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MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN HRD (DCE5130) SEMESTER ONE 2013/2014 F2F I (8 SEPT. 2013)

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Title: MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN HRD (DCE5130) SEMESTER ONE 2013/2014 F2F I (8 SEPT. 2013)


1
MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN HRD (DCE5130)
SEMESTER ONE 2013/2014 F2F I (8 SEPT. 2013)
2
FACE TO FACE 1
COURSE CONTENT

Part 1 Key elements of My Own Culture and
other cultures in Malaysia
.
o An awareness and understanding of one's
own set of values and cultural assumptions,
symbols, rituals, and role models o An
understanding of values of people from different
ethnic groups in the country (Malays, Chinese,
Indians and Others). o Cultural Similarities
and Differences among Malaysians
  • Learning outcomes
  • The students are able to
  • Analyse five cultural dimensions
  • Identify and elaborate cultural dimensions of
    his/her own culture and other cultures in
    Malaysia/own country

3
Director Center for Industrial Relations and
Networking (CiRNeT) Assoc. Prof., Department
of Professional Development Continuing
Education (JPPPL) Faculty of Educational Studies,
Universiti Putra Malaysia   Tel office
03-89471193 hp019-2196581 azizanas_at_putra.upm.edu.
my
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azizan Asmuni
4
Working experience
  •  1) Deputy Director
  • Malaysia Japan University Center (MJUC)
  • 2) Deputy Director (Extension),
  • Centre for Extension, Entrepreneurship and
    Professional Advancement (APEEC)
  • 3) Deputy Director
  • Distance Education and Learning(IDEAL)/
  • Center for External Education.
  • 4) Deputy Dean (Student Affairs Alumni) Faculty
    of Educational Studies
  • 5) HONORARY SECRETARY, ACADEMICS ASSOCIATION OF
    UPM

5
Qualifications
  • Bachelor of Agriculture Science, Universiti
    Pertanian Malaysia (UPM), (1981).
  • Master of Science (Agric.) Ehime University,
    Japan (1990)
  • Doctor of Philosophy (Extension), Ehime
    University, Japan (1993).

6
  • (SPECIALIZATION Adult education and extension
    education)
  •  Graduate Level 1)         Principles of Adult
    Education 2)         Multicultural Influence in
    HRD 3)         Extension Education
  • 4) Extension Program Evaluation 5)        
    Distance Education  Undergraduate
    Level 6)         Andragogy 7)         Extension
    Administration 8)         Policy Development
  • 9) Change Management
  • 10) Multicultural Influence in
    Organization
  • 11)        Japanese Language

7
OBJECTIVES
  • At the end of this course, the students are able
    to
  • Identify and elaborate key elements of his/her
    own culture and other cultures in Malaysia/own
    country
  • Analyze and relate key elements of culture
    (cultural dimension) to the intracultural,
    intercultural, and crosscultural Malaysian
    workplace
  • Discuss and provide solution to issues and
    challenges in working across cultures,

8

SYNOPSIS
  • This course emphasises the influence of
    multiculture on human resource development, the
    sensitivity of multiculture on labour force in
    Malaysia and at the international level,
    cross-cultural and intercultural management of
    international corporations).

9
EVALUATION OF MULTICULTURAL INFLUENCES IN
HRD (DCE5130)
  • 1. Assignment 1 10
  • 2. Assignment 2 (Article Review)10
  • 3. Assignment 3 15
  • 4. Assignment 4 (Case Study)
  • (Group) 25
  • 3. Final exam 30

10
ASSIGMENT 1  
  • What is your understanding of your own value in
    your culture?
  • Identify your core value (can be more than one
    values).
  • Describe the value/s by using the key elements of
    culture (underlying assumption, value, symbol,
    ritual and hero). The assignment should be based
    on your own observation and experience. Some
    references may be useful.
  • (At least 10 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date 2nd Face to Face

11
ASSIGMENT 2 (Individual)
  • Search for ONE research article related to
    multicultural influences in HRD/organization.
  • Review and discuss your chosen article based on
    your understanding of
  • cultural dimensions
  • the following article
  • FACILITATING HARMONY IN DIVERSITY USING
    DELIGHTS, PUZZLES AND IRRITATIONS TO MEET THE
    CHALLENGE OF DIVERSITY (provided in the file or
    at www.amauta-international.com/iaf2000/Abdullah2
    .PDF)
  • (At least 3 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date 3rd Face to Face

12
ASSIGMENT 3  
  • How Malaysian manager manage the organization?
    (intracultural or intercultural organization?
  • Select one or two cases/activities on how manager
    manage the organization from cultural perpective
    (in terms of leadership, communication,
    motivating, managing conflict etc.) The
    assignment can be either based on your own
    experience or others or a research article.
  • (At least 10 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date 3rd Face to Face

13
ASSIGMENT 4 CASE STUDY (GROUP ASSIGMENT)
  • How foreigners manage and need to know about
    managing in Malaysia (Cross-cultural
    Organization)?
  • The students are expected to do a series of
    interview the foreigners (particular from western
    countries, Japan, Korea, Taiwan or Africas) who
    worked in Malaysian organizations (company, NGO,
    government).
  • At least three foreigners of managerial level
    should be interviewed.
  • Focus of the paper is how foreigners manage the
    organization from the cultural perspective, the
    issues and problems, their expectation,
    misunderstanding, etc.
  • (At least 15 pages. 1.5 spacing)
  • Due date Final Exam for Master Program

14
FINAL EXAM
  •  Focus will be given on the ability of students
    to analyse key dimensions/elements of own culture
    and other cultures, and relate and propose
    solutions to issues and challenges in the
    multicultural workplace contexts.

15
REFERENCES 
  • MAIN
  • Asma Abdullah (1996). Going Glocal. Malaysian
    Institute of Management. Shah Alam. Malaysia
    (Asma Abdullah (2006). Ke arah glokal dimensi
    budaya dalam pengurusan Malaysia. Penterjemah Zol
    Azlan Hamidin. Institut Terjemahan Negara
    Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur)
  • Asma Abdullah And Aric Low (2001). Understanding
    the Malaysian Workforce. Guidelines for Managers.
    Malaysian Institute of Management. Shah Alam.
    Malaysia.
  • Asma Abdullah( 2001). Pengaruh Nilai Kebudayaan
    Melayu Dalam Pengurusan Di Malaysia. Ph.D
    Dissertation. Fakulti Sains Kemasyarakatan Dan
    Kemanusiaan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
    (HD58.7 .A86 2001)

16
REFERENCES 
  • OTHERS
  • Adler, N.J. and Gundersen, A. (2008).
    International Dimension of Organizational
    Behavior. (Fifth Edition.). South-Western,
    Canada.
  • Asma Abdullah and Paul B. Pedersen (2003).
    Understanding Multicultural Malaysia Delights,
    Puzzles Irritations. Prentice Hall, Petaling
    Jaya. 2003
  • Hofstede, G.H. and Hoftede, G.J. (2005). Cultures
    and Organizations Software of the Mind. Revised
    and Expanded 2nd edition, UK McGraw Hill.
  • Schein, E.H. (1997). Organizational Culture and
    Leadership, Jossey-Bass, UK

17
COURSE CONTENT
Part 1 (FACE TO FACE 1) Key elements of
My Own Culture and other cultures in Malaysia
Part 2 (FACE TO FACE 2) Relating at the intra
cultural, intercultural, cross cultural
Malaysian workplace
4 PARTS .
Part 3 (FACE TO FACE 3) Issues and challenges
in working across cultures, namely - when
Malaysians go abroad to work - when foreigners
come to live and work in Malaysia.
18
FACE TO FACE 1
COURSE CONTENT

Part 1 Key elements of My Own Culture and
other cultures in Malaysia
.
o An awareness and understanding of one's
own set of values and cultural assumptions,
symbols, rituals, and role models o An
understanding of values of people from different
ethnic groups in the country (Malays, Chinese,
Indians and Others). o Cultural Similarities
and Differences among Malaysians
  • Learning outcomes
  • The students are able to
  • Analyse five cultural dimensions
  • Identify and elaborate cultural dimensions of
    his/her own culture and other cultures in
    Malaysia/own country

19
COURSE CONTENT
FACE TO FACE 2
Part
2 Relating at the intra cultural, intercultural,
cross cultural Malaysian workplace
O Similarities and differences in values and
underlying assumptions of people from
different ethnic groups and how they are
expressed through managerial practices O A
working knowledge of the business approaches,
protocol, etiquette and sensitivities as
observed by each ethnic group at the workplace O
Acquire appropriate skills, strategies and
techniques to interact with people from
different ethnic groups and cultures for
business and social purposes O Forces of
Change Industrialization, Westernization,
Modernization, Islamization, Vision 2020,
Globalization and their impact in business O
Types of workplaces Intracultural,
intercultural and cross cultural O Issues and
challenges at the Malaysian workplace
.
  • Learning outcomes
  • The students are able to
  • compare underlying assumptions (similarities and
    differences) among people from different ethnic
    groups in organization
  • assess the HRD practices/activities in
    organization from multicultural perspectives (in
    terms of leadership, communication, motivating,
    managing conflict etc.)

20
Part 3 Issues and challenges in working across
cultures, namely - when Malaysians go abroad
to work - when foreigners come to live and
work in Malaysia.
FACE TO FACE 3
COURSE CONTENT
o An awareness and understanding of values and
underlying assumptions of people from
different cultures in business settings
(Americans, Japanese, Australians, Canadians,
Germans, Swedes, etc) o A knowledge of work
practices as observed in different cultures
concept of time, completed staff work, ethics,
work relationships, protocol, etiquette and
sensitivities as observed by each culture o
Acquire appropriate skills, strategies and
techniques to interact with the
host culture for business and social purposes o
Issues and challenges of international
management o Managing cross cultural
interactions in business settings
.
  • Learning outcomes
  • The students are able to
  • Analyze cultural dimensions to multicultural
    workplace
  • Discuss and provide solution to issues and
    challenges in working across cultures

21
CULTURE -DEFINITION
22
CULTURE -definitions (Sociologists )
  • as regularities based on interaction norms for
    behavior, long standing and widely held values,
    beliefs and practices -as stable.
  • Society -social relationships existing at a given
    point in time
  • Boudon et. al 1989

23
CULTURE -definitions (Anthropologists )
  • as including THINGS as well as the attitudes,
    values, and beliefs
  • behavioral traits all produced artifacts -
    tools, art, books and texts etc
  • Not stable - constant process of change
  • Malinowski (founders of Anthropology)

24
CULTURE -definitions (Anthropologists )
  • How do Cultures?
  • I. Growth
  • technological growth
  • population growth
  • evolution?
  • Knowledge development
  • Internal contradictions (feminism, civil rights
    movement)
  • II. Culture contact (change (cultural diffusion))
  • diffusion - spread, trade, war
  • Invasion succession
  • acculturation
  • assimilation
  • III. Decay
  • Cultural Genocide
  • Transformation into something different
  • Decline and decadence

25
CULTURE -definitions (Humanities )(CARE)
  • cult (Latin)-tend, care for
  • Cultus -care cultivation
  • "An educated man is not always a cultured man,
    although a cultured man is usually educated ...
    the cultured man is not merely the knowledgeable
    man, but the man who uses his knowledge
    humanely(Ashley Montagu)
  • a study of achievement and development or the
    higher aspects of civilization- arts,
    architecture, music, dance, literature, history,
    and philosophy etc.

26
  • "The total, generally organized way of life,
    including values, norms, institutions, and
    artifacts, that is passed on from generation to
    generation by learning alone."
  • http//courses.ed.asu.edu/margolis/spf301.html

27
  • Koentjaraningrat (1970)
  • Kebudayaan berasal daripada perkataan Sanskrit
    'buddhayah' iaitu bentuk jamak dari 'buddhi' yang
    bererti 'budi' atau 'akal'. Kebudayaan dapat
    diertikan sebagai 'hal-hal yang bersangkutan
    dengan akal'.
  • "keseluruhan dari kelakuan dan hasil kelakuan
    manusia yang teratur oleh tatakelakuan yang harus
    diperoleh dengan cara belajar."

28
  • Edward B. Taylor ( 1871) "satu keseluruhan
    sistem yang kompleks yang mengandungi ilmu
    pengetahuan, kepercayaan, kesenian, kesusilaan,
    undang-undang ,adat resam dan kebolehan-kebolehan
    lain, serta kebiasaan yang diperoleh oleh manusia
    sebagai anggota masyarakatnya."

29
  • Lucy Mair (1965) "milik bersama sesuatu
    masyarakat yang mempunyai tradisi yang
    sama." Horskovit "is a way of life atau satu
    cara hidup."

30
  • Budaya itu adalah satu cara hidup yang merujuk
    kepada tamadun sesuatu masyarakat yang diwarisi
    dan bersifat dinamik. Di samping itu ada
    unsur-unsur menerima dan menolak yang
    dipraktikkan oleh sesuatu masyarakat dalam satu
    keseluruhan kehidupan yang meliputi ilmu
    pengetahuan, kepercayaan, kesenian, kesusilaan,
    adat resam, undang-undang, ekonomi, dan sistem
    simbol yang menjadi milik bersama.

31
SCHEINS definition of culture
  • shared solutions to universal problems of
    external adaptation (how to survive) and internal
    integration (how to stay together) - which have
    evolved over time and are handed down from one
    generation to the next
  • Schein, 1985
  • emic, universal problems where the solution is
    unique for a particular group , etic
  • why do people behave as they do?
  • Basic assumption, WELTANSCHAUUNG

32
DEFINING CULTURE
. the collective programming of the body, mind
and spirit which distinguishes members of one
group (nation, ethnic group, company or category)
of people from another. (born into,
assimilation, acculturation, immersion)(Asmah,
1996)
  • is learned behavior and is transmitted by
    education

33
KEY ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
  • Symbols (Simbol)
  • Rituals (Upacara amal)
  • Heroes (Peranan Ketua/Wira)
  • Values (Nilai)
  • Underlying Assumptions (Andaian Dasar)

34
ICEBERG
35
THE ICEBERG ANALOGY OF CULTURE
Conscious
Seen, Explicit
Symbols, Rituals and heroes
Delights
Unconscious
Unseen, Implicit
Puzzles and Irritations
Values and Underlying Assumptions
36
The tree analogy
Conscious Symbols, rituals and role models
The roots Akar umbi
Unconscious Values and Underlying assumptions
37
1. SYMBOLS
38
2. RITUALS
39
3. HEROES
Lim Goh Tong
40
KEY ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
SYMBOLS What we can see and hearlanguage,
objects, jargon, objects, ways of dressing
RITUALS How do we do thingsmeetings, celebrations
ROLE MODELS
Who are our heroes/heroines
VALUES What we believe in.. shoulds, oughts,
and musts inferred from our
behaviours
PRACTICES Overt behaviors to demonstrate values
PRACTICES Overt behaviors to demonstrate
values

UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS ways of perceiving,
thinking and evaluating the world around us

41
4. VALUES
  • Ex
  • Harmony, Family centeredness
  • Respect for elders, Polite behavior
  • Humility, Religious, Prosperity
  • Hardwork, Shame, Wealth, Risk taking,
  • Champion of causes, Teamwork

42
5. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION
  • We
  • Harmony
  • Relationship
  • Hierarchy
  • Shame
  • High context communication
  • Polychronic time orientation
  • Religious/Spritual

43
LINKING KEY ELEMENT OF CULTURE
SAFETY (VALUE)
WEALTH, philanthropy (VALUE)
44
KEY ELEMENTS OF CULTURE Malay
Symbols Malay house, verandah. color green,
salam, songkok, selendang, keris. Kiss hand of
elders Rituals Greetings, salutations, praying
slaughtering/halal food, eating with fingers,
Open House for Hari Raya, adat formalities
protocol Heroes Penghulus, Imam, village
elders, Dr Mahathir Mohamed, Values
Harmony, Family centeredness, Respect for
elders, Polite behavior, Humility, Modesty,
Showing gratitude, Religious Underlying
assumptions Mans relationship with Nature
Eco-friendly, harmony with others Mans
relationship with people Relationship
orientation, Group oriented,
Shame driven,
Hierarchical Mans relationship with God
Belief in both acquired and revealed knowledge

45
KEY ELEMENTS OF CULTURE Chinese
Symbols Fengshui, Red color, Dragon, Tiger,
Lantern, Expensive cars Rituals Tea ceremony,
Lion dance, Cheng beng ceremony,
Joystick praying, Reunion
dinners Heroes Confucius, scholars, Educators,
Sun Tzu, businesspersons, Parents Values
Education, Prosperity, Harmony,
Family centeredness, Respect for elders,
Hardwork, Shame,
Wealth, Face saving, Food , Risk
taking Underlying assumptions Mans
relationship with Nature Harmony driven Mans
relationship with people Relationship
orientation, Mans relationship with God
Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism

46
KEY ELEMENTS OF CULTURE Indians
Symbols Banana leaf, coconut leaves, sarees,
pottu, kolam Rituals Offering garlands, chewing
beetle leaves, bangle ceremony Heroes Parents,
film stars, spiritual figures, teachers, union
leaders Values God fearing,
Spirituality, Harmony, Family centeredness,
Respect for elders, Hardwork, Champion of
causes Underlying assumptions Mans
relationship with Nature Harmony
driven Mans relationship with people
Relationship orientation, Hierarchical Mans
relationship with God Karma, Hinduism

47
KEY ELEMENTS OF CULTURE Americans
Symbols Eagle - freedom, strength,
individuality, Flag. Big Mac, Disney,
Coke Rituals Holidays. Independence Day, Thanks
giving, Going to Church on Sundays Heroes Foun
ding fathers, Martin Luther King, Athletes,
Entertainers Values Task orientation,
Individualism, Punctuality, Money,
Privacy, Competitiveness, Underlying
assumptions Mans relationship with Nature
Control, Mastery Mans relationship with people
Individualism, Task driven, Monochronic time,
Low context, Guilt, Equality Mans
relationship with God Secular

48
CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN UNDERSTANDING MALAYSIANS
Anglos
Malaysians
_at_asma
n 1000
49
Part 4 Key concepts and theories in the field of
cross cultural/multicultural mgt.
Globalization Guilt Harmony
Hierarchy Homogeneity Indigenization
Individualism Industrialization
Ingroup-outgroup Intercultural Internalization I
ntracultural Locus of control
Localization Modernity Modernization
Monochronic time Multicultural Particularism Po
lychronic time Power distance
Accommodation Acculturation Affirmative
action Assimilation Assumptions Attribution
theory Collectivism Colonization Consensus
Context Low/ High Control Corporate Cross
cultural Culture Diversity
Egalitarian Emic-Etic Ethnocentricism Face
saving
Related self Relationship orientation Rituals Ro
le models/heroes Secular Sensitivity Separate
d self Shame Socialization Symbolic
conformity Symbols Task orientation Uncertain
ty avoidance Universalism Values Westernizat
ion
50
Terima Kasih

Tashakour (Mammnoun Merci )
Xie Xie
mamnon
Nandree
Shukran
Thank You
_at_asma
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