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The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism


Chapter 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism On to Canada over Land and Lakes Oliver Hazard Perry Army of the War of 1812 Army poorly ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism

Chapter 12
  • The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge
    of Nationalism

On to Canada over Land and Lakes
  • Oliver Hazard Perry

Army of the War of 1812
  • Army poorly trained
  • Supplemented by poorly trained militia
  • Remaining generals from Revolutionary War

American Offensive Strategy
  • Americans lost strength in the three-pronged
  • Trio invaded Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain
  • Defeated at Canadian border

British Aide Canadians
  • Captured American Fort Michilimackinac
  • Fort commanded upper Great Lakes and
    Indian-inhabited area
  • Operations led by British General Isaac Brock,
    assisted by General Mud and General Confusion

Americans looked for success on waters
  • Navy did much better than the Army
  • American ships more skillfully handled than
  • Better Gunners
  • Frigates had thicker sides, heavier fire power,
    larger crews
  • Control of the Great Lakes was vital

Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended
  • British entered and set fire to most of capitol
  • British in 1814, aimed at New Orleans
  • Andrew Jackson commands 7,000 troops
  • 8,000 British veterans assaulted American
  • riflemen and cannoneers
  • British lost over two thousand in half an hour.
  • The Royal navy blockaded Americas coast
  • --Crippled American economy

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The Treaty of Ghent
  • Tsar of Russia brought 5 American peacemakers to
    city of Ghent.
  • British demand a neutralized Indian state in the
    Great Lakes and part of Maine Americans reject
    these terms.
  • The Treaty of Ghent- an armistice where both
    sides agreed to stop fighting and restore
    conquered territory.

Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention
  • A small group of New England extremists proposed
    secession from the Union.
  • Massachusetts issued a call for a convention at
    Hartford, where 26 men met in secrecy.
  • The Conventions report demanded financial
    assistance and proposed amendments requiring a
    two-thirds vote before embargo could be imposed,
    new states admitted, or war declared.

The Second War for Independence
  • Other Nations developed new respect for Americas
  • The events of war revealed folly of sectional
  • The Indians consented to relinquish vast areas of
    forested land north of Ohio River.
  • Industries become less dependent on Europes

Nascent Nationalism
  • Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper
    attained international recognition.
  • School textbooks were now being written by
    Americans for Americans and magazines began
    publication in 1815.
  • Congress voted a revived Bank of the United
    States in 1816.

The American System
  • British competitors began to dump the contents of
    their warehouses on the United States.
  • The Tariff of 1816 first tariff instituted for
  • The American System a strong banking system, a
    protective tariff, and a network of roads and


  • Henry Clay

The So-Called Era of Good Feelings
  • James Monroe voted for the Presidency by
  • Issues of the tariff, the bank, internal
    improvements, and the sale of public lands were
    being hotly contested.
  • Sectionalism was crystallizing, and the conflict
    over slavery was beginning to raise its hideous

The Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times
  • In 1819 panic brought deflation, depression,
    bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup
    kitchens, and overcrowded debtors prisons
  • The Bank of the United States became deeply
    involved in this popular type of outdoor gambling
    and forced the western banks to wall and
    foreclosed mortgages on countless farms

Growing Pains of the West
  • The Battle of the Thames, Where Tecumseh Was
    Killed in 1813

  • Nine frontier states joined the original thirteen
    between 1791 and1819.
  • Reasons for explosive expansion are the Ohio
    fever, eager new comers, and land exhaustion.
  • Acute economic distress and crushing of Indians
    in Northwest and South by Generals Harrison and
    Jackson pacified frontier and opened vast virgin
    tracts of land.
  • The building of highways improved the land routes
    to Ohio Valley.

The Land Act of 1820
  • The West forced to ally itself with other
    sections, and demanded cheap acreage and
    partially achieved its goal
  • Act authorized buyers to purchase 80 acres at
    minimum of 1.25 an acre in cash
  • It also demanded cheap transportation and cheap

Slavery and the Sectional Balance
  • In 1819 Missouri asked Congress for admission as
    slave state.
  • With every passing decade, the North was becoming
    wealthier and more thickly settled
  • Missouri was the first state entirely west of the
    Mississippi River to be carved out of the
    Louisiana Purchase

The Tallmadge Amendment
  • Stipulated that no more slaves should be brought
    into Missouri
  • Provided gradual emancipation of children born to
    slave parents already there

The Uneasy Missouri Compromise
  • Deadlock in Washington was broken in 1820 by the
    American solution of a bundle of three
  • Congress agreed to admit Missouri as a slave
    state, but at same time Maine was admitted as
    separate state
  • South won Missouri as an unrestricted slave
    state the North won the concession that Congress
    could forbid slavery in the remaining territories
  • The Missouri Compromise lasted thirty-four years
    and during that time it preserved the shaky
    compact of the states
  • Monroe was the only president in American history
    to be reelected after a term in which a major
    financial panic began

John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
  • The up surging nationalism of the post-Ghent
    years was further reflected and reinforced by the
    Supreme Court.
  • One group of John Marshalls decisions bolstered
    the power of the federal government at the
    expense of the states.

McCulloch v. Maryland
  • McCulloch v. Maryland involved an attempt by the
    state of Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank
    of the United States by imposing a tax on its
  • Marshall strengthened federal authority and
    slapped at state infringements when he denied the
    right of Maryland to tax the Bank.
  • Marshall said that the Constitution was derived
    from the consent of the people and thus permitted
    the government to act for their benefit.

Cohens v. Virginia
  • The case of Cohens v. Virginia gave Marshall one
    of his greatest opportunities to defend the
    federal power.
  • The Cohens were found guilty by the Virginia
    courts of illegally selling lottery tickets and
    Virginia won in the sense that the conviction of
    the Cohens was upheld but Virginia and all the
    individual states lost, because Marshall asserted
    the right of the Supreme Court to review the
    decisions of the state supreme courts in all
    questions involving powers of the federal

Gibbons v. Ogden
  • The suit of Gibbons v. Ogden grew out of attempt
    by the state of New York to grant to a private
    concern a monopoly of waterborne commerce between
    New York and New Jersey.
  • Marshall reminded the state that the Constitution
    conferred on Congress alone the control of
    interstate commerce.

Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses
Painted by Robert Clayton Burns, this painting
depicts Daniel Webster's argument of the famous
Dartmouth College Case.
Fletcher v. Peck
  • The case of Fletcher v. Peck (1810) arose when a
    Georgia legislature, swayed by liberty, granted
    35 million acres in the Yazoo River country
    (Mississippi) to private speculators, but the
    next legislature canceled the crooked
  • The Supreme Court decreed that the legislative
    grant was a contract and that the Constitution
    forbids state laws impairing contracts.
  • It was also one of the earliest clear assertions
    of the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate
    state laws conflicting with the federal

Dartmouth College v. Woodward
  • The case of Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
    was when the college had been granted a charter
    by King George III, 1769, but democratic New
    Hampshire state legislature wanted to change it.
  • Dartmouth employed as counsel its most
    distinguished alumnus, Daniel Webster.
  • Marshall ruled that the original charter must
    stand and the Dartmouth decision had the
    fortunate effect to safeguarding business
    enterprise from the domination by the states

  • Daniel Webster was an Expounding Father his
    classic speeches in Senate, challenging states
    rights and nullification, were largely
    repetitious of arguments that he had earlier
    presented before Supreme Court.

  • Marshall buttressed the federal Union and helped
    create a stable, nationally uniform environment
    for business
  • He checked the excesses of popularly elected
    state legislatures shaped the Constitution along
    the conservative
  • He centralized lines that ran somewhat counter to
    dominant spirit of new country.

Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida
  • Americans already claimed west Florida in 1810
    Congress ratified this in 1812
  • When an epidemic of revolutions broke out in
    South America, Spain denuded Florida of troops to
    fight the rebels
  • Jackson secured commission to enter Spanish
    territory, punish Indians, and recapture
  • In Florida Purchase Treaty(Adams-Onis ) of 1819,
    Spain ceded Florida, and Spanish claims to
    Oregon, in exchange for Americas abandonment of
    equal claims to Texas

The Treaty of 1818
  • The Monroe administration negotiated the Treaty
    of 1818 with Britain
  • It permitted Americans to share the Newfoundland
    fisheries with Canadians, and fixed the northern
    limits of Louisiana along the forty-ninth
    parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky
  • It further provided for a ten-year joint
    occupation of Oregon Country, without a surrender
    of the rights of claims of either America or

The Menace of Monarchy in America
  • The crowned despots smothered rebellion in Italy
    and Spain
  • Americans feared if European powers intervened in
    New World, cause of republicanism would suffer
    irreparable harm
  • Great Britain didnt join the continental
    European powers in crushing the newly won
    liberties of Spanish-Americans because they
    opened their monopoly-bound ports to outside trade

Russias Involvement
  • Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France would
    presumably send powerful fleets and armies to
    colonies of Spanish America and restore
    autocratic Spanish King
  • In 1821, the Russian Tzar made a decree extending
    Russian jurisdiction over one hundred miles of
    open sea down the line of 51
  • The energetic Russians had already established
    trading posts almost as far south as the entrance
    to San Francisco Bay

Alexander II
Canning Proposal
  • In August 1823 George Canning, British foreign
    secretary, approached American minister in London
    with proposition
  • The U.S. join Britain in declaration renouncing
    interest in acquiring Latin American Territory,
    and warning the European despots to keep their
    hands off the Latin Republics
  • Adams thought if Canning could seduce the U.S.
    into joining with him to support territorial
    integrity of New World, Americas own hands would
    be tied

John Quincy Adams
Monroe and His Doctrine
  • The Monroe Doctrine was born with two features of
    non-colonization and nonintervention, and the
    president on December 2, 1823, incorporated a
    stern warning to all European powers
  • Monroe first directed his doctrine at Russia in
    Northwest and proclaimed the era of colonization
    in Americas ended and the hunting season
    permanently closed
  • Monroe directed European crowned heads to keep
    their monarchical systems out of his hemisphere
    and for its part the U.S. would not intervene
    with war

Monroes Doctrine Upraised
  • Though offended by upstart Yankees, European
    powers found their hands tied, and frustrations
    increased their annoyance
  • The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 fixed the
    tzars southernmost line of 5440.
  • The United States never willingly permitted a
    powerful foreign nation to secure a foothold near
    its Caribbean vitals