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The role of bullying at work in explaining stress and well-being at work

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The role of bullying at work in explaining stress and well-being at work Guy Notelaers1,2 Hans De Witte1 Stale Einarsen3 1: Leuven University, Department of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The role of bullying at work in explaining stress and well-being at work


1
The role of bullying at work in explaining stress
and well-being at work
  • Guy Notelaers1,2
  • Hans De Witte1
  • Stale Einarsen3

1 Leuven University, Department of Psychology,
Research Group on Stress, Health and Well-being,
Belgium 2 DIOVA-DIRACT Federal Government,
Labour Department , Belgium 3 Bergen University,
Department of Psychology, Norway European
Congress Work and Organisational Psychology,
Istanbul, 2005
2
0. Outline
  • Review of current research
  • Data measurement instruments
  • Methodology how to address this issue
  • Results
  • Bivariate analysis of consequences of bullying
  • Multivariate analysis within SEM
  • Discussion

3
1. Review of current research
  • Strains
  • Emotional reactions (Bjorkvist et al., 1994
    Rayner, 1999 Zapf, 1999b),
  • Psychosomatic complaints (Zapf, Knorz Kulla,
    1996, Mikkelsen Einarsen, 2002b  Halama
    Mökkel, Leymann Gustafsson, 1996),
  • Anxiety (Janoff-Bulman, 1992 Bjorkvist et al.,
    1994 Asforth, 1994 Zapf, 199b, OMoore, 1998,
    Mackensen von Astfeld, 2000, Niedl 1996),
  • Recovery need (Hubert, 2001)
  • Quality of sleep (Bjorkvist et al., 1994 Zapf,
    Knorz Kulla, 1996, Leymann Gustafsson, 1996)
  • Disorders
  • General Anxiety Disorder (Leymann Gustafsson,
    1996)
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Leymann
    Gustafsson, 1996 Romanov, et al., 1996
    Bjorkvist, et al., 1994 Einarsen, et al., 1998)
  • Prolonged Stress Disorder (Mikkelsen Einarsen,
    20012002)
  • ?Aim to investigate the relationship between
    bullying at work and strains.

4
2. Data
  • During 2003-2004, 4505 questionnaires were
    collected from 13 companies
  • Average age of respondents 40 years (std
    deviation 12,5).
  • Average tenure is eleven years (std deviation
    10,3).
  • 65 private sector / 35 government or
    government institutions.

5
Educational level Educational level Language Language
Basic school 2.5 Dutch 57
Lower secondary 9.9 French 43
Higher secondary 29
higher education 24
university 28 Working regime Working regime
post graduate 6.9 during the day 81
Shift work 13
Hours work / week Hours work / week irregular service 5
less than 25 hours 5.4 nightshift 0
between 25 hours and 40 63
between 41 and 48 hours 20 contract contract
more than 48 hours 12 fixed 85
temporary 7,2
Other type of contract 5.8

Gender Gender Managerial position Managerial position
female 39 Yes 20
male 61 No 80
6
3. Measurement instruments
  • Stressors and strains the VBBA, a 26
    dimensional, validated questionnaire (van
    Veldhoven Meijman, 1994)
  • Bullying at work the NAQ, (only 17 items),
    validated for French and Dutch speaking
    respondents (Notelaers, et. al, 2004)

7
4. Methodology
  • Bivariate analysis with total scales from the
    VBBA and the total item list of the NAQ
  • Items of the NAQ were not dichomized. Following
    Mikkelsen Einarsen (20012002) we summed the
    items assuming a uni-dimensional measurement
    (the same holds for the VBBA scales)
  • Multivariate analysis within SEM (Lisrel 8.54)
  • For modelling purposes the number of items of the
    NAQ and the VBBA-scales were reduced in LISREL in
    order to obtain unique factors

8
  • Multivariate analysis research strategy
  • Split half design
  • One part to explore a model (exploratory phase)
  • One part to test a model (confirmatory phase)
  • Exploratory analysis
  • Start is the regression model (Notelaers et al.,
    2003, 2004)
  • Interaction between modification indices and
    stress theories to decide on new paths
  • Model evaluation by ??² with ?df (nested models)
    and AIC / CAIC (non nested models)
  • Confirmatory analysis see whether model from
    exploratory analysis fits the data
  • Exact fit evaluation by ?² with a certain number
    of df
  • Approximate fit evaluation by RMSEA

9
5. Results
  • 5.1. Bivariate analysis
  • - correlation analysis
  • - t-test
  • 5.2. Multivariate analysis
  • - full model
  • - antecedents of bullying
  • - consequences of bullying
  • - antecedents and consequences of bullying and
    stress
  • 5.3 Conclusion

10
5.1.1 Bivariate results correlation matrix
bullying at work 1
workload -0,21 1
participation -0,36 0,04 1
role conflict -0,5 0,33 0,32 1
role ambiguity -0,38 0,12 0,49 0,41 1
problems with change at work -0,32 0,33 0,26 0,47 0,34 1
recovery need -0,31 0,44 0,21 0,32 0,22 0,3 1
worrying -0,24 0,35 0,03 0,22 0,13 0,24 0,48 1
sleep quality -0,31 0,25 0,23 0,25 0,19 0,22 0,54 0,44
11
5.1.2 Bivariate results t-test
SYMP-TOMS OF STRESS
ANTE- CE-DENTS OF STRESSAND BULLY-ING
12
Conclusion bivariate analysis
  • Moderate strength of the relationship between
    bullying and its antecedents and consequences
  • Victims of bullying (operational criterion)
    report a negative work environment and also an
    elevated level of strains (LCA approaches show
    -1 STD)

13
5.2 Multivariate analysis
  • Full model
  • Fragmentation of the model
  • Antecedents
  • Consequences
  • Conclusion

14
5.2.0 Multivariate analysis of full
model (confirmatory step)
15
5.2.1 Antecedents of bullying
16
5.2.2 Consequences of bullying
17
5.2.3 Antecedents and consequences of bullying
at work (partial picture)
18
5.3 Conclusion
  • Bullying at work is explained by role problems
    and by JDC
  • Role conflict is a dominant explanatory variable
    for bullying
  • Bullying moderates the relationships between role
    problems and strains
  • Bullying and JD have equal strenght while
    explaining worrying and recovery need
  • Recovery need and worrying moderates the
    relationship between bullying and sleep quality

19
Is bullying an extreme stressor?
  • Being a victim of bullying causes extreme stress
  • The process of bullying modelled as a latent
    variable is has the same importance in explaining
    strains as the other work characteristics
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