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THE INCLUSION PARADIGM The Key to Organizational Performance

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Title: THE INCLUSION PARADIGM The Key to Organizational Performance


1
THE INCLUSION PARADIGM The Key to Organizational
Performance
  • Presented by
  • Georgia Coffey
  • Deputy Assistant Secretary for Diversity and
    Inclusion
  • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

2
The Context
  • Federal government is one of the most diverse
    environments in American society in terms of
    race, ethnicity, and gender (REG), yet we still
    have barriers to equal opportunity. Despite our
    diversity, we maintain a largely homogeneous
    mindset which maintains barriers and creates
    cognitive dissonance, conflict, and flawed
    decision-making.
  • Defining diversity solely in terms of REG has a
    detrimental effect. To gain full acceptance, we
    must define diversity broadly to include all that
    makes us unique, including the diversity of
    thought. Only then will we realize the
    performance advantages that diversity offers.
  • Stella M. Nkomo. Identities and the
    Complexities of Diversity, in Susan Jackson and
    Marian Ruderman (eds.), Diversity in Work Teams
    Research Paradigms for a Changing Workplace, 1999

3
The Facts
  • By 2042, there will be no single demographic
    majority
  • By 2050, 1 in 5 people living in the US will be
    Hispanic
  • New entrants to the labor market will dominate
    the work-scape.
  • Currently 4 generations in the workplace soon to
    be 5.
  • Disabilities affect 20 of all Americans.
  • Women earn the majority of college degrees
    awarded in U.S.
  • There are an estimated 9 million LGBT individuals
    in the U.S.
  • 1 in 5 workers have experienced discrimination at
    work.
  • lt 50 of employees who experience discrimination
    will stay
  • Attrition costs 150 of employees salary and
    lost productivity.
  • Inclusive organizations have high employee
    engagement, which yields higher organizational
    performance.
  • References US Census Bureau The Gallup
    Organization. Employee Discrimination in the
    Workplace, Public Opinion Poll. December 8, 2005
    Sirota Survey Diversity Research Network, 2002
    Nishii, 2010.

4
The Challenge
  • Diversity and inclusion must be the cornerstones
    of our talent management strategy and our
    business processes.
  • Inclusion holds the key to organizational
    performance diversity without inclusion, will
    not work.

5
Historical Perspective
Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion Civil Rights to Full Inclusion
Inclusion Inclusion Inclusion
Managing Diversity Managing Diversity Managing Diversity Managing Diversity Managing Diversity
Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity
Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity
Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Affirmative Action
Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Movement
Melting Pot (Assimilation) Melting Pot (Assimilation) Melting Pot (Assimilation) Melting Pot (Assimilation) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance) Salad Bowl Inclusion (Multiculturalism) (Process Performance)
ltltlt 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 gtgtgt
6
Core Understanding
EEO refers to the laws, regulations, and policies that guarantee our rights to equal opportunity in terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.
Inclusion is leveraging the diversity in our workforce to achieve full participation and optimum performance it is about empowerment and engagement. In-reach focused.
Diversity is all the ways in which we are similar and all the ways in which we differ." Outreach-focused -- Dr R. Roosevelt Thomas, Jr.
7
Defining Diversity The full spectrum of human
differences and similarities, including immutable
and mutable characteristics yielding unique
perspectives.
Reprinted with permission from Loden Associates..

8
Defining Inclusion
  • Inclusion is the process of leveraging
    individuals diverse talent, not in spite of
    their differences, but because of them.
  • Inclusion requires a deliberate strategy to
    empower all human resources to engage them in the
    fabric and mission of the organization.

9
What does the research show?
  • Diversity Research Network
  • Workforce diversity is positively associated with
    higher business performance outcomes.
  • Racial diversity is positively associated with
    higher performance in organizations that
    integrate and leverage diverse perspectives.
  • Gender diversity is positively associated with
    more effective group processes and performance in
    organizations with (inclusive) people-oriented
    performance cultures.
  • Center for Creative Leadership
  • Diverse teams are more creative and perform
    better in problem solving than homogeneous teams.
  • Diversity in workforce and processes results in
    better decision-making.
  • The effects of diversity are highly dependent on
    the presence of facilitating or inhibiting
    conditions in the organization absent
    facilitating conditions (inclusion) the
    aforementioned outcomes are reversed.
  • Conclusion Diversity without Inclusion will not
    work
  • The Effects of Diversity on Business
    Performance Report of the Diversity Research
    Network, October 2002.

10
The flip side
  • UNC Business School
  • Workplace conflict results in 22-53 lost
    productivity.
  • EEOC
  • Average EEO complaint costs approximately 60,000
    (administrative process) up to 250,000
    (including settlement/damages).
  • 25-40 of workforce attrition rate and 5-20 in
    lost productivity can be attributed to poor
    diversity management turnover costs 75-150 of
    the replaced employees salary.
  • Conclusion There is a positive ROI for
    Diversity Inclusion.

11
Systems that Influence Organizational Inclusion
Changing an organizational culture requires
re-engineering business processes and
deconstructing silos. True inclusion will drive
employee engagement which increases
organizational performance
Source From Diversity to Inclusion. Katharine
Esty, PhD. Northeast Human Resources
Association. April 30, 2007
12
Current State of Government
  • The Bureaucratic Model
  • Hierarchical
  • Chain of Command
  • Controlled Communications need to know basis
  • Linear business processes
  • Self-reinforcing maintenance of status-quo
  • Convergent thinking and decision-making
  • Heroic Leadership and Accountability
  • David Bradford and Allen Cohen, Power Up
    Transforming Organizations through Shared
    Leadership. Wiley Sons, New York, 1998.

13
MASLOWS HIERARCHY - HEROIC LEADERSHIP MODEL
14
Desired End State
  • The Inclusive Model
  • Flattened organizations
  • Empowered contributors
  • Continual, transparent communications knowledge
    is empowering
  • Matrix Management
  • Innovation and creativity rewarded constructive
    conflict
  • Divergent Thinking open-ended decision process
  • Shared Leadership and Accountability
  • David Bradford and Allen Cohen, Power Up
    Transforming Organizations through Shared
    Leadership. Wiley Sons, New York, 1998

15
FLIP THE PYRAMID! INCLUSIVE/SHARED LEADERSHIP
MODEL
16
How do we get there?
  • Inclusion Engagement Performance
  • Self-examination Education
  • Process Reengineering
  • Metrics
  • Communication Reinforcement

17
Check your mindset
  • Leadership
  • Recognize your unconscious bias (Harvard Implicit
    Analysis Test)
  • Challenge assumptions reduce confirmation bias
  • Open mind to new, untested notions consider
    alternative
  • Power and accountability must flow down flip
    the pyramid
  • Sharing power does not abdicating responsibility
  • Understand true motivators autonomy, mastery,
    purpose
  • Employees
  • Invest, own, and lead
  • Connect
  • Take risks
  • Dan Pink, RSA Animate-Drive, The Surprising
    Truth About what Motivates Us, April 2010

18
Begin with Cultural Competence Where are you on
the continuum?
POSITIVE
Cultural Proficiency implements change to respond
to cultural needs, do research and teach
Cultural Competence
recognize individual and cultural differences,
seeks advice from diverse groups, hires unbiased
staff
Cultural Pre-competence
explores cultural issues, are committed, assess
needs of organization and individuals
Cultural Blindness
differences ignored, treats everyone the same,
only responds to needs of dominant group
Cultural Incapacity racism, maintains
stereotypes, unfair hiring practices
NEGATIVE
Cultural Destructiveness forced assimilation,
subjugation, rights and privileges for dominant
groups only
19
Business Process Reengineering
  • Knock down walls
  • Review current processes identify barriers to
    input
  • Design processes to yield more than one solution
  • Use interdisciplinary teams encourage divergent
    thought
  • De-construct silos employ matrix management
  • Practice 360 Communication cont. learning
  • Dont fear creative tension constructive
    conflict
  • Align rewards systems accordingly ensure
    fairness

20
How do we know we are there?
  • The VA Diversity Inclusion Indices
  • Standardized metrics for
  • Workforce diversity
  • Workplace inclusion
  • Organizational performance

21
Diversity Index

A measure of workforce diversity based on the
convergence of the representation of each
demographic group in the organization (by race,
ethnicity, gender) with the relevant/civilian
labor force (R/CLF). The Diversity Index is
derived by the ratio of the workforce
distribution to its corresponding R/CLF, up to a
value of 100.

22
VA Diversity Index Sample
Ratio of VA workforce representation to
corresponding RCLF
Capped at 1.0 or 100
Representation Indices capped at 100 (Blowup of
previous chart with the ratio cap)
Current (FY 2012, Dec) VA Diversity Index based
on CLF 87.44 Current (FY 2012, Dec) VA
Diversity Index based on RCLF 96.75
91
23
VA Diversity Index FY 2003 to FY 2012 (Dec) based
on CLF
Prior to 2009 the Asian and Native Hawaiian and
Pacific Islanders population were combined into
a single category.
24
Inclusion Index
  • The Inclusion Index is a single measure of
    organizational inclusion based on employee
    responses to select Federal Employee Viewpoint
    Survey (FEVS) items.
  • 20 FEVS items were linked to six empirically
    validated dimensions of inclusion, based on
    multiple factor analyses and literature research.
  • Favorable responses (i.e. agree, strongly agree)
    on survey items were averaged to yield Inclusion
    Index.
  • Can be computed at
  • Agency level
  • Sub-agency level
  • Occupational grouping

25
Approach
  • In partnership with Office of Personnel
    Management, VA performed factor analysis of FEVS
    survey items which yielded clusters of
    homogeneous items.
  • SMEs conducted review of research literature in
    the area of organizational inclusion to identify
    six empirically validated dimensions of inclusion
    (Shore 2011, Nishii 2010, April Blass 2010).
  • Performed 2nd factor analysis to validate
    proposed dimensions of inclusion and identify the
    highest correlated/most appropriate items for
    each dimension.

26
DIMENSIONS OF INCLUSION
  • Fairness of Employment Practices (Rules and
    Procedures)
  • Fairness of Employment Practices (Performance
    Evaluations)
  • Inclusion/Participation in Decision-Making
  • Inclusive Management and Leadership
  • Information Access/Open Communication
  • Integration of Differences

27
FEVS Items Mapped to Dimensions of Inclusion
  • Fairness of Employment Practices (Rules and
    Procedures)
  • Arbitrary action, personal favoritism and
    coersion for partisan political purposes are not
    tolerated. (37)
  • Prohibited Personnel Practices are not tolerated.
    (38)
  • Fairness of Employee Practices (Performance
    Evaluation)
  • In my work unit, steps are taken to deal with a
    poor performer who cannot or will not improve.
    (23)
  • In my work unit, differences in performance are
    recognized in a meaningful way. (24)
  • Awards in my work unit depend on how well
    employees perform their jobs. (25)
  • Inclusion/Participation in Decision Making
  • I have enough information to do my job well. (2)
  • I feel encouraged to come up with new and better
    ways of doing things. (3)
  • My talents are used well in the workplace. (1)
  • Employees have a feeling of personal empowerment
    with respect to work processes. (30)

28
FEVS Items Mapped to Dimensions of Inclusion,
cont.
  • Inclusive Management and Leadership
  • My supervisor supports my need to balance work
    and other life issues. (42)
  • My supervisor/team leader provides me with
    constructive suggestions to improve my job
    performance. (46)
  • My supervisor/team leader listens to what I have
    to say. (48)
  • My supervisor/team leader treats me with respect.
    (49)
  • In the last six months, my supervisor/team leader
    has talked with me about my performance. (50)
  • Information Access and Communication
  • Managers promote communication among different
    work units. (58)
  • Managers support collaboration across work units
    to accomplish work objectives. (59)
  • Integration of Differences
  • Creativity and innovation are rewarded. (32)
  • Policies and programs promote diversity in the
    workplace. (34)
  • My supervisor/team leader is committed to a
    workforce representative of all segments of
    society. (45)
  • Managers/supervisors/team leaders work well with
    employees of different backgrounds. (55)

29
VA INCLUSION INDEX (Notional data)
Inclusion Dimension Favorable Responses Unfavorable Responses No Responses Score
Fairness of Employment Practices (Rules and Procedures) 3089 1850 135 62.54
Fairness of Employment Practices (Performance Evaluation) 3617 3963 31 47.72
Inclusion/Participation in Decision making 6177 3886 85 61.38
Inclusive Management and Leadership 9257 3082 346 75.02
Information Access and Communication 2841 2030 203 58.32
Integration of Differences 5852 4030 266 59.22
INCLUSION INDEX 30,833 18,841 1,066 62.07
30
VA Inclusion strategies
  • Robust, transparent communications (recurring
    in-person meetings, electronic, print, broadcast
    video)
  • Continuous learning, career mapping
  • Mentoring/Coaching/Rotational Assignments
  • DI infused Leadership Development Programs (in
    outreach and curriculum)
  • Cultural Competency/Unconscious Bias Training
  • Conflict Management Training
  • Targeted outreach/Diversity Focused internships
  • Barrier analysis (in recruitment, development,
    work processes)
  • Process Reengineering Matrix Management
  • Mandatory Leadership Accountability Measures
  • METRICS VA Diversity Inclusion Indices

31
LESSONS LEARNED
  • INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY Obstacles leading to
    9/11 intelligence failures included
  • Hardened attitudes against change
  • Insular organizations
  • Resistance to external recommendations
  • Insistence on preserving the status quo
  • SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY Causes that contributed to
    the Columbia shuttle accident included
  • An organizational culture that squelched dissent
    and stifled differences
  • Resistance to external criticism and doubt
  • Imposition of the party line vision(which) led
    to flawed decision-making, self-deception,
    introversion, and diminished curiosity
  • Organizational barriers that prevented open,
    effective communication
  • ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Issues leading to Lehman
    Bros. bankruptcy and economic meltdown
  • Insular organization
  • Narrow decision-making failure to gain broad
    input/perspective
  • Outmoded, embedded cultural habits rigid,
    inflexible culture
  • Misuse of talent
  • A culture that is too strong can also end up too
    rigid and can shut out diversity, especially
    diversity of perspective. Hope Greenfield.
    Culture Crash, The Conference Board Review,
    Fall 2009.

32
What does this mean for Federal govt?
  • Diversity Inclusion yield higher organizational
    performance they business imperatives.
  • Diversity should be broadly defined, including
    but not limited to legally protected groups
    diversity of thought is rooted in our race,
    gender, and ethnicity.
  • Intolerance to diversity breeds disastrous and
    costly results agencies must first guarantee
    equity in the workplace before diversity and
    inclusion can thrive.
  • Diversity Inclusion strategies should be
    infused in business goals and processes.
  • Inclusion drives employee engagement which drives
    performance.
  • Flip the pyramid!

33
SYNERGY FOR A HIGH-PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
High Performance
Equity
Workforce Diversity
Organizational Inclusion
34
  • Presented by
  • Georgia Coffey
  • Deputy Assistant Secretary for Diversity and
    Inclusion
  • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
  • Georgia.coffey_at_VA.Gov
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