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ITEA 1-Day Implementation Workshop STANDARDS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY

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Title: ITEA 1-Day Implementation Workshop STANDARDS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY


1
ITEA 1-Day Implementation Workshop STANDARDS FOR
TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY
  • Put Your Name Here

Put Location Date Here
2
LOGISTICS OF WORKSHOP
  • Introductions
  • Agenda
  • Registration Form
  • ITEA Membership Form
  • Lunch
  • Breaks Restrooms and Phones

3
Standards for Technological Literacy Content
for the Study of Technology
  • Co-Sponsored by
  • List co-sponsor
  • ITEA
  • TfAA Project
  • Other Guests

4
What you will gain from this workshop...
  • An overview of Standards for Technological
    Literacy
  • An introduction to implementing the standards in
    your current programs
  • A script of the workshop that you may adapt and
    use Optionaldepending on type of workshop.

5
WHAT IS YOUR VIN?
  • VIN Vehicle Identification Name
  • Look at the various vehicles listed around the
    roomwhich most correlates to your current
    teaching practices and your technology education
    program?

6
KNOW-WANT-LEARN
7
Terminology
  • Technology is the modification of the natural
    environment in order to satisfy perceived human
    needs and wants.
  • Technological literacy is the ability to use,
    manage, assess, and understand technology.
  • Technology Education is a study of technology,
    which provides an opportunity for students to
    learn about the processes and knowledge related
    to technology that are needed to solve problems
    and extend human capabilities.

8
Three Prevalent Misconceptions
  • Technology is applied Science
  • The lack of technological literacy is compounded
    by one prevalent misconception When asked to
    define technology, most individuals reply with
    the archaic and mostly erroneous, idea that
    technology is applied science (Bybee, 2000, pg.
    23).
  • Equating Technology Education with teaching
    computers and information technology
  • Confusing technology with technical

9
Cannot escape the reality that
  • Most advances in science are based on technology.
  • S-T-S theme introduces even the naïve person to
    the pervasive nature of technology in our
    society.
  • It is in the interest of science, science
    education, and society to help students and all
    citizens develop a greater understanding and
    appreciation for some of the fundamental concepts
    and processes of technology and engineering
    (Bybee, 2000, p. 23-24).

10
Technology Education and Educational Technology
  • Technology Education
  • (Technological Studies)
  • Teaches about technology
  • A school subject
  • Ultimate goal Technological literacy for
    everyone
  • Educational Technology
  • Teaches with technology
  • A means of teaching
  • Ultimate goal
  • Improving the process of teaching and learning

11
Technology Education and Educational Technology
  • Technology Education
  • (Technological Studies)
  • Teaches about technology as a content area
  • Concerned with the broad spectrum of technology
    (How humans have designed innovated the natural
    world)
  • Primary goal Technological literacy for everyone
  • Educational Technology
  • (Information Technology)
  • Teaches with technology (uses technology as a
    tool)
  • Primarily concerned with the narrow spectrum of
    information and communication technologies
  • Primary goal To enhance the
  • teaching and learning process

12
What is Standards for Technological Literacy
based on?
  • Based on Rationale and Structure Phase 1
  • Reviewed national standards from other fields
  • Analyzed national standards for inclusion of
    technology
  • Coordinated with NSES Standards and AAAS
    Benchmarks
  • Reviewed state standards
  • Interviewed state supervisors on standards

13
EVOLUTION OF TAXOMETRIC ORGANIZERS
THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY Std 1 The
Characteristics and Scope of Technology Std 2
The Core Concepts of Technology Std 3
Relationships Among Technologies and the
Connections Between Technology and Other
Fields TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY Std 4 The
Cultural, Social, Economic, and Political Effects
of Technology Std 5 The Effects of Technology on
the Environment Std 6 The Role of Society in the
Development and Use of Technology Std 7 The
Influence of Technology on History DESIGN Std 8
The Attributes of Design Std 9 Engineering
Design Std 10 The Role of Troubleshooting,
Research and Development, Invention and
Innovation, and Experimentation in Problem
Solving ABILITIES FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL WORLD Std
11 Apply Design Processes Std 12 Use and
Maintain Technological Products and Systems Std
13 Assess the Impact of Products and Systems THE
DESIGNED WORLD Std 14 Medical Technologies Std
15 Agricultural and Related Biotechnologies Std
16 Energy and Power Technologies Std 17
Information and Communication Technologies Std
18 Transportation Technologies Std 19
Manufacturing Technologies Std 20 Construction
Technologies
KNOWLEDGE Nature and Evolution of
Technology Linkages Technological Concepts and
Principles PROCESSES Designing and Developing
Technological Processes and Systems Determining
and Controlling the Behavior of Technological
Systems Utilizing Technological Systems
Assessing the Impacts and Consequences of
Technological Systems CONTEXTS Biological and
Chemical Systems Informational Systems Physical
Systems
PROCESSES
KNOWLEDGE
CONTEXTS
From Rationale Structure (ITEA, 1996)
From Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA,
2000)
14
What Standards for Technological Literacy is NOT
  • It is not a curriculum, on the other hand,
    Standards for Technological Literacy can describe
    overarching goals, or ways in which the
    curriculum should be orchestrated to achieve a
    desired result.
  • It is our belief that curriculum goals and
    principles should not be part of a description of
    content standards.
  • Standards for Technological Literacy does not
    prescribe courses or programs (groups of courses)

15
Guiding Principles Behind Standards for
Technological Literacy
  • The standards and benchmarks were created with
    the following guiding principles
  • They offer a common set of expectations for what
    students should learn in the study of technology.
  • They are developmentally appropriate for
    students.
  • They provide a basis for developing meaningful,
    relevant, and articulated curricula at the local,
    state, and provincial levels.
  • They promote content connections with other
    fields of study in grades K-12.
  • They encourage active and experiential learning.

16
Who is a technologically literate person?
  • Understands
  • What technology is
  • How technology is created
  • How the use of technology shapes society and in
    turn,
  • How society shapes the development of technology

17
  • Standards for Technological Literacy Content for
    the Study of Technology

18
Executive Summary
  • PDF format on ITEA website
  • Discussion of Highlights
  • Please use as a guide as we discuss Standards
    for Technological Literacy

19
Structure of the Standards
Standards
Benchmarks
K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
The characteristics and scope of technology The
core concepts of technology The relationships
among technologies and the connections between
technology and other fields of study
The Nature of Technology
The cultural, social, economic, and political
effects of technology The effects of
technology on the environment The role of
society in the development and use of
technology The influence of technology on history
Technology and Society
Design
The attributes of design Engineering
design The role of troubleshooting, research and
development, invention and innovation, and
experimentation in problem solving
Abilities for A Technological World
Apply the design process Use and maintain
technological products and systems Assess the
impact of products and systems
Medical technologies Agricultural and related
biotechnologies Energy and power
technologies Information and communication
technologies Transportation technologies Manufac
turing technologies Construction technologies
The Designed World
20
Table of Contents
Chapters
  • Preparing Students for a Technological World
  • Overview of Technology Content Standards
  • The Nature of Technology
  • Technology and Society
  • Design
  • Abilities for a Technological World
  • The Designed World
  • Call to Action

Activity III
21
Activity III
  • Getting to Know Standards for Technological
    Literacy
  • Break into Teams of Four
  • Think Pair Share
  • Open Discussion

22
10 MINUTE BREAK
23
ACTIVITY IV
  • Getting to Know Standards for Technological
    Literacy
  • Packets of Benchmarks
  • Organize in a logical sequence
  • Discuss agreement and disagreement of placement
    and sequencing.
  • Discuss issues deemed missing or key transitional
    items viewed not included

Standard 18
Standard 8
24
How are Standards Used in the Classroom?
  • After reviewing newly developed standards to
    identify the desired results of your program, you
    may realize that the exploration and experience
    (the activities) are the how of your program and
    the Content Standards are the what and the why.

25
Content vs. Curriculum
  • Content standards specify what students should
    know and be able to do in technology. They
    indicate the knowledge and processes essential to
    technology that should be taught and learned in
    school.
  • A curriculum specifies the way content is
    delivered It includes the structure,
    organization, balance, and presentation of the
    content in the laboratory-classroom from the
    learners point of view and the desired
    achievements.

26
Student Performance Standards
  • The degree or quality of proficiency that
    students are expected to display in relation to
    the Content Standards.
  • Student Performance Standards answer questions
    about quality degree while Content Standards
    define what students should know be able to do.

27
Example
  • Content Standard Students will develop an
    understanding of the characteristics and scope of
    technology.
  • Performance Standard Students in K-2 are able to
    distinguish between the natural world and the
    human-made world, recognizing the difference
    between trees, plants, and animals and those that
    are human designed and made, such as artificial
    trees and plants.

28
Using standards to develop lessons
  • Non-linear process
  • Begin at Different Points
  • Existing units of study
  • Student questions, interests, concerns
  • Standards from related fields one or more state
    frameworks
  • Develop Rubrics and Assessments
  • Check for Understanding
  • What should students come away understanding?
  • What is evidence of that understanding?
  • What activities will develop the understandings?

29
A Student who understands
  • Can Explain

Can Interpret
Student Understanding.
Sees in Perspective
Can Apply
Reveals Self-knowledge
Demonstrates Empathy
Wiggins McTighe, 1998
30
Plan Assessment to Reflect Standards
  • Not limited to tests
  • Any method used to gather information about
    students is assessment
  • Different types of assessment are useful for
    different types of content
  • Think like an assessor, not an activity
    designer. Wiggins McTighe
  • Sound evidence is valid and reliable, provides
    user-friendly feedback

31
Select Tasks and Activities
  • Three Kinds of Learning-Teaching Activities
  • Introductory Activities - stimulate student
    interest to participate in the unit of study
  • Enabling Activities - students learn and
    demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and habits of
    mind needed to attain the standards
  • Culminating Activities - students demonstrate
    their learning of most or all standards identified

32
Lesson-Activity Challenge
  • Discuss premise
  • Break into teams
  • Provide Design Directive
  • Bag of goodies

33
Lunch
34
Continue Lesson-Activity Challenge
35
Exchange Activities Evaluation
  • Exchange activities with groups
  • Work through the lesson-activity and
  • Evaluate using the following questions as guides

36
Questions
  • Which standard(s) and benchmarks are addressed?
  • What will students understand as a result of this
    lesson-activity?
  • To what extent does the lesson-activity provide a
    valid and reliable measure of the targeted
    standard(s)?
  • Will students be able to revise and refine their
    work based on feedback?
  • Do you need to
  • Change the activity?
  • Change the product or performance?
  • Reconsider the standard(s)?
  • Consider a combination of factors?
  • Remember the Standards are the Target!

37
The Challenge
  • Blending depth and breadth in a properly balanced
    ratio
  • Making choices, compromises, and sacrifices
  • Highlighting Big ideas
  • Pursuing essential questions in depth
  • Providing as much direct experience as possible
    to give meaning to key ideas

Wiggins McTighe, 1998
38
What Weve Learned
  • Revisit Know-Want-Learn Transparency
  • Identify issues still needing clarification
  • Plan for follow-up opportunities

39
Evaluation of the Workshop
40
THANK YOU!
URL http//www.iteawww.org E-mail Place
your E-mail here ITEA-TfAAP William E. Dugger
duggerw_at_itea-tfaap.org Or Pam B. Newberry
newberryp_at_itea-tfaap.org
41
(No Transcript)
42
STANDARDS THAT MAY BE COVERED IN THIS WORKSHOP
43
The Nature of Technology
  • Standard 2
  • Students will develop an understanding of the
    core concepts of technology.
  1. Some systems are found in nature, and some are
    made by humans.
  2. Systems have parts or components that work
    together to accomplish a goal.
  3. Tools are simple objects that help humans
    complete tasks.
  4. Different materials are used in making things.
  5. People plan in order to get things done.

44
The Nature of Technology
  • Standard 2 continued 3-5
  1. A subsystem is a system that operates as a part
    of another system.
  2. When parts of a system are missing, it may not
    work as planned.
  3. Resources are the things needed to get a job
    done, such as tools and machines, materials,
    information, energy, people, capital, and time.
  4. Tools are needed to design, make, use, and assess
    technology.
  5. Materials have many different properties.
  6. Tools and machines extend human capabilities,
    such as holding, lifting, carrying, fastening,
    separating, and computing.
  7. Requirements are the limits to designing or
    making a product or system.

45
The Nature of Technology
  • Standard 2 continued 6-8
  1. Technological systems include input, processes,
    output, and, at times, feedback.
  2. Systems thinking involves considering how every
    part relates to others.
  3. An open-loop system has no feedback path and
    requires human intervention, while a closed-loop
    system uses feedback.
  4. Technological systems can be connected to one
    another.
  5. Malfunctions of any part of a system may affect
    the function and quality of the system.

46
The Nature of Technology
  • 6-8 Benchmarks-Std 2 Continued
  1. Requirements are the parameters placed on the
    development of a product or system.
  2. Trade-off is a decision process recognizing the
    need for careful compromises among competing
    factors.
  3. Different technologies involve different sets of
    processes.
  4. Maintenance is the process of inspecting and
    servicing a product or system on a regular basis
    in order for it to continue functioning properly,
    to extend its life, or to upgrade its capability.
  5. Controls are mechanisms or particular steps that
    people perform using information about the system
    that causes systems to change.

47
The Nature of Technology
  • Standard 2 continued 9-12
  1. Systems thinking applies logic and creativity
    with appropriate compromises in complex real-life
    problems.
  2. Systems, which are the building blocks of
    technology, are embedded within larger
    technological, social, and environmental systems.
  3. The stability of a technological system is
    influenced by all of the components in the
    system, especially those in the feedback loop.
  4. Selecting resources involves trade-offs between
    competing values, such as availability, cost,
    desirability, and waste.

48
The Nature of Technology
  • 9-12 Benchmarks- Std 2 Continued
  • Requirements involve the identification of the
    criteria and constraints of a product or system
    and the determination of how they affect the
    final design and development.
  • Optimization is an on going process or
    methodology of designing or making a product and
    is dependent on criteria and constraints.
  • New technologies create new processes.
  • Quality control is a planned process to ensure
    that a product, service, or system meets
    established criteria.
  • Management is the process of planning,
    organizing, and controlling work.
  • Complex systems have many layers of controls and
    feedback loops to provide information.

49
Standard 2 with Benchmarks The Core Concepts of
Technology
K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
Systems Resources Processes Systems Resources Requirements Processes Systems Resources Requirements Trade-offs Processes Controls Systems Resources Requirements Optimization and trade-offs Processes Controls
50
Technology and Society
  • Standard 5
  • Students will develop an understanding of the
    effects of technology on the environment.
  1. Some materials can be reused and/or recycled.
  2. Waste must be appropriately recycled or disposed
    of to prevent unnecessary harm to the
    environment.
  3. The use of technology affects the environment in
    good and bad ways.

51
Technology and Society
  • Standard 5 continued 6-8
  1. The management of waste produced by technological
    systems is an important societal issue.
  2. Technologies can be used to repair damage caused
    by natural disasters and to break down waste from
    the use of various products and systems.
  3. Decisions to develop and use technologies often
    put environmental and economic concerns in direct
    competition with one another.

52
Technology and Society
  • Standard 5 Continued 9-12
  1. Humans can devise technologies to conserve water,
    soil, and energy through such techniques as
    reusing, reducing and recycling.
  2. When new technologies are developed to reduce the
    use of resources, considerations of trade-offs
    are important.
  3. With the aid of technology, various aspects of
    the environment can be monitored to provide
    information for decision-making.
  4. The alignment of technological processes with
    natural processes maximizes performance and
    reduces negative impacts on the environment.
  5. Humans devise technologies to reduce the negative
    consequences of other technologies.
  6. Decisions regarding the implementation of
    technologies involve the weighing of tradeoffs
    between predicted positive and negative effects
    on the environment.

53
Standard 5 with Benchmarks The Effects of
Technology on the Environment
K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
Reuse and/or recycling of materials Recycling and disposal of waste Affects environment in good and bad ways Management of waste Technologies repair damage Environmental vs. economic concerns Conservation Reduce resource use Monitor environment Alignment of natural and technological processes Reduce negative consequences of technology Decisions and trade-offs
54
Design
  • Standard 8
  • Students will develop an understanding of the
    attributes of design.
  1. Everyone can design solutions to a problem.
  2. Design is a creative process.
  3. The design process is a purposeful method of
    planning practical solutions to problems.
  4. Requirements for a design include such factors as
    the desired elements and features of a product or
    system or the limits that are placed on the
    design.

55
Design
  • Standard 8 continued 6-8
  1. Design is a creative planning process that leads
    to useful products and systems.
  2. There is no perfect design.
  3. Requirements for a design are made up of criteria
    and constraints.

56
Design
  • Standard 8 continued 9-12
  1. The design process includes defining a problem,
    brainstorming, researching and generating ideas,
    identifying criteria and specifying constraints,
    exploring possibilities, selecting an approach,
    developing a design proposal, making a model or
    prototype, testing and evaluating the design
    using specifications, refining the design,
    creating or making it, and communicating
    processes and results.
  2. Design problems are seldom presented in a clearly
    defined form.
  3. The design needs to be continually checked and
    critiqued, and the ideas of the design must be
    redefined and improved.
  4. Requirements of a design, such as criteria,
    constraints and efficiency, sometimes compete
    with each other.

57
Standard 8 with Benchmarks The Attributes of
Design
K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
Everyone can design Design is a creative process Definitions of design Requirements of design Design leads to useful products and systems There is no perfect design Requirements The design process Design problems are usually not clear Designs need to be refined Requirements
58
Abilities for a Technological World
  • Standard 12
  • Students will develop the abilities to use and
    maintain technological products and systems.
  1. Discover how things work.
  2. Use hand tools correctly and safely and be able
    to name them correctly.
  3. Recognize and use everyday symbols.
  4. Follow step-by-step directions to assemble a
    product.
  5. Select and safely use tools, products, and
    systems for specific tasks.
  6. Use computers to access and organize information.
  7. Use common symbols, such as numbers and words, to
    communicate key ideas.

59
Abilities for a Technological World
  • Standard 12 continued 6-8
  1. Use information provided in manuals, protocols,
    or by experienced people to see and understand
    how things work.
  2. Use tools, materials, and machines safely to
    diagnose, adjust, and repair systems.
  3. Use computers and calculators in various
    applications.
  4. Operate and maintain systems in order to achieve
    a given purpose.

60
Abilities for a Technological World
  • Standard 12 continued 9-12
  1. Document processes and procedures and communicate
    them to different audiences using appropriate
    oral and written techniques.
  2. Diagnose a system that is malfunctioning and use
    tools, materials, machines, and knowledge to
    repair it.
  3. Troubleshoot, analyze, maintain systems to ensure
    safe and proper function and precision.
  4. Operate systems so that they function in the way
    they were designed.
  5. Use computers and calculators to access,
    retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret,
    and evaluate data and information in order to
    communicate.

61
Standard 12 with Benchmarks Use and Maintain
Technological Products and Systems
K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
Discover how things work Use tools correctly and safely Recognize and use everyday symbols Follow step-by-step instructions Select and safely use tools Use computers to access and organize information Use common symbols Use information to see how things work Safely use tools to diagnose, adjust, and repair Use computers and calculators Operate systems Document and communicate processes and procedures Diagnose a malfunctioning system Troubleshoot and maintain systems Operate and maintain systems Use computers to communicate
62
The Designed World
  • Standard 18
  • Students will develop an understanding of and be
    able to select and use transportation
    technologies.

   A. A transportation system has many parts that
work together to help people travel. B.
Vehicles move people or goods from one place to
another in water, air, or space and on land.
C. Transportation vehicles need to be cared for
to prolong their use.
63
The Designed World
  • Standard 18 CONTINUED 3-5

  D. The use of transportation allows people
and goods to be moved from place to place.
E. A transportation system may lose efficiency or
fail if one part is missing or malfunctioning or
if a subsystem is not working.
64
The Designed World
  • Standard 18 continued 6-8
  1. Transporting people and goods involves a
    combination of individuals and vehicles.
  2. Transportation vehicles are made up of
    subsystems, such as structural, propulsion,
    suspension, guidance, control, and support, that
    must function together for a system to work
    effectively.

65
The Designed World
  • Standard 18 6-8 continued
  • Governmental regulations often influence the
    design and operation of transportation systems.
  • Processes, such as receiving, holding, storing,
    loading, moving, unloading, delivering,
    evaluating, marketing, managing, communicating,
    and using conventions are necessary for the
    entire transportation system to operate
    efficiently.

66
The Designed World
  • Standard 18 continued 9-12
  1. Transportation plays a vital role in the
    operation of other technologies, such as
    manufacturing, construction, communication,
    health and safety, and agriculture.
  2. Intermodalism is the use of different modes of
    transportation, such as highways, railways, and
    waterways as part of an interconnected system
    that can move people and goods easily from one
    mode to another.

67
The Designed World
  • Standard 18 9-12 continued
  • Transportation services and methods have led to a
    population that is regularly on the move.
  • The design of intelligent and non-intelligent
    transportation systems depends on many processes
    and innovative techniques.
  •  

68
Standard 18 with Benchmarks Transportation
Technologies
K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
Transportation system Individuals and goods Care of transportation products and systems Transportation system use Transportation systems and subsystems Design and operation of transportation systems Subsystems of transportation systems Governmental regulations Transportation processes Relationship of transportation and other technologies Intermodalism Transportation of services and methods Positive and negative impacts of transportation Transportation processes and efficiency
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