics to make
    practical inventions, such as the lever and the
  • Hippocrates studied illnesses and cures and set
    ethical standards for medical care (Hippocratic
About PowerShow.com