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Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration

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Title: Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration


1
Migration trends in Lithuania issues of
monitoring and migrant integration
  • Karolis Žibas
  • Centre of Ethnic Studies
  • Institute for Social Research (Vilnius,
    Lithuania)
  • www.ces.lt
  • 2008 04 24

2
  • Migration trends in Lithuania
  • issues of monitoring and migrant integration
  • I. Migration trends statistics, tendencies and
    sectoral analysis of labour immigration
  • II. Social actors and process of migration policy
    formation
  • III. Migrant integration overview and comparison
    of integration measures of labour migrants and
    refugees.

3
  • I. MIGRATION TRENDS STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND
    SECTORAL ANALYSIS
  • (Source Migration Department under the Ministry
    of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania and
    Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour
    Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and
    Labour)
  • In 2006, 7745 persons immigrated to Lithuania,
    which is by almost a thousand more than in 2005.
  • In comparison with total immigration netto it is
    noticeable that labour immigration is becoming
    progressively intense

4
  • I. MIGRATION TRENDS STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND
    SECTORAL ANALYSIS
  • (Source Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian
    Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social
    Security and Labour)
  • Gender and migration a comparison of total and
    labour immigration by sex in 2006

5
  • I. MIGRATION TRENDS STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND
    SECTORAL ANALYSIS
  • (Source Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian
    Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social
    Security and Labour)
  • Immigration by nationality
  • In 2006 most persons (5.5 thousand, or 71.1
    percent) who arrived to Lithuania were citizens
    of the Republic of Lithuania. Almost 70 per cent
    of returning citizens of the Republic of
    Lithuania were aged under 35. The main countries
    of immigration are Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

6
  • I. MIGRATION TRENDS STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND
    SECTORAL ANALYSIS
  • (Source Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the
    Ministry of Social Security and Labour)
  • The main countries of labour immigration remain
    Belarus and Ukraine

7
  • SECTORAL ANALYSIS OF LABOUR IMMIGRATION
  • (Source Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the
    Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

8
  • REFUGEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA
  • (Source Migration Department under the Ministry
    of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania)

Year Geneva convention status granted Humanitarian status granted Negative
1997 6 - 53
1998 28 - 116
1999 11 - 171
2000 15 80 113
2001 3 266 58
2002 1 287 37
2003 3 485 56
2004 12 407 50
2005 15 328 30
2006 12 385 29
Total 106 2238 713
9
  • II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
    FORMATION
  • Main documents regulating migration policy
  • I. Law on the Legal Status of Aliens (last
    amendment on February 2008) regulates
  • 1. Issues concerning the arrival and departure
    of foreigners
  • 2. Temporary and permanent residence, work,
    legal responsibilities, and other issues
    concerning the legal status of aliens in the
    Republic of Lithuania
  • 3. Defines the status of refugees or persons
    that are given other forms of protection
  • 4. Defines the issues of family reunification,
    etc.
  • II. Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration
    (2007)
  • Main objectives
  • 1. To formulate long-term regulation measures of
    economic migration
  • 2. To regulate factors, which stimulate economic
    migration in order to assure match between labour
    force demand and supply
  • 3. To invoke workers from third countries with
    taking into consideration remigration process and
    giving priority to EU citizens
  • 4. To maintain close relations with Lithuanians
    (economic migrants) and Lithuanian communities
    living abroad
  • 5. To ensure effective institutional cooperation
    regarding issues of economic migration.

10
  • II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
    FORMATION
  • Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration
    (2007)
  • Main social actors
  • 1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • 2. Ministry of Social Security and Labour
  • 3. Ministry of Interior
  • 4. Ministry of Finances
  • 5. Social partners
  • International Organization for Migration
    (Section in Vilnius)
  • Trade-unions
  • Employers
  • Academics
  • Companies, which activities are concerned in
    bringing foreign labour force from third
    countries
  • etc.

11
II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
FORMATION
Mass emigration Population ageing One of the
biggest death-rate in EU
Complex of demographic problems Big impact on
the structure of labour market (labour force
shortage)
Corporate sectors pressure (or demands) for
liberal laws allowing labour migrants from third
countries to work in the Republic of
Lithuania ? Influence on the structure of
Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration and
other policy implementations ? Immigration flows
/ integration measures / selectively open
migration policy
12
  • II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
    FORMATION
  • Result of corporate pressure to liberalize labour
    force import from third countries
  • 1. The administrative process to employ foreign
    workers from third countries was facilitated.
  • Considering recent debates and suggestions for
    economic migration policy, there should be more
    amendments allowing third countries nationals to
    enter the Republic of Lithuania more easily.
    Among them
  • 1. Amendment of the Law on Legal status of
    Aliens family reunion
  • 2. Integration tax, which could be paid by
    employers
  • 3. Restructuring of conditions for the issue of
    work permits for foreigners.

13
  • II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
    FORMATION Societal attitudes
  • (Source Centre of Ethnic Studies at the
    Institute for Social Research, 2007)

14
  • II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
    FORMATION
  • Societal attitudes
  • (Source Centre of Ethnic Studies at the
    Institute for Social Research, 2008)

80,7
6
13,3
60,6
32,8
6,6
56,6
36,1
7,2
15
  • II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
    FORMATION
  • Societal attitudes
  • (Source Centre of Ethnic Studies at the
    Institute for Social Research, 2008)

46,9
42,6
10,5
62,1
30,5
7,5
Agree, tend to agree
Disagree, tend to disagree
Has no opinion
16
  • II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY
    FORMATION
  • Media response
  • Headlines design single-sided (negative) attitude
    towards labour migrants and immigration in
    general.
  • For instance
  • Flood of migrants
  • Migrants overflow
  • Immigration a bomb of delayed-action
  • Lithuanians are becoming minority, etc.

17
  • III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION
  • Measures and policies of minority integration
  • 1. Minority integration programmes (Sunday
    schools, non-governmental organisations of
    corresponding communities, etc.)
  • 2. Education for children and adults equalizing
    courses (special grades (or classes) for pupils
    and adults who come from different backgrounds
    and need certain time to adjust)
  • 3. Schools with minority languages (network of
    secondary schools where teaching is carried out
    in minority languages Russian and Polish)
  • 4. The infrastructure of refugee social
    integration (language courses, vocational
    training, courses on Lithuanian culture and
    traditions as well as well developed
    infrastructure on implementing refugee social
    integration).

18
  • III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION
  • The infrastructure of refugee social integration
  • In 2005 Lithuania received more than 1,9
    millions LTL from European Refugee Fund for
    Refugee Social Integration Programme
  • Main elements of social integration
  • 1. Language courses
  • 2. Vocational training
  • 3. Courses on Lithuanian culture and traditions,
    etc.
  • Partners and production of social integration
  • 1. At least 23 institutions (governmental and
    NGOs)
  • 2. Range of various projects and researches on
    integration issue every year and a lot more.
  • Financial recourses
  • 1. EU
  • 2. Government.

19
  • Thank you
  • Questions?
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