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Program planning

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Title: Program planning


1
a guide to
Program planning proposal writing
2
Program Planning
3
Why is program planning
Important?
Well designed programs are about what happens
beneath the surface.
Implementation Evaluation Desi
gn Planning Planning bridges the current
situation and our vision of the future.

4
The program planning process
Involves
?building partnerships ?acknowledging strengths,
need and gaps ? research ? developing a
roadmap ? finding support ? making decisions
5
Successful program planning happens when there
is
?shared vision ? long-term commitment ?
leadership ?resources ? support ? realistic
assessment ?desire to build on the past ?
team approach ? strong commitment ?time to plan ?
time to evaluate
6
Successful program planning involves
Asking questions!
?Who are we working with? ? Where are we at? ?
Where do we want to go? ? How will we get
there? ? What do we need to make it happen? ? How
will we know were arrived?
7
Who are we working with?
Developing Partnerships
There is no power for change greater than a
community discovering what it cares about.
(Wheatly, 2002) Partnerships are agreements
between those who share
?goals ? resources ? risk ?accountability ?
success
8
Who are we working with?
Dos Don'ts
In partnership building
Do ? begin early ? talk openly and clearly
about goals ? develop a climate of trust ?
involve the learners where possible ? set up
partnership agreements ? be positive
9
Who are we working with?
Dos Don'ts
In partnership building
Dont ?commit someone in writing without
talking it through ? make assumptions about
contributions ? allow internal conflict or hidden
agendas to derail the overall goals
10
Who are we working with?
Your task
Partnership brainstorm
Refer to Activity Sheet 1
11
Where are we at?
Needs Assessment

? is a formal process ? identifies existing
services, needs and gaps. ? builds inventory of
community strengths and needs ? gives a complete
picture
12
Where are we at?
Your task
Draw a Community Map
Refer to Activity Sheet 2
13
Where do we want to go?
Your vision

In addition to ?applying techniques ?
guidelines ? suggestions ?checklists ? how-tos ?
steps How about ?posing questions ? thinking
about the political and ethical factors
involved with planning.
14
Warning!
Planning can be messy - and creative!
But if we suppress the messiness at the
beginning, it will find us later on, and then it
will be disruptive. (Wheatley, 2002)
15
where do we want to go?
Your task
Project vision
Refer to Activity Sheet 3.
16
How will we get there?
Goals Objectives
  • ?Goals
  • Are broad statements that explain the overall
    purpose
  • Answer the question, why are we doing this?
  • Objectives stem from goals

17
How will we get there?
Goals Objectives
  • ? Objectives
  • focus on expected project results and
    anticipated changes
  • often use the words To increase, to reduce
    etc.
  • are measurable

18
How will we get there?
Examples
Goal To increase business and industrys
awareness of literacy. Objective To develop
an informational brochure about workplace
literacy.
19
How will we get there?
Your task
Write out your goals objectives
Refer to Activity Sheet 4
20
What do we need to get there?
Time resources
A solid program plan requires ?a list of
activities ? within a realistic timeframe ?
using available resources
21
What do we need to get there?
Time resources
Available resources include ?staff ? staff
training ? supplies ? facilities ? equipment ?
travel/transportation ?childcare ? publicity
22
What do we need to get there?
Your task
Identify activities, timeframe and resources
Refer to Activity Sheet 5
23
Are we there yet?
Program results
Each objective must have a result. ?results
indicate success ? results describe outcomes and
benefits ? results answer the question, If we do
this successfully, what would that look like?
24
Are we there yet?
Program results
?expected results are often your objectives
reworded. (Will increase becomes
increased) ?describes outputs materials,
workshops, specific services provided, reports
to be produced and distribution plan, if
applicable ? describes outcomes and impact
(short and long term products and effect on
community)
25
Are we there yet?
Program results
S M A R T Outcomes and Impacts ?Specific
?Measurable ? Action-orient ?Realistic
?Timed
26
Are we there yet?
Your task
Identify Intended Results
Refer to Activity Sheet 6
27
How will we know weve arrived?
Evaluation
Evaluations collect indicators of program
success, and state whether objectives were met.
28
How will we know weve arrived?
Evaluation
Good evaluation means asking good questions
?How will you demonstrate that the objectives
of the project have been met? ?What are the
success indicators? ? When and how will you
collect both the formal and the informal data?
29
How will we know weve arrived?
Evaluation
  • Two types of evaluation
  • ?Formative
  • collected before and during program
  • focuses on improving as you go
  • helps form the program and modify along the
    way
  • ?Summative
  • collected at or near the programs end
  • focuses on proving success
  • helps summarize the programs effectiveness

30
How will we collect the data?
Evaluation
Examples of instruments and techniques ?
organizational/community records
?tests ?follow-up forms ?personal
interviews ?registration forms ? evaluation
questionnaires ?external documents/records
? interview guides ?worker journals ?documented
observations ? anecdotals/quotes
?self-assessment ?performance reviews ?
portfolios ? focus groups
31
Where will you collect the data?
Evaluation
Possible data collection sites ? Program
site ?In the community ?Where else?
32
From whom will you collect?
Evaluation
Possible data providers ?
Participants ?Community members ?Facilitators ?
Anyone else?
33
Who will do the collecting?
Evaluation
  • ? Evaluation takes time choose someone who has
    the time it takes
  • ? Also consider
  • experience
  • knowledge of program
  • knowledge of community (strengths,
    challenges)
  • knowledge of need
  • acceptance within community
  • other factors, depending on data collection

34
How the results improve programs?
Evaluation
? If collecting formative data ?If
collecting summative data
35
How will you communicate the results?
Evaluation
? You will need to report on whether your
program is successful. How will you know? (What
are your outcomes) ? The Literacy Office (and
other funders) require that you list best
practices and lessons learned. How will you do
this?
36
How will you communicate the results?
Evaluation
Potential reporting options ? written
report ?executive summary ?series of short
reports ? presentation ?electronic sharing
?brochure ?case study report ? oral
sharing/reports ?other
37
How will these results be used?
Evaluation
Reported results are used to ? inform and gain
support ?influence decisions ?document ? market
? demonstrate accountability ?other
38
How will we know weve arrived?
Your task
Plan your program evaluation
Refer to Activity Sheet 7
39
Proposal Writing
40
What is a
Funding proposal?

?an application for dollars to support a
program or project ? if you have invested in
program planning, youll have most of the info
you need
41
The
Proposal writing
process
?identify an idea ? develop a project/program
plan ? research potential funders ?contact
potential funder ? write the proposal
42
preparing to
write
the proposal
?plan the project first ? budget time for writing
and gathering supporting documents ? contact
potential funder early ?read their guidelines
carefully ? follow their guidelines fully
43
Parts of a
Proposal
?cover letter ? goals objectives ? title
page ? action plan ? introduction ? expected
results ?rationale ? evaluation
plan ?supporting documents ? budget
44
Parts of a proposal
Cover Letter
Introduces the funder to the project.
?provides a short project description ? is
correctly signed, correctly addressed ? briefly
states why this project is important ?briefly
states why your organization is best suited to
do the work
45
Parts of a proposal
Title page
Is clear, unambiguous and short.
?contact information of primary project
contact ? organizations contact information ?
project title ?start and finish dates ? specifics
provided by funder
46
Parts of a proposal
Introduction
Answers the following questions
?Who are we? ? What do we do? ? Who do we do
this for? ?What do we want to do? ? What have we
done in the past? ? Why are we the best to do
this?
47
Parts of a proposal
Introduction
TIPS
  • ?try writing the summary/intro at the end of the
    process
  • ? show how your project fits with the
    Saskatchewan Literacy Benchmarks
  • ? make sure yours answers
  • Is anyone else doing this work?
  • Are there potential partnerships?
  • How is our project different from ones
    similar?

48
Parts of a proposal
Rationale
Or, the statement of need.
?clearly states the need ? describes who will
benefit, and for how long ? shows that your
organization provides a solution to the
challenge.
49
Parts of a proposal
Rationale
Refers to supporting documentation, such as
?census data ? consultation documents ?
research reports ? reliable stats ? public
records/documents ? service use records (wait
lists, etc.) ?info from surveys, questionnaires,
etc. ? info gathered at a community forum ?
other
50
Parts of a proposal
Goals Objectives
Remember
  • Goals
  • are broad statements that explain the overall
    purpose
  • answer the question, why are we doing this?
  • objectives stem from goal

51
Parts of a proposal
Goals Objectives
Remember
  • Objectives
  • focus on expected project results and
    anticipated changes
  • often use the words To increase, to reduce
    etc.
  • are measurable

52
How will we know weve arrived?
Your task
Rework your program/project goals and objectives
Refer back to Activity Sheet 4
53
Parts of a proposal
Action Plan
The activities that achieve the goals objectives
Proposed activities ? naturally address
challenges ? are clearly and sequentially
described ? are realistic
54
How will we know weve arrived?
Your task
Rework your activities, timeframe and resources
Refer back to Activity Sheet 5
55
Parts of a proposal
Expected Results
How we know our objectives were met
Results ? describe outcomes and benefits ?
answer the question, What would success look
like? ? are often your objectives reworded.
(will increase becomes increased)
56
Parts of a proposal
Expected Results
How we know our objectives were met
Results ?describe outputs materials,
workshops, specific services provided, reports
to be produced and distribution plan, if
applicable ? describe outcomes and impact
(short and long term)
57
Are we there yet?
Program results
S M A R T Outcomes and Impacts ?Specific
?Measurable ? Action-orient ?Realistic
?Timed
58
How will we know weve arrived?
Your task
Rework your intended results worksheet
Refer back to Activity Sheet 6
59
Parts of a proposal
Evaluation Plan
How we indicate success
Evaluations collect indicators of program
success, and state whether objectives were met.
60
Parts of a proposal
Evaluation Plan
How we indicate success
Good evaluation techniques require good
questions ?How will you demonstrate that the
objectives of the project have been met? ?What
are the success indicators? ? When and how will
you collect both the formal and the informal data?
61
Where are we at?
Your task
Rework your program evaluation worksheet
Refer to Activity Sheet 7
62
Parts of a proposal
Supporting Documents
potentially including
? organizational contact info ? recent
financials ? charitable number ? letters of
support ? pertinent pamphlets, etc. ?
dissemination plan ? timeline ?evaluation
instruments ? key staff resumes ?awards ?subcontra
ctor info ? schedules ?definition of terms
?figures, tables, stats, etc.
63
Parts of a proposal
Budget
How much, how used
Having a clear, understandable budget makes it
easy for funders to know how you intend to use
the funds to reach your goals.
64
Parts of a proposal
Budget
?is the financial plan based on the program
goals ? is the bridge between the money and the
work ? is an exact reflection of what is
described in the action plan ? helps funders
understand specific costs ? holds no
surprises ?is sufficient to perform the
activities outlined
65
A
Budget
Includes.
?all items asked of the funding source ?all
items paid for by other sources ? reasonable
admin costs (about 10 15) ?a clear statement
of all in-kind donations
66

The
Detailed Budget
Itemizes all income and expenses
67

The
Detailed Budget
Suggested income categories
? contributed Income ?contributions from your
organization ? income generated by the
project ? other income sources ?funds requested
from funders ? funds expected from other
funders
68

A word about
In-Kind contributions

? always attach a dollar figure ?ensure this
dollar figure matches requested amount ? express
volunteer contributions in dollars/hour ? include
all costs for services provided (Portions of
rent, utilities, equipment use, accounting,
etc.) ? have a partnership agency provide in-kind
commitments in writing
69

More words about
In-Kind contributions

? overhead To estimate project share of overhead
expenses, determine what percentage the project
represents in total organizational
budget ?space Get a realtors estimate on cost
of office space you use for free ? volunteer
time of meetings x of individuals x
15.75/hour ? include staff hours,
consultation, equipment, typing, copying,
filing, accounting, and portions of rent
70

The
Detailed Budget
Suggested expense categories
? Rent ?Utilities ? Salaries/benefits ?
Travel/subsistence ?Honoraria/professional
fees/contracts ?Professional development related
to the project ?Publicity/advertizing ? Printing
of materials developed in the project ?
Distribution of above materials ?Equipment
rental ? Resources to purchase for project ?
Audit ?Insurance ?Other postage, mail, courier,
telephone, internet, office supplies, etc.
71

A word about
Overhead expenses

Be sure to determine how much of your overhead
will be used to run the proposed project. Be
reasonable and realistic about what it will cost
to run your office.
72
Your task
Develop a detailed budget
Refer to your Detailed Budget Worksheet
73

Budget Notes

? are written explanations that accompany the
detailed budget when required.
74

Budget Summary

? is often a required accompaniment to a
detailed budget ?allows funders to compare
multiple applications quickly
75
Your task
Work through budget formats
Refer to your Budget Summary and Budget
Worksheet
76

Sustainability Planning
Preparing for the future
? is a specific plan for obtaining future
funding for continued projects ?describes how
other funds will be obtained ? describes
fundraising plans ? shows that the program will
not rely solely on grants over time ?describes
the effect on the project if other funds are not
obtained
77

Sustainability Planning
TIPS
? dont rely on future funding from the same
source ?prepare a Plan B accompanied by
letters of commitment to future funding from
other sources
78

Proposal Evaluation
Preparing for the future
Have your proposal read/edited by someone
familiar with your agency. Have someone outside
of your sector to read the proposal, if you can.
79

Proposal Evaluation
CHECKLIST
? is your writing to the point easy to read? ?
is your proposal well organized? ? does the first
sentence of each paragraph introduce the idea? ?
are sentences short? ? have you avoided
clichés? ? have you used plain language and
avoided acronyms? ? have you checked for
grammatical errors? ? have you defined all terms
used?
80

Proposal Writing
BE SURE TO
? make early contact with funder ? read
guidelines carefully, follow closely ? include
all requested documentation ? be realistic ?
provide concrete supporting evidence ? be
concise, positive and specific ? use point form
for lists ? use footnotes, not end notes ? be
sure your budget adds up and is clear ? Call the
funder with any questions!
81

Proposal Writing
AVOID
? generalities or emotional language ? calling
attention to past mistakes ? using acronyms
(SLN, SLC, CSTD, etc.) ? using technical
language or jargon ? using personal pronouns
(we, us, I, etc.) ? using contractions (cant,
wont) ? including more appendices than
requested
82
Questions?

Connie Jones Adult Literacy Coordinator Saskatchew
an Literacy Network 1-888-511-2111 1-306-651-7286
Connie.jones_at_sasktel.net
83

Sources
? NWT Literacy Council www.nwt.literacy.ca ?Plann
ing Educational Programs (2000), Thomas Sork ?The
Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education Logic
Model Development Guide (2001), W. K. Kellogg
Foundation, www.wkkf.org ? Caffarella, Rosemary
(2002). Planning Programs for Adult Learners. San
Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass. ?The Components of
Proposal Writing, prepared by the National
Literacy Secretariat, Human Resources Development
Canada ?Kiritz, Norton (1980), Program Planning
and Proposal Writing, Los Angeles, CA
Grantsmanship Centre, 48 p. www.tgci.com ?
Leblanc, Linda (1996) Writing a Proposal a step
by step guide. Edmonton, AB Literacy Services of
Canada, Ltd. ?Levine, S. Joseph, Ph.D. (December
2001) Guide for Writing a Funding Proposal.
Michigan State University. www.learnerassociates.
net/proposal/ ?Rognier, Libby (1994) Guide for
Writing a Funding Proposal. Technology in
Education. ? Brown, Larissa Golden John (2001)
Demystifying Grant Seeking. San Francisco, CA
Jossey-Bass.
84

Additional Resources
? Bauer, G. David (1999), The How To Grants
Manual Successful Grantseeking Techniques for
Obtaining Public and Private Grants, Fourth
Edition. Phoenix, AZ Oryx Press. ?Bohnen,
Elizabeth (1988), Effective Proposal Development
A How-To manual for Skills Training Programs.
Toronto, ON Ministry of Skills
Development. ?Carlson, Mimi (1995), Winning
Grants Step by Step Support Centers of
Americans Complete Workbook for Planning,
Developing and Writing Successful Proposals. San
Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass. www.josseybass.com ?
Conrad, Daniel (1980), The Quick Proposal
Workbook. San Francisco, CA Public Management
Institute. ?Foundation Centre, A Proposal Writing
Short Course, New York, NY. Available in the
on-line library at the foundation Centres web
site at www.fdncenter.org
85

Additional Resources, contd
?Golden, Susan L. (1997), Secrets of Successful
Grantsmanship A Guerilla Guide to Raising Money.
San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass.
www.josseybass.com ? Gooch, Judith Mirick
(1987), Writing Winning Proposals. Washington,
DC Council for the Advancement and Support of
Education. ?Hall, Mary. (1988 3rd ed.), Getting
Funded A Complete Guide to Proposal Writing.
Portland, OR Continuing Education
Publications. ?Kalish, Susan (1984 3rd ed.),
The Proposal Writers Swipe File 15 Winning
Fundraising Proposals. Detroit, MI Taft Group ?
Locke, Lawrence and Waneen Wyrick Spirduso
(1999), Proposals that Work A Guide for Planning
Dissertation and Grant Proposals. Walnut Creek,
CA AltaMira Press.
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