TEST Review: Ancient Greece - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – TEST Review: Ancient Greece PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 53bf78-NzFmZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

TEST Review: Ancient Greece

Description:

Title: Review: Mesopotamia and Egypt Author: Kenneth Mengani Last modified by: Kenneth Mengani Created Date: 9/13/2009 6:26:59 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:101
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: KennethM158
Learn more at: http://www.mengani.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: TEST Review: Ancient Greece


1
TEST Review Ancient Greece

Shrine fresco strait Polis acropolis
monarchy aristocracy oligarchy phalanx helot
democracy tyrant Legislature Alliance direct democracy
stipend jury Ostracism Logic rhetoric
tragedy comedy Assassination assimilate heliocentric
2
Minoan Civilization
  • Height of Civilization 1750 to 1500 BCE
  • Trade society set up outposts throughout Aegean
    Sea
  • Palace at Knossos offers glimpse of life
  • Religious shrines
  • Frescoes (sea themed worshiped bull and mother
    goddess more equal role for women?)
  • Civilization vanishes in 1400 BCE
  • Volcanic eruption?
  • Invasions by Mycenaeans?
  • Inspiration of Atlantis Myth?

3
Rulers of Mycenae
  • Indo-European people who conquered mainland
    Greece and Crete
  • Dominated Aegean from 1400 BCE to 1200 BCE
  • Sea trading society contact with influence
    from Egyptian Mesopotamians
  • Established walled city states ruled by warrior
    kings
  • Trojan War (1250 BCE?)
  • Economic war between Mycenae and Troy
  • Inspiration for epic poem Iliad mythical cause ?
    kidnap of Helen

4
Age of Homer
  • Mycenae fell to sea raiders and Dorian Invasion
    (1100 BCE to 800 BCE)
  • 2 sources Iliad and Odyssey (750 BCE?)
  • Epic poems (history/entertainment/moral
    instruction)
  • Iliad story of the Trojan war Achilles will not
    fight for the Greeks until his friend dies
  • Odyssey story of the adventures of Odysseus
    making his way home from the Trojan War
  • After Dorian invasions Greeks lived in small
    isolated villages

5
Geography of Greece
  • Part of Balkan Peninsula
  • Mountains and valleys
  • Greek city states were cut off and independent
    from one another
  • Coastline provides safe harbors for ships
  • became skilled sailors and traders
  • 750 BCE increasing population resulted in Greeks
    establishing colonies all over the Mediterranean
  • Carried their ideas and culture

6
Early Greek Government (750 to 500BCE)
  • Polis Greek version of a city state Acropolis
    hill/high ground for temples surrounded by
    flatter ground with other buildings.
  • At first, the ruler was a king (monarchy)
  • Slowly, power shifted to a class of noble
    landowners (aristocracy)
  • As trade expanded, a new class of wealthy
    merchants, farmers, and artisans came to dominate
    some city-states (oligarchy)

7
Athens vs. Sparta
ATHENS
SPARTA
  • Society grew into a limited democracy, or
    government by the people.
  • Male citizens over age 30 were members of the
    assembly.
  • Rulers encouraged trade with other city-states.
  • Women were considered inferior.
  • Boys received education in many areas, not just
    military training.
  • Rulers were two kings and a council of elders.
  • Rulers formed a military society.
  • Conquered people were turned into slaves, called
    helots.
  • Rulers forbade trade and travel.
  • Male, native-born Spartans over age 30 were
    citizens.
  • All boys received military training.
  • Girls were raised to produce healthy sons for
    the army.
  • Women had the right to inherit property.

8
Forces for Unity
  • Common Culture!
  • They honored the same ancient heroes.
  • They participated in common festivals.
  • They prayed to the same gods.
  • They shared the Greek language.
  • They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom they
    called barbaroi, people who did not speak
    Greek.

9
The Persian Wars Part 1
  • Athens helped Greek city states in Asia minor
    when they rose up against Persia Persia puts
    down the rebellion
  • Persians sent a huge force to punish Athens
    defeated at Marathon (by Themistocles)
  • Darius son Xerxes sends an even larger force to
    attack Greece

10
The Persian Wars Part 2
  • Athenians convince Sparta and other city states
    to stand against Persia battle at Thermopylae
    gives people time to evacuate Athens Athens
    burned
  • Greek fleet eventually destroys Persian fleet and
    army Persian threat ended
  • Delian League Greeks formed an alliance to
    protect against future Persian threats Athens
    uses league to create an Athenian empire

11
Athens in the Age of Pericles
  • Golden age for Athens after Persian wars
  • Direct democracy assembly voted on everyday
    matters officials paid a stipend
  • Served on juries (over 30, one year service,
    stipend)
  • Citizens could be ostracized
  • Pericles Funeral Oration expression of
    Democratic ideals
  • Athens acropolis rebuilt thinkers writers and
    artists recruited

12
The Peloponnesian War
  • Other Greeks resented Athens power and wealth
  • Peloponnesian League formed to counter Delian
    League (Sparta key member)
  • 30 years of war between Greeks (mainly Athens and
    Sparta)
  • With Persian help Spartans defeat Athens
  • Greeks continued fighting, making them vulnerable
    to Macedonia

13
Greek Philosophers (Part 1)
  • Some Greek thinkers used observation and reason
    to find causes for what happened.
  • The Greeks called these thinkers philosophers,
    meaning lovers of wisdom.
  • Socrates
  • used questions to challenge students and learn
    from their own answers
  • help others seek truth and self-knowledge
  • put on trial, sentenced to death

14
Greek Philosophers (Part 2)
  • Plato
  • through reason, people could discover unchanging
    ethical values
  • recognize perfect beauty, and organize society
  • Rejected democracy ideal government
    philosopher kings
  • Aristotle
  • believed in rule by strong and virtuous leader
  • good conduct was moderation between extremes
  • teacher of Alexander of Macedon (the great)

15
Architecture Art
  • Balance, order and beauty
  • Architects tried to convey a sense of perfect
    balance to reflect the harmony of the universe
  • Parthenon
  • Sculpture and Painting
  • Early sculptors imitated rigid Egyptian poses.
  • Later sculptors emphasized natural poses that
    were
  • lifelike but also idealistic.
  • Paintings offer views of Greek life.

16
History
  • The Greeks applied reason, observation, and logic
    to the study of history.
  • Herodotus is called the Father of History
    stressed the importance of research
  • Thucydides showed the need to avoid bias.
  • Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future
    historians.

17
Alexander the Great (Part 1)
  • Philip of Macedon dreamed of conquering Greek
    city-states to the south and eventually the
    Persian Empire
  • 338 BCE Greece brought under Macedonian control
    Philip assassinated soon thereafter
  • Alexander becomes king at 20 and moved against
    Persia

18
Alexander the Great (Part 2)
  • He wing his first victory against the Persians at
    the Granicus River (Turkey) he then conquered
    Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon (330s
    BCE)
  • Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into northern
    India (326 BCE) there his troops faced soldiers
    mounted on war elephants (forced to retreat).
  • Soldiers refused to go onward!
  • Alexander died of a sudden fever three generals
    divided up the empire (East, West Egypt).

19
The Legacy of Alexander
  • Alexander unleashed changes that would ripple
    across the Mediterranean world and the Middle
    East for centuries!
  • Most lasting achievement ? spread of Greek
    culture.
  • Founded many new Greek-style cities, leaving
    soldiers and artisans behind
  • Across the empire, local people assimilated, or
    absorbed, Greek ideas. In turn, Greek settlers
    adopted local customs (CULTURAL DIFFUSION!).

20
Hellenistic Culture
  • Gradually, a blending of eastern and western
    cultures occurred!
  • Hellenistic culture ? blend of Greek, Persian,
    Egyptian and Indian culture
  • Alexander had encouraged this blending by
    marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian
    customs.
  • Alexandria, Egypt becomes center of learning and
    arts (Pharos, zoo and library)

21
Great Hellenistic Minds!
  • Zeno founded Stoicism (urged people to accept
    calmly whatever life brought)
  • Pythagoras derived formula to calculate the
    relationship between the sides of a triangle.
  • Euclid wrote The Elements, a textbook that
    became the basis for modern geometry.
  • Aristarchus theorized about a heliocentric, or
    sun-centered, solar system.
  • Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was round and
    accurately calculated its circumference.
  • Archimedes used principles of physics to make
    practical inventions, such as the lever and the
    pulley.
  • Hippocrates studied illnesses and cures and set
    ethical standards for medical care (Hippocratic
    Oath).
About PowerShow.com